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revision 654 by ph10, Tue Aug 2 11:00:40 2011 UTC revision 836 by ph10, Wed Dec 28 17:16:11 2011 UTC
# Line 1  Line 1 
1  .TH PCREAPI 3  .TH PCREAPI 3
2  .SH NAME  .SH NAME
3  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
4  .SH "PCRE NATIVE API"  .SH "PCRE NATIVE API BASIC FUNCTIONS"
5  .rs  .rs
6  .sp  .sp
7  .B #include <pcre.h>  .B #include <pcre.h>
# Line 25  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 25  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
25  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
26  .B const char **\fIerrptr\fP);  .B const char **\fIerrptr\fP);
27  .PP  .PP
28    .B void pcre_free_study(pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP);
29    .PP
30  .B int pcre_exec(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, "const pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP,"  .B int pcre_exec(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, "const pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP,"
31  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
32  .B "const char *\fIsubject\fP," int \fIlength\fP, int \fIstartoffset\fP,  .B "const char *\fIsubject\fP," int \fIlength\fP, int \fIstartoffset\fP,
33  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
34  .B int \fIoptions\fP, int *\fIovector\fP, int \fIovecsize\fP);  .B int \fIoptions\fP, int *\fIovector\fP, int \fIovecsize\fP);
35    .
36    .
37    .SH "PCRE NATIVE API AUXILIARY FUNCTIONS"
38    .rs
39    .sp
40    .B pcre_jit_stack *pcre_jit_stack_alloc(int \fIstartsize\fP, int \fImaxsize\fP);
41    .PP
42    .B void pcre_jit_stack_free(pcre_jit_stack *\fIstack\fP);
43    .PP
44    .B void pcre_assign_jit_stack(pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP,
45    .ti +5n
46    .B pcre_jit_callback \fIcallback\fP, void *\fIdata\fP);
47  .PP  .PP
48  .B int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, "const pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP,"  .B int pcre_dfa_exec(const pcre *\fIcode\fP, "const pcre_extra *\fIextra\fP,"
49  .ti +5n  .ti +5n
# Line 97  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 111  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
111  .B int pcre_config(int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);  .B int pcre_config(int \fIwhat\fP, void *\fIwhere\fP);
112  .PP  .PP
113  .B char *pcre_version(void);  .B char *pcre_version(void);
114  .PP  .
115    .
116    .SH "PCRE NATIVE API INDIRECTED FUNCTIONS"
117    .rs
118    .sp
119  .B void *(*pcre_malloc)(size_t);  .B void *(*pcre_malloc)(size_t);
120  .PP  .PP
121  .B void (*pcre_free)(void *);  .B void (*pcre_free)(void *);
# Line 114  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 132  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
132  .sp  .sp
133  PCRE has its own native API, which is described in this document. There are  PCRE has its own native API, which is described in this document. There are
134  also some wrapper functions that correspond to the POSIX regular expression  also some wrapper functions that correspond to the POSIX regular expression
135  API. These are described in the  API, but they do not give access to all the functionality. They are described
136    in the
137  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
138  \fBpcreposix\fP  \fBpcreposix\fP
139  .\"  .\"
140  documentation. Both of these APIs define a set of C function calls. A C++  documentation. Both of these APIs define a set of C function calls. A C++
141  wrapper is distributed with PCRE. It is documented in the  wrapper is also distributed with PCRE. It is documented in the
142  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
143  \fBpcrecpp\fP  \fBpcrecpp\fP
144  .\"  .\"
# Line 152  documentation, and the Line 171  documentation, and the
171  .\"  .\"
172  documentation describes how to compile and run it.  documentation describes how to compile and run it.
