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revision 901 by ph10, Sat Jan 21 15:47:59 2012 UTC revision 921 by ph10, Sat Feb 18 18:45:55 2012 UTC
# Line 148  just use different data types for their Line 148  just use different data types for their
148  start with \fBpcre16_\fP instead of \fBpcre_\fP. For every option that has UTF8  start with \fBpcre16_\fP instead of \fBpcre_\fP. For every option that has UTF8
149  in its name (for example, PCRE_UTF8), there is a corresponding 16-bit name with  in its name (for example, PCRE_UTF8), there is a corresponding 16-bit name with
150  UTF8 replaced by UTF16. This facility is in fact just cosmetic; the 16-bit  UTF8 replaced by UTF16. This facility is in fact just cosmetic; the 16-bit
151  option names define the same bit values.  option names define the same bit values.
152  .P  .P
153  References to bytes and UTF-8 in this document should be read as references to  References to bytes and UTF-8 in this document should be read as references to
154  16-bit data quantities and UTF-16 when using the 16-bit library, unless  16-bit data quantities and UTF-16 when using the 16-bit library, unless
# Line 157  library are given in the Line 157  library are given in the
157  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
158  \fBpcre16\fP  \fBpcre16\fP
159  .\"  .\"
160  page.  page.
161  .  .
162  .  .
163  .SH "PCRE API OVERVIEW"  .SH "PCRE API OVERVIEW"
# Line 392  not recognized. The following informatio Line 392  not recognized. The following informatio
392    PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8    PCRE_CONFIG_UTF8
393  .sp  .sp
394  The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is available;  The output is an integer that is set to one if UTF-8 support is available;
395  otherwise it is set to zero. If this option is given to the 16-bit version of  otherwise it is set to zero. If this option is given to the 16-bit version of
396  this function, \fBpcre16_config()\fP, the result is PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION.  this function, \fBpcre16_config()\fP, the result is PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION.
397  .sp  .sp
398    PCRE_CONFIG_UTF16    PCRE_CONFIG_UTF16
# Line 415  compiling is available; otherwise it is Line 415  compiling is available; otherwise it is
415    PCRE_CONFIG_JITTARGET    PCRE_CONFIG_JITTARGET
416  .sp  .sp
417  The output is a pointer to a zero-terminated "const char *" string. If JIT  The output is a pointer to a zero-terminated "const char *" string. If JIT
418  support is available, the string contains the name of the architecture for  support is available, the string contains the name of the architecture for
419  which the JIT compiler is configured, for example "x86 32bit (little endian +  which the JIT compiler is configured, for example "x86 32bit (little endian +
420  unaligned)". If JIT support is not available, the result is NULL.  unaligned)". If JIT support is not available, the result is NULL.
421  .sp  .sp
422    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE    PCRE_CONFIG_NEWLINE
# Line 742  preceding sequences should be recognized Line 742  preceding sequences should be recognized
742  that any Unicode newline sequence should be recognized. The Unicode newline  that any Unicode newline sequence should be recognized. The Unicode newline
743  sequences are the three just mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical  sequences are the three just mentioned, plus the single characters VT (vertical
744  tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed, U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line  tab, U+000B), FF (formfeed, U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line
745  separator, U+2028), and PS (paragraph separator, U+2029). For the 8-bit  separator, U+2028), and PS (paragraph separator, U+2029). For the 8-bit
746  library, the last two are recognized only in UTF-8 mode.  library, the last two are recognized only in UTF-8 mode.
747  .P  .P
748  The newline setting in the options word uses three bits that are treated  The newline setting in the options word uses three bits that are treated
# Line 819  page. Line 819  page.
819  .sp  .sp
820    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK    PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
821  .sp  .sp
822  When PCRE_UTF8 is set, the validity of the pattern as a UTF-8  When PCRE_UTF8 is set, the validity of the pattern as a UTF-8
823  string is automatically checked. There is a discussion about the  string is automatically checked. There is a discussion about the
824  .\" HTML <a href="pcreunicode.html#utf8strings">  .\" HTML <a href="pcreunicode.html#utf8strings">
825  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
826  validity of UTF-8 strings  validity of UTF-8 strings
827  .\"  .\"
828  in the  in the
829  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
# Line 843  validity checking of subject strings. Line 843  validity checking of subject strings.
843  .sp  .sp
844  The following table lists the error codes than may be returned by  The following table lists the error codes than may be returned by
845  \fBpcre_compile2()\fP, along with the error messages that may be returned by  \fBpcre_compile2()\fP, along with the error messages that may be returned by
846  both compiling functions. Note that error messages are always 8-bit ASCII  both compiling functions. Note that error messages are always 8-bit ASCII
847  strings, even in 16-bit mode. As PCRE has developed, some error codes have  strings, even in 16-bit mode. As PCRE has developed, some error codes have
848  fallen out of use. To avoid confusion, they have not been re-used.  fallen out of use. To avoid confusion, they have not been re-used.
