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revision 79 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:40:52 2007 UTC revision 596 by ph10, Mon May 2 10:47:52 2011 UTC
# Line 6  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio Line 6  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressio
6  .sp  .sp
7  This document describes the differences in the ways that PCRE and Perl handle  This document describes the differences in the ways that PCRE and Perl handle
8  regular expressions. The differences described here are with respect to Perl  regular expressions. The differences described here are with respect to Perl
9  5.8.  versions 5.10 and above.
10  .P  .P
11  1. PCRE does not have full UTF-8 support. Details of what it does have are  1. PCRE has only a subset of Perl's UTF-8 and Unicode support. Details of what
12  given in the  it does have are given in the
13  .\" HTML <a href="pcre.html#utf8support">  .\" HTML <a href="pcre.html#utf8support">
14  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
15  section on UTF-8 support  section on UTF-8 support
# Line 20  in the main Line 20  in the main
20  .\"  .\"
21  page.  page.
22  .P  .P
23  2. PCRE does not allow repeat quantifiers on lookahead assertions. Perl permits  2. PCRE does not allow repeat quantifiers on assertions. Perl permits them, but
24  them, but they do not mean what you might think. For example, (?!a){3} does  they do not mean what you might think. For example, (?!a){3} does not assert
25  not assert that the next three characters are not "a". It just asserts that the  that the next three characters are not "a". It just asserts that the next
26  next character is not "a" three times.  character is not "a" three times.
27  .P  .P
28  3. Capturing subpatterns that occur inside negative lookahead assertions are  3. Capturing subpatterns that occur inside negative lookahead assertions are
29  counted, but their entries in the offsets vector are never set. Perl sets its  counted, but their entries in the offsets vector are never set. Perl sets its
# Line 44  encountered by PCRE, an error is generat Line 44  encountered by PCRE, an error is generat
44  6. The Perl escape sequences \ep, \eP, and \eX are supported only if PCRE is  6. The Perl escape sequences \ep, \eP, and \eX are supported only if PCRE is
45  built with Unicode character property support. The properties that can be  built with Unicode character property support. The properties that can be
46  tested with \ep and \eP are limited to the general category properties such as  tested with \ep and \eP are limited to the general category properties such as
47  Lu and Nd.  Lu and Nd, script names such as Greek or Han, and the derived properties Any
48    and L&. PCRE does support the Cs (surrogate) property, which Perl does not; the
49    Perl documentation says "Because Perl hides the need for the user to understand
50    the internal representation of Unicode characters, there is no need to
51    implement the somewhat messy concept of surrogates."
52  .P  .P
53  7. PCRE does support the \eQ...\eE escape for quoting substrings. Characters in  7. PCRE does support the \eQ...\eE escape for quoting substrings. Characters in
54  between are treated as literals. This is slightly different from Perl in that $  between are treated as literals. This is slightly different from Perl in that $
# Line 62  following examples: Line 66  following examples:
66  .sp  .sp
67  The \eQ...\eE sequence is recognized both inside and outside character classes.  The \eQ...\eE sequence is recognized both inside and outside character classes.
68  .P  .P
69  8. Fairly obviously, PCRE does not support the (?{code}) and (?p{code})  8. Fairly obviously, PCRE does not support the (?{code}) and (??{code})
70  constructions. However, there is support for recursive patterns using the  constructions. However, there is support for recursive patterns. This is not
71  non-Perl items (?R), (?number), and (?P>name). Also, the PCRE "callout" feature  available in Perl 5.8, but it is in Perl 5.10. Also, the PCRE "callout"
72  allows an external function to be called during pattern matching. See the  feature allows an external function to be called during pattern