173  .P  .P
174    Just-in-time compiler support is an optional feature of PCRE that can be built
175    in appropriate hardware environments. It greatly speeds up the matching
176    performance of many patterns. Simple programs can easily request that it be
177    used if available, by setting an option that is ignored when it is not
178    relevant. More complicated programs might need to make use of the functions
179    \fBpcre_jit_stack_alloc()\fP, \fBpcre_jit_stack_free()\fP, and
180    \fBpcre_assign_jit_stack()\fP in order to control the JIT code's memory usage.
181    These functions are discussed in the
182    .\" HREF
183    \fBpcrejit\fP
184    .\"
185    documentation.
186    .P
187  A second matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, which is not  A second matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, which is not
188  Perl-compatible, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the  Perl-compatible, is also provided. This uses a different algorithm for the
189  matching. The alternative algorithm finds all possible matches (at a given  matching. The alternative algorithm finds all possible matches (at a given
# Line 282  callout function pointed to by \fBpcre_c Line 314  callout function pointed to by \fBpcre_c
314  .P  .P
315  The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during matching, so  The compiled form of a regular expression is not altered during matching, so
316  the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads at once.  the same compiled pattern can safely be used by several threads at once.
317    .P
318    If the just-in-time optimization feature is being used, it needs separate
319    memory stack areas for each thread. See the
320    .\" HREF
321    \fBpcrejit\fP
322    .\"
323    documentation for more details.
324  .  .
325  .  .
326  .SH "SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE"  .SH "SAVING PRECOMPILED PATTERNS FOR LATER USE"
# Line 324  otherwise it is set to zero. Line 363  otherwise it is set to zero.
363  The output is an integer that is set to one if support for Unicode character  The output is an integer that is set to one if support for Unicode character
364  properties is available; otherwise it is set to zero.  properties is available; otherwise it is set to zero.
365  .sp  .sp
366      PCRE_CONFIG_JIT
367    .sp
368    The output is an integer that is set to one if support for just-in-time
369    compiling is available; otherwise it is set to zero.
370    .sp
371    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE
372  .sp  .sp
373  The output is an integer whose value specifies the default character sequence  The output is an integer whose value specifies the default character sequence
# Line 599  character). Thus, the pattern AB]CD beco Line 643  character). Thus, the pattern AB]CD beco
643  string (by default this causes the current matching alternative to fail). A  string (by default this causes the current matching alternative to fail). A
644  pattern such as (\e1)(a) succeeds when this option is set (assuming it can find  pattern such as (\e1)(a) succeeds when this option is set (assuming it can find
645  an "a" in the subject), whereas it fails by default, for Perl compatibility.  an "a" in the subject), whereas it fails by default, for Perl compatibility.
646    .P
647    (3) \eU matches an upper case "U" character; by default \eU causes a compile
648    time error (Perl uses \eU to upper case subsequent characters).
649    .P
650    (4) \eu matches a lower case "u" character unless it is followed by four
651    hexadecimal digits, in which case the hexadecimal number defines the code point
652    to match. By default, \eu causes a compile time error (Perl uses it to upper
653    case the following character).
654    .P
655    (5) \ex matches a lower case "x" character unless it is followed by two
656    hexadecimal digits, in which case the hexadecimal number defines the code point
657    to match. By default, as in Perl, a hexadecimal number is always expected after
658    \ex, but it may have zero, one, or two digits (so, for example, \exz matches a
659    binary zero character followed by z).
660  .sp  .sp
661    PCRE_MULTILINE    PCRE_MULTILINE
662  .sp  .sp
# Line 701  of UTF-8 characters instead of single-by Line 759  of UTF-8 characters instead of single-by
759  available only when PCRE is built to include UTF-8 support. If not, the use  available only when PCRE is built to include UTF-8 support. If not, the use
760  of this option provokes an error. Details of how this option changes the  of this option provokes an error. Details of how this option changes the
761  behaviour of PCRE are given in the  behaviour of PCRE are given in the
 .\" HTML <a href="pcre.html#utf8support">  
 .\" </a>  
 section on UTF-8 support  
 .\"  
 in the main  
762  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
763  \fBpcre\fP  \fBpcreunicode\fP
764  .\"  .\"
765  page.  page.