849  .sp  .sp
# Line 917  fallen out of use. To avoid confusion, t Line 917  fallen out of use. To avoid confusion, t
917    65  different names for subpatterns of the same number are    65  different names for subpatterns of the same number are
918          not allowed          not allowed
919    66  (*MARK) must have an argument    66  (*MARK) must have an argument
920    67  this version of PCRE is not compiled with Unicode property    67  this version of PCRE is not compiled with Unicode property
921          support          support
922    68  \ec must be followed by an ASCII character    68  \ec must be followed by an ASCII character
923    69  \ek is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted name    69  \ek is not followed by a braced, angle-bracketed, or quoted name
924    70  internal error: unknown opcode in find_fixedlength()    70  internal error: unknown opcode in find_fixedlength()
925    71  \eN is not supported in a class    71  \eN is not supported in a class
926    72  too many forward references    72  too many forward references
927    73  disallowed Unicode code point (>= 0xd800 && <= 0xdfff)    73  disallowed Unicode code point (>= 0xd800 && <= 0xdfff)
928    74  invalid UTF-16 string (specifically UTF-16)    74  invalid UTF-16 string (specifically UTF-16)
929  .sp  .sp
930  The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different values may  The numbers 32 and 10000 in errors 48 and 49 are defaults; different values may
# Line 962  If studying the pattern does not produce Line 962  If studying the pattern does not produce
962  wants to pass any of the other fields to \fBpcre_exec()\fP or  wants to pass any of the other fields to \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
963  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, it must set up its own \fBpcre_extra\fP block.  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, it must set up its own \fBpcre_extra\fP block.
964  .P  .P
965  The second argument of \fBpcre_study()\fP contains option bits. There is only  The second argument of \fBpcre_study()\fP contains option bits. There are three
966  one option: PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE. If this is set, and the just-in-time  options:
967  compiler is available, the pattern is further compiled into machine code that  .sp
968  executes much faster than the \fBpcre_exec()\fP matching function. If    PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE
969  the just-in-time compiler is not available, this option is ignored. All other    PCRE_STUDY_JIT_PARTIAL_HARD_COMPILE
970  bits in the \fIoptions\fP argument must be zero.    PCRE_STUDY_JIT_PARTIAL_SOFT_COMPILE
971    .sp
972    If any of these are set, and the just-in-time compiler is available, the
973    pattern is further compiled into machine code that executes much faster than
974    the \fBpcre_exec()\fP interpretive matching function. If the just-in-time
975    compiler is not available, these options are ignored. All other bits in the
976    \fIoptions\fP argument must be zero.
977  .P  .P
978  JIT compilation is a heavyweight optimization. It can take some time for  JIT compilation is a heavyweight optimization. It can take some time for
979  patterns to be analyzed, and for one-off matches and simple patterns the  patterns to be analyzed, and for one-off matches and simple patterns the
# Line 991  When you are finished with a pattern, yo Line 997  When you are finished with a pattern, yo
997  study data by calling \fBpcre_free_study()\fP. This function was added to the  study data by calling \fBpcre_free_study()\fP. This function was added to the
998  API for release 8.20. For earlier versions, the memory could be freed with  API for release 8.20. For earlier versions, the memory could be freed with
999  \fBpcre_free()\fP, just like the pattern itself. This will still work in cases  \fBpcre_free()\fP, just like the pattern itself. This will still work in cases
1000  where PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE is not used, but it is advisable to change to the  where JIT optimization is not used, but it is advisable to change to the new
1001  new function when convenient.  function when convenient.
1002  .P  .P
1003  This is a typical way in which \fBpcre_study\fP() is used (except that in a  This is a typical way in which \fBpcre_study\fP() is used (except that in a
1004  real application there should be tests for errors):  real application there should be tests for errors):
# Line 1025  created. This speeds up finding a positi Line 1031  created. This speeds up finding a positi
1031  matching. (In 16-bit mode, the bitmap is used for 16-bit values less than 256.)  matching. (In 16-bit mode, the bitmap is used for 16-bit values less than 256.)