766  .sp  .sp
# Line 777  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav Line 830  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav
830    34  character value in \ex{...} sequence is too large    34  character value in \ex{...} sequence is too large
831    35  invalid condition (?(0)    35  invalid condition (?(0)
832    36  \eC not allowed in lookbehind assertion    36  \eC not allowed in lookbehind assertion
833    37  PCRE does not support \eL, \el, \eN, \eU, or \eu    37  PCRE does not support \eL, \el, \eN{name}, \eU, or \eu
834    38  number after (?C is > 255    38  number after (?C is > 255
835    39  closing ) for (?C expected    39  closing ) for (?C expected
836    40  recursive call could loop indefinitely    40  recursive call could loop indefinitely
# Line 811  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav Line 864  out of use. To avoid confusion, they hav
864          not allowed          not allowed
865    66  (*MARK) must have an argument    66  (*MARK) must have an argument
866    67  this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UCP support    67  this version of PCRE is not compiled with PCRE_UCP support
867      68  \ec must be followed by an ASCII character
868      69  \ek is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted name
869  .sp  .sp
870  The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different values may  The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different values may
871  be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.  be used if the limits were changed when PCRE was built.
872  .  .
873  .  .
874    .\" HTML <a name="studyingapattern"></a>
875  .SH "STUDYING A PATTERN"  .SH "STUDYING A PATTERN"
876  .rs  .rs
877  .sp  .sp
# Line 846  If studying the pattern does not produce Line 902  If studying the pattern does not produce
902  wants to pass any of the other fields to \fBpcre_exec()\fP or  wants to pass any of the other fields to \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
903  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, it must set up its own \fBpcre_extra\fP block.  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, it must set up its own \fBpcre_extra\fP block.
904  .P  .P
905  The second argument of \fBpcre_study()\fP contains option bits. At present, no  The second argument of \fBpcre_study()\fP contains option bits. There is only
906  options are defined, and this argument should always be zero.  one option: PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE. If this is set, and the just-in-time
907    compiler is available, the pattern is further compiled into machine code that
908    executes much faster than the \fBpcre_exec()\fP matching function. If
909    the just-in-time compiler is not available, this option is ignored. All other
910    bits in the \fIoptions\fP argument must be zero.
911    .P
912    JIT compilation is a heavyweight optimization. It can take some time for
913    patterns to be analyzed, and for one-off matches and simple patterns the
914    benefit of faster execution might be offset by a much slower study time.
915    Not all patterns can be optimized by the JIT compiler. For those that cannot be
916    handled, matching automatically falls back to the \fBpcre_exec()\fP
917    interpreter. For more details, see the
918    .\" HREF
919    \fBpcrejit\fP
920    .\"
921    documentation.
922  .P  .P
923  The third argument for \fBpcre_study()\fP is a pointer for an error message. If  The third argument for \fBpcre_study()\fP is a pointer for an error message. If
924  studying succeeds (even if no data is returned), the variable it points to is  studying succeeds (even if no data is returned), the variable it points to is
# Line 856  static string that is part of the librar Line 927  static string that is part of the librar
927  should test the error pointer for NULL after calling \fBpcre_study()\fP, to be  should test the error pointer for NULL after calling \fBpcre_study()\fP, to be
928  sure that it has run successfully.  sure that it has run successfully.
929  .P  .P
930  This is a typical call to \fBpcre_study\fP():  When you are finished with a pattern, you can free the memory used for the
931    study data by calling \fBpcre_free_study()\fP. This function was added to the
932    API for release 8.20. For earlier versions, the memory could be freed with
933    \fBpcre_free()\fP, just like the pattern itself. This will still work in cases
934    where PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE is not used, but it is advisable to change to the
935    new function when convenient.