1032  .P  .P
1033  These two optimizations apply to both \fBpcre_exec()\fP and  These two optimizations apply to both \fBpcre_exec()\fP and
1034  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. However, they are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP if  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, and the information is also used by the JIT compiler.
1035  \fBpcre_study()\fP is called with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, and  The optimizations can be disabled by setting the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option
1036  just-in-time compiling is successful. The optimizations can be disabled by  when calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, but if this is done,
1037  setting the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option when calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP or  JIT execution is also disabled. You might want to do this if your pattern
1038  \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. You might want to do this if your pattern contains  contains callouts or (*MARK) and you want to make use of these facilities in
1039  callouts or (*MARK) (which cannot be handled by the JIT compiler), and you want  cases where matching fails. See the discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
 to make use of these facilities in cases where matching fails. See the  
 discussion of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE  
1040  .\" HTML <a href="#execoptions">  .\" HTML <a href="#execoptions">
1041  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
1042  below.  below.
# Line 1120  the following negative numbers: Line 1124  the following negative numbers:
1124    PCRE_ERROR_NULL           the argument \fIcode\fP was NULL    PCRE_ERROR_NULL           the argument \fIcode\fP was NULL
1125                              the argument \fIwhere\fP was NULL                              the argument \fIwhere\fP was NULL
1126    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC       the "magic number" was not found    PCRE_ERROR_BADMAGIC       the "magic number" was not found
1127    PCRE_ERROR_BADENDIANNESS  the pattern was compiled with different    PCRE_ERROR_BADENDIANNESS  the pattern was compiled with different
1128                              endianness                              endianness
1129    PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION      the value of \fIwhat\fP was invalid    PCRE_ERROR_BADOPTION      the value of \fIwhat\fP was invalid
1130  .sp  .sp
1131  The "magic number" is placed at the start of each compiled pattern as an simple  The "magic number" is placed at the start of each compiled pattern as an simple
1132  check against passing an arbitrary memory pointer. The endianness error can  check against passing an arbitrary memory pointer. The endianness error can
1133  occur if a compiled pattern is saved and reloaded on a different host. Here is  occur if a compiled pattern is saved and reloaded on a different host. Here is
1134  a typical call of \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP, to obtain the length of the compiled  a typical call of \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP, to obtain the length of the compiled
1135  pattern:  pattern:
# Line 1168  where data units are bytes.) The fourth Line 1172  where data units are bytes.) The fourth
1172  variable.  variable.
1173  .P  .P
1174  If there is a fixed first value, for example, the letter "c" from a pattern  If there is a fixed first value, for example, the letter "c" from a pattern
1175  such as (cat|cow|coyote), its value is returned. In the 8-bit library, the  such as (cat|cow|coyote), its value is returned. In the 8-bit library, the
1176  value is always less than 256; in the 16-bit library the value can be up to  value is always less than 256; in the 16-bit library the value can be up to
1177  0xffff.  0xffff.
1178  .P  .P
1179  If there is no fixed first value, and if either  If there is no fixed first value, and if either
# Line 1205  Return 1 if the (?J) or (?-J) option set Line 1209  Return 1 if the (?J) or (?-J) option set
1209  .sp  .sp
1210    PCRE_INFO_JIT    PCRE_INFO_JIT
1211  .sp  .sp
1212  Return 1 if the pattern was studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, and  Return 1 if the pattern was studied with one of the JIT options, and
1213  just-in-time compiling was successful. The fourth argument should point to an  just-in-time compiling was successful. The fourth argument should point to an
1214  \fBint\fP variable. A return value of 0 means that JIT support is not available  \fBint\fP variable. A return value of 0 means that JIT support is not available
1215  in this version of PCRE, or that the pattern was not studied with the  in this version of PCRE, or that the pattern was not studied with a JIT option,
1216  PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, or that the JIT compiler could not handle this  or that the JIT compiler could not handle this particular pattern. See the
 particular pattern. See the  
1217  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
1218  \fBpcrejit\fP  \fBpcrejit\fP
1219  .\"  .\"
# Line 1218  documentation for details of what can an Line 1221  documentation for details of what can an
1221  .sp  .sp
1222    PCRE_INFO_JITSIZE    PCRE_INFO_JITSIZE
1223  .sp  .sp
1224  If the pattern was successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,  If the pattern was successfully studied with a JIT option, return the size of
1225  return the size of the JIT compiled code, otherwise return zero. The fourth  the JIT compiled code, otherwise return zero. The fourth argument should point
1226  argument should point to a \fBsize_t\fP variable.  to a \fBsize_t\fP variable.