936    .P
937    This is a typical way in which \fBpcre_study\fP() is used (except that in a
938    real application there should be tests for errors):
939  .sp  .sp
940    pcre_extra *pe;    int rc;
941    pe = pcre_study(    pcre *re;
942      pcre_extra *sd;
943      re = pcre_compile("pattern", 0, &error, &erroroffset, NULL);
944      sd = pcre_study(
945      re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */      re,             /* result of pcre_compile() */
946      0,              /* no options exist */      0,              /* no options */
947      &error);        /* set to NULL or points to a message */      &error);        /* set to NULL or points to a message */
948      rc = pcre_exec(   /* see below for details of pcre_exec() options */
949        re, sd, "subject", 7, 0, 0, ovector, 30);
950      ...
951      pcre_free_study(sd);
952      pcre_free(re);
953  .sp  .sp
954  Studying a pattern does two things: first, a lower bound for the length of  Studying a pattern does two things: first, a lower bound for the length of
955  subject string that is needed to match the pattern is computed. This does not  subject string that is needed to match the pattern is computed. This does not
# Line 877  single fixed starting character. A bitma Line 964  single fixed starting character. A bitma
964  created. This speeds up finding a position in the subject at which to start  created. This speeds up finding a position in the subject at which to start
965  matching.  matching.
966  .P  .P
967  The two optimizations just described can be disabled by setting the  These two optimizations apply to both \fBpcre_exec()\fP and
968  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option when calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP or  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. However, they are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP if
969    \fBpcre_study()\fP is called with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, and
970    just-in-time compiling is successful. The optimizations can be disabled by
971    setting the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option when calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
972  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. You might want to do this if your pattern contains  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. You might want to do this if your pattern contains
973  callouts or (*MARK), and you want to make use of these facilities in cases  callouts or (*MARK) (which cannot be handled by the JIT compiler), and you want
974  where matching fails. See the discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE  to make use of these facilities in cases where matching fails. See the
975    discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
976  .\" HTML <a href="#execoptions">  .\" HTML <a href="#execoptions">
977  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
978  below.  below.
# Line 978  check against passing an arbitrary memor Line 1069  check against passing an arbitrary memor
1069    size_t length;    size_t length;
1070    rc = pcre_fullinfo(    rc = pcre_fullinfo(
1071      re,               /* result of pcre_compile() */      re,               /* result of pcre_compile() */
1072      pe,               /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */      sd,               /* result of pcre_study(), or NULL */
1073      PCRE_INFO_SIZE,   /* what is required */      PCRE_INFO_SIZE,   /* what is required */
1074      &length);         /* where to put the data */      &length);         /* where to put the data */
1075  .sp  .sp
# Line 1043  Return 1 if the (?J) or (?-J) option set Line 1134  Return 1 if the (?J) or (?-J) option set
1134  0. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. (?J) and  0. The fourth argument should point to an \fBint\fP variable. (?J) and
1135  (?-J) set and unset the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option, respectively.  (?-J) set and unset the local PCRE_DUPNAMES option, respectively.
1136  .sp  .sp
1137      PCRE_INFO_JIT
1138    .sp
1139    Return 1 if the pattern was studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, and
1140    just-in-time compiling was successful. The fourth argument should point to an
1141    \fBint\fP variable. A return value of 0 means that JIT support is not available
1142    in this version of PCRE, or that the pattern was not studied with the
1143    PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, or that the JIT compiler could not handle this
1144    particular pattern. See the
1145    .\" HREF
1146    \fBpcrejit\fP
1147    .\"
1148    documentation for details of what can and cannot be handled.
1149    .sp
1150      PCRE_INFO_JITSIZE
1151    .sp
1152    If the pattern was successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
1153    return the size of the JIT compiled code, otherwise return zero. The fourth
1154    argument should point to a \fBsize_t\fP variable.
1155    .sp
1156    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL
1157  .sp  .sp
1158  Return the value of the rightmost literal byte that must exist in any matched  Return the value of the rightmost literal byte that must exist in any matched
# Line 1158  For such patterns, the PCRE_ANCHORED bit Line 1268  For such patterns, the PCRE_ANCHORED bit
1268  .sp  .sp
1269    PCRE_INFO_SIZE    PCRE_INFO_SIZE
1270  .sp  .sp
1271  Return the size of the compiled pattern, that is, the value that was passed as  Return the size of the compiled pattern. The fourth argument should point to a
1272  the argument to \fBpcre_malloc()\fP when PCRE was getting memory in which to  \fBsize_t\fP variable. This value does not include the size of the \fBpcre\fP
1273  place the compiled data. The fourth argument should point to a \fBsize_t\fP  structure that is returned by \fBpcre_compile()\fP. The value that is passed as
1274  variable.  the argument to \fBpcre_malloc()\fP when \fBpcre_compile()\fP is getting memory
1275    in which to place the compiled data is the value returned by this option plus
1276    the size of the \fBpcre\fP structure. Studying a compiled pattern, with or
1277    without JIT, does not alter the value returned by this option.
1278  .sp  .sp
1279    PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE    PCRE_INFO_STUDYSIZE
1280  .sp  .sp
1281  Return the size of the data block pointed to by the \fIstudy_data\fP field in  Return the size of the data block pointed to by the \fIstudy_data\fP field in a
1282  a \fBpcre_extra\fP block. That is, it is the value that was passed to  \fBpcre_extra\fP block. If \fBpcre_extra\fP is NULL, or there is no study data,
1283  \fBpcre_malloc()\fP when PCRE was getting memory into which to place the data  zero is returned. The fourth argument should point to a \fBsize_t\fP variable.
1284  created by \fBpcre_study()\fP. If \fBpcre_extra\fP is NULL, or there is no  The \fIstudy_data\fP field is set by \fBpcre_study()\fP to record information
1285  study data, zero is returned. The fourth argument should point to a  that will speed up matching (see the section entitled
1286  \fBsize_t\fP variable.  .\" HTML <a href="#studyingapattern">
1287    .\" </a>
1288    "Studying a pattern"
1289    .\"
1290    above). The format of the \fIstudy_data\fP block is private, but its length
1291    is made available via this option so that it can be saved and restored (see the
1292    .\" HREF
1293    \fBpcreprecompile\fP
1294    .\"
1295    documentation for details).
1296  .  .
1297  .  .
1298  .SH "OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION"  .SH "OBSOLETE INFO FUNCTION"
# Line 1232  is different. (This seems a highly unlik Line 1354  is different. (This seems a highly unlik
1354  The function \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called to match a subject string against a  The function \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called to match a subject string against a
1355  compiled pattern, which is passed in the \fIcode\fP argument. If the  compiled pattern, which is passed in the \fIcode\fP argument. If the
1356  pattern was studied, the result of the study should be passed in the  pattern was studied, the result of the study should be passed in the
1357  \fIextra\fP argument. This function is the main matching facility of the  \fIextra\fP argument. You can call \fBpcre_exec()\fP with the same \fIcode\fP
1358  library, and it operates in a Perl-like manner. For specialist use there is  and \fIextra\fP arguments as many times as you like, in order to match
1359  also an alternative matching function, which is described  different subject strings with the same pattern.
1360    .P
1361    This function is the main matching facility of the library, and it operates in
1362    a Perl-like manner. For specialist use there is also an alternative matching
1363    function, which is described
1364  .\" HTML <a href="#dfamatch">  .\" HTML <a href="#dfamatch">
1365  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
1366  below  below
# Line 1265  Here is an example of a simple call to \ Line 1391  Here is an example of a simple call to \
1391      ovector,        /* vector of integers for substring information */      ovector,        /* vector of integers for substring information */
1392      30);            /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */      30);            /* number of elements (NOT size in bytes) */
1393  .  .