1227  .sp  .sp
1228    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL    PCRE_INFO_LASTLITERAL
1229  .sp  .sp
# Line 1459  fields (not necessarily in this order): Line 1462  fields (not necessarily in this order):
1462    const unsigned char *\fItables\fP;    const unsigned char *\fItables\fP;
1463    unsigned char **\fImark\fP;    unsigned char **\fImark\fP;
1464  .sp  .sp
1465  In the 16-bit version of this structure, the \fImark\fP field has type  In the 16-bit version of this structure, the \fImark\fP field has type
1466  "PCRE_UCHAR16 **".  "PCRE_UCHAR16 **".
1467  .P  .P
1468  The \fIflags\fP field is a bitmap that specifies which of the other fields  The \fIflags\fP field is a bitmap that specifies which of the other fields
# Line 1492  patterns that are not anchored, the coun Line 1495  patterns that are not anchored, the coun
1495  in the subject string.  in the subject string.
1496  .P  .P
1497  When \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called with a pattern that was successfully studied  When \fBpcre_exec()\fP is called with a pattern that was successfully studied
1498  with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the way that the matching is executed  with a JIT option, the way that the matching is executed is entirely different.
1499  is entirely different. However, there is still the possibility of runaway  However, there is still the possibility of runaway matching that goes on for a
1500  matching that goes on for a very long time, and so the \fImatch_limit\fP value  very long time, and so the \fImatch_limit\fP value is also used in this case
1501  is also used in this case (but in a different way) to limit how long the  (but in a different way) to limit how long the matching can continue.
 matching can continue.  
1502  .P  .P
1503  The default value for the limit can be set when PCRE is built; the default  The default value for the limit can be set when PCRE is built; the default
1504  default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme cases. You can  default is 10 million, which handles all but the most extreme cases. You can
# Line 1514  This limit is of use only if it is set s Line 1516  This limit is of use only if it is set s
1516  Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of machine stack that can be  Limiting the recursion depth limits the amount of machine stack that can be
1517  used, or, when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap instead of the  used, or, when PCRE has been compiled to use memory on the heap instead of the
1518  stack, the amount of heap memory that can be used. This limit is not relevant,  stack, the amount of heap memory that can be used. This limit is not relevant,
1519  and is ignored, if the pattern was successfully studied with  and is ignored, when matching is done using JIT compiled code.
 PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE.  
1520  .P  .P
1521  The default value for \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP can be set when PCRE is  The default value for \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP can be set when PCRE is
1522  built; the default default is the same value as the default for  built; the default default is the same value as the default for
# Line 1572  documentation. Line 1573  documentation.
1573  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP must be  The unused bits of the \fIoptions\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP must be
1574  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,  zero. The only bits that may be set are PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_NEWLINE_\fIxxx\fP,
1575  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART,
1576  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT, and  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE, PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD, and
1577  PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD.  PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT.
1578  .P  .P
1579  If the pattern was successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,  If the pattern was successfully studied with one of the just-in-time (JIT)
1580  the only supported options for JIT execution are PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK,  compile options, the only supported options for JIT execution are
1581  PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, and PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART. Note in  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY,
1582  particular that partial matching is not supported. If an unsupported option is  PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART, PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD, and PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT. If an
1583  used, JIT execution is disabled and the normal interpretive code in  unsupported option is used, JIT execution is disabled and the normal
1584  \fBpcre_exec()\fP is run.  interpretive code in \fBpcre_exec()\fP is run.
1585  .sp  .sp
1586    PCRE_ANCHORED    PCRE_ANCHORED
1587  .sp  .sp
# Line 1699  causing performance to suffer, but ensur Line 1700  causing performance to suffer, but ensur
1700  "no match", the callouts do occur, and that items such as (*COMMIT) and (*MARK)  "no match", the callouts do occur, and that items such as (*COMMIT) and (*MARK)
1701  are considered at every possible starting position in the subject string. If  are considered at every possible starting position in the subject string. If
1702  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE is set at compile time, it cannot be unset at matching  PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE is set at compile time, it cannot be unset at matching
1703  time.  time. The use of PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE disables JIT execution; when it is set,
1704    matching is always done using interpretively.
1705  .P  .P
1706  Setting PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE can change the outcome of a matching operation.  Setting PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE can change the outcome of a matching operation.