1394    .
1395  .\" HTML <a name="extradata"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="extradata"></a>
1396  .SS "Extra data for \fBpcre_exec()\fR"  .SS "Extra data for \fBpcre_exec()\fR"
1397  .rs  .rs
# Line 1277  fields (not necessarily in this order): Line 1404  fields (not necessarily in this order):
1404  .sp  .sp
1405    unsigned long int \fIflags\fP;    unsigned long int \fIflags\fP;
1406    void *\fIstudy_data\fP;    void *\fIstudy_data\fP;
1407      void *\fIexecutable_jit\fP;
1408    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit\fP;    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit\fP;
1409    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP;    unsigned long int \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP;
1410    void *\fIcallout_data\fP;    void *\fIcallout_data\fP;
# Line 1287  The \fIflags\fP field is a bitmap that s Line 1415  The \fIflags\fP field is a bitmap that s
1415  are set. The flag bits are:  are set. The flag bits are:
1416  .sp  .sp
1417    PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA    PCRE_EXTRA_STUDY_DATA
1418      PCRE_EXTRA_EXECUTABLE_JIT
1419    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT
1420    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION    PCRE_EXTRA_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION
1421    PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA    PCRE_EXTRA_CALLOUT_DATA
1422    PCRE_EXTRA_TABLES    PCRE_EXTRA_TABLES
1423    PCRE_EXTRA_MARK    PCRE_EXTRA_MARK
1424  .sp  .sp
1425  Other flag bits should be set to zero. The \fIstudy_data\fP field is set in the  Other flag bits should be set to zero. The \fIstudy_data\fP field and sometimes
1426  \fBpcre_extra\fP block that is returned by \fBpcre_study()\fP, together with  the \fIexecutable_jit\fP field are set in the \fBpcre_extra\fP block that is
1427  the appropriate flag bit. You should not set this yourself, but you may add to  returned by \fBpcre_study()\fP, together with the appropriate flag bits. You
1428  the block by setting the other fields and their corresponding flag bits.  should not set these yourself, but you may add to the block by setting the
1429    other fields and their corresponding flag bits.
1430  .P  .P
1431  The \fImatch_limit\fP field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up a  The \fImatch_limit\fP field provides a means of preventing PCRE from using up a
1432  vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to match,  vast amount of resources when running patterns that are not going to match,
1433  but which have a very large number of possibilities in their search trees. The  but which have a very large number of possibilities in their search trees. The
1434  classic example is a pattern that uses nested unlimited repeats.  classic example is a pattern that uses nested unlimited repeats.
1435  .P  .P
1436  Internally, PCRE uses a function called \fBmatch()\fP which it calls repeatedly  Internally, \fBpcre_exec()\fP uses a function called \fBmatch()\fP, which it
1437  (sometimes recursively). The limit set by \fImatch_limit\fP is imposed on the  calls repeatedly (sometimes recursively). The limit set by \fImatch_limit\fP is
1438  number of times this function is called during a match, which has the effect of  imposed on the number of times this function is called during a match, which
1439  limiting the amount of backtracking that can take place. For patterns that are  has the effect of limiting the amount of backtracking that can take place. For
1440  not anchored, the count restarts from zero for each position in the subject  patterns that are not anchored, the count restarts from zero for each position
1441  string.  in the subject string.
1442    .P
1443    When \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called with a pattern that was successfully studied
1444    with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the way that the matching is executed
1445    is entirely different. However, there is still the possibility of runaway
1446    matching that goes on for a very long time, and so the \fImatch_limit\fP value
1447    is also used in this case (but in a different way) to limit how long the
1448    matching can continue.