1707  Consider the pattern  Consider the pattern
# Line 2092  documentation for more details. Line 2094  documentation for more details.
2094  .sp  .sp
2095    PCRE_ERROR_BADMODE (-28)    PCRE_ERROR_BADMODE (-28)
2096  .sp  .sp
2097  This error is given if a pattern that was compiled by the 8-bit library is  This error is given if a pattern that was compiled by the 8-bit library is
2098  passed to a 16-bit library function, or vice versa.  passed to a 16-bit library function, or vice versa.
2099  .sp  .sp
2100    PCRE_ERROR_BADENDIANNESS (-29)    PCRE_ERROR_BADENDIANNESS (-29)
2101  .sp  .sp
2102  This error is given if a pattern that was compiled and saved is reloaded on a  This error is given if a pattern that was compiled and saved is reloaded on a
2103  host with different endianness. The utility function  host with different endianness. The utility function
2104  \fBpcre_pattern_to_host_byte_order()\fP can be used to convert such a pattern  \fBpcre_pattern_to_host_byte_order()\fP can be used to convert such a pattern
2105  so that it runs on the new host.  so that it runs on the new host.
2106  .P  .P
2107  Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP.  Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not used by \fBpcre_exec()\fP.
# Line 2109  Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not Line 2111  Error numbers -16 to -20 and -22 are not
2111  .SS "Reason codes for invalid UTF-8 strings"  .SS "Reason codes for invalid UTF-8 strings"
2112  .rs  .rs
2113  .sp  .sp
2114  This section applies only to the 8-bit library. The corresponding information  This section applies only to the 8-bit library. The corresponding information
2115  for the 16-bit library is given in the  for the 16-bit library is given in the
2116  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
2117  \fBpcre16\fP  \fBpcre16\fP
# Line 2417  will yield PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH. Line 2419  will yield PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH.
2419  .rs  .rs
2420  .sp  .sp
2421  Matching certain patterns using \fBpcre_exec()\fP can use a lot of process  Matching certain patterns using \fBpcre_exec()\fP can use a lot of process
2422  stack, which in certain environments can be rather limited in size. Some users  stack, which in certain environments can be rather limited in size. Some users
2423  find it helpful to have an estimate of the amount of stack that is used by  find it helpful to have an estimate of the amount of stack that is used by
2424  \fBpcre_exec()\fP, to help them set recursion limits, as described in the  \fBpcre_exec()\fP, to help them set recursion limits, as described in the
2425  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
2426  \fBpcrestack\fP  \fBpcrestack\fP
2427  .\"  .\"
2428  documentation. The estimate that is output by \fBpcretest\fP when called with  documentation. The estimate that is output by \fBpcretest\fP when called with
2429  the \fB-m\fP and \fB-C\fP options is obtained by calling \fBpcre_exec\fP with  the \fB-m\fP and \fB-C\fP options is obtained by calling \fBpcre_exec\fP with
2430  the values NULL, NULL, NULL, -999, and -999 for its first five arguments.  the values NULL, NULL, NULL, -999, and -999 for its first five arguments.
2431  .P  .P
2432  Normally, if its first argument is NULL, \fBpcre_exec()\fP immediately returns  Normally, if its first argument is NULL, \fBpcre_exec()\fP immediately returns
# Line 2432  the negative error code PCRE_ERROR_NULL, Line 2434  the negative error code PCRE_ERROR_NULL,
2434  arguments, it returns instead a negative number whose absolute value is the  arguments, it returns instead a negative number whose absolute value is the
2435  approximate stack frame size in bytes. (A negative number is used so that it is  approximate stack frame size in bytes. (A negative number is used so that it is
2436  clear that no match has happened.) The value is approximate because in some  clear that no match has happened.) The value is approximate because in some
2437  cases, recursive calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP occur when there are one or two  cases, recursive calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP occur when there are one or two
2438  additional variables on the stack.  additional variables on the stack.
2439  .P  .P
2440  If PCRE has been compiled to use the heap instead of the stack for recursion,  If PCRE has been compiled to use the heap instead of the stack for recursion,
2441  the value returned is the size of each block that is obtained from the heap.  the value returned is the size of each block that is obtained from the heap.
2442  .  .
2443  .  .
# Line 2644  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England. Line 2646  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
2646  .rs  .rs
2647  .sp  .sp
2648  .nf  .nf
2649  Last updated: 21 January 2012  Last updated: 18 February 2012
2650  Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.  Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.
2651  .fi  .fi

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