1449  .P  .P
1450  The default value for the limit can be set when PCRE is built; the default  The default value for the limit can be set when PCRE is built; the default
1451  default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme cases. You can  default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme cases. You can
# Line 1323  limits the depth of recursion. The recur Line 1460  limits the depth of recursion. The recur
1460  total number of calls, because not all calls to \fBmatch()\fP are recursive.  total number of calls, because not all calls to \fBmatch()\fP are recursive.
1461  This limit is of use only if it is set smaller than \fImatch_limit\fP.  This limit is of use only if it is set smaller than \fImatch_limit\fP.
1462  .P  .P
1463  Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of stack that can be used, or,  Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of machine stack that can be
1464  when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap instead of the stack, the  used, or, when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap instead of the
1465  amount of heap memory that can be used.  stack, the amount of heap memory that can be used. This limit is not relevant,
1466    and is ignored, if the pattern was successfully studied with
1467    PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE.
1468  .P  .P
1469  The default value for \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP can be set when PCRE is  The default value for \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP can be set when PCRE is
1470  built; the default default is the same value as the default for  built; the default default is the same value as the default for
# Line 1384  zero. The only bits that may be set are Line 1523  zero. The only bits that may be set are
1523  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,
1524  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, and  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, and
1525  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD.  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD.
1526    .P
1527    If the pattern was successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
1528    the only supported options for JIT execution are PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK,
1529    PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, and PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART. Note in
1530    particular that partial matching is not supported. If an unsupported option is
1531    used, JIT execution is disabled and the normal interpretive code in
1532    \fBpcre_exec()\fP is run.
1533  .sp  .sp
1534    PCRE_ANCHORED    PCRE_ANCHORED
1535  .sp  .sp
# Line 1690  string that it matched that is returned. Line 1836  string that it matched that is returned.
1836  .P  .P
1837  If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substring offsets, it is  If the vector is too small to hold all the captured substring offsets, it is
1838  used as far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the function  used as far as possible (up to two-thirds of its length), and the function
1839  returns a value of zero. If the substring offsets are not of interest,  returns a value of zero. If neither the actual string matched not any captured
1840  \fBpcre_exec()\fP may be called with \fIovector\fP passed as NULL and  substrings are of interest, \fBpcre_exec()\fP may be called with \fIovector\fP
1841  \fIovecsize\fP as zero. However, if the pattern contains back references and  passed as NULL and \fIovecsize\fP as zero. However, if the pattern contains
1842  the \fIovector\fP is not big enough to remember the related substrings, PCRE  back references and the \fIovector\fP is not big enough to remember the related
1843  has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it is usually  substrings, PCRE has to get additional memory for use during matching. Thus it
1844  advisable to supply an \fIovector\fP.  is usually advisable to supply an \fIovector\fP of reasonable size.
1845    .P
1846    There are some cases where zero is returned (indicating vector overflow) when
1847    in fact the vector is exactly the right size for the final match. For example,
1848    consider the pattern
1849    .sp
1850      (a)(?:(b)c|bd)
1851    .sp
1852    If a vector of 6 elements (allowing for only 1 captured substring) is given
1853    with subject string "abd", \fBpcre_exec()\fP will try to set the second
1854    captured string, thereby recording a vector overflow, before failing to match
1855    "c" and backing up to try the second alternative. The zero return, however,
1856    does correctly indicate that the maximum number of slots (namely 2) have been
1857    filled. In similar cases where there is temporary overflow, but the final
1858    number of used slots is actually less than the maximum, a non-zero value is
1859    returned.
1860  .P  .P
1861  The \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function can be used to find out how many capturing  The \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP function can be used to find out how many capturing
1862  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for  subpatterns there are in a compiled pattern. The smallest size for
# Line 1716  return from the function is 2, because t Line 1877  return from the function is 2, because t
1877  number is 1, and the offsets for for the second and third capturing subpatterns  number is 1, and the offsets for for the second and third capturing subpatterns
1878  (assuming the vector is large enough, of course) are set to -1.  (assuming the vector is large enough, of course) are set to -1.
1879  .P  .P
1880  \fBNote\fP: Elements of \fIovector\fP that do not correspond to capturing  \fBNote\fP: Elements in the first two-thirds of \fIovector\fP that do not
1881  parentheses in the pattern are never changed. That is, if a pattern contains  correspond to capturing parentheses in the pattern are never changed. That is,
1882  \fIn\fP capturing parentheses, no more than \fIovector[0]\fP to  if a pattern contains \fIn\fP capturing parentheses, no more than
1883  \fIovector[2n+1]\fP are set by \fBpcre_exec()\fP. The other elements retain  \fIovector[0]\fP to \fIovector[2n+1]\fP are set by \fBpcre_exec()\fP. The other
1884  whatever values they previously had.  elements (in the first two-thirds) retain whatever values they previously had.
1885  .P  .P
1886  Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings  Some convenience functions are provided for extracting the captured substrings
1887  as separate strings. These are described below.  as separate strings. These are described below.
# Line 1872  in the subject string. Some simple patte Line 2033  in the subject string. Some simple patte
2033  faulted at compile time, but more complicated cases, in particular mutual  faulted at compile time, but more complicated cases, in particular mutual
2034  recursions between two different subpatterns, cannot be detected until run  recursions between two different subpatterns, cannot be detected until run
2035  time.  time.
2036    .sp
2037      PCRE_ERROR_JIT_STACKLIMIT (-27)
2038    .sp
2039    This error is returned when a pattern that was successfully studied using the
2040    PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option is being matched, but the memory available for
2041    the just-in-time processing stack is not large enough. See the
2042    .\" HREF
2043    \fBpcrejit\fP
2044    .\"
2045    documentation for more details.
2046  .P  .P
2047  Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP.  Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP.
2048  .  .
# Line 2112  names are not included in the compiled c Line 2283  names are not included in the compiled c
2283  numbers. For this reason, the use of different names for subpatterns of the  numbers. For this reason, the use of different names for subpatterns of the
2284  same number causes an error at compile time.  same number causes an error at compile time.
2285  .  .
2286    .
2287  .SH "DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES"  .SH "DUPLICATE SUBPATTERN NAMES"
2288  .rs  .rs
2289  .sp  .sp
# Line 2311  returns data, even though the meaning of Line 2483  returns data, even though the meaning of
2483  The strings are returned in reverse order of length; that is, the longest  The strings are returned in reverse order of length; that is, the longest
2484  matching string is given first. If there were too many matches to fit into  matching string is given first. If there were too many matches to fit into
2485  \fIovector\fP, the yield of the function is zero, and the vector is filled with  \fIovector\fP, the yield of the function is zero, and the vector is filled with
2486  the longest matches.  the longest matches. Unlike \fBpcre_exec()\fP, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP can use
2487    the entire \fIovector\fP for returning matched strings.
2488  .  .
2489  .  .
2490  .SS "Error returns from \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP"  .SS "Error returns from \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP"
# Line 2341  group. These are not supported. Line 2514  group. These are not supported.
2514    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UMLIMIT    (-18)    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_UMLIMIT    (-18)
2515  .sp  .sp
2516  This return is given if \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP is called with an \fIextra\fP  This return is given if \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP is called with an \fIextra\fP
2517  block that contains a setting of the \fImatch_limit\fP field. This is not  block that contains a setting of the \fImatch_limit\fP or
2518  supported (it is meaningless).  \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP fields. This is not supported (these fields are
2519    meaningless for DFA matching).
2520  .sp  .sp
2521    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_WSSIZE     (-19)    PCRE_ERROR_DFA_WSSIZE     (-19)
2522  .sp  .sp
# Line 2379  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England. Line 2553  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
2553  .rs  .rs
2554  .sp  .sp
2555  .nf  .nf
2556  Last updated: 28 July 2011  Last updated: 02 December 2011
2557  Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.  Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
2558  .fi  .fi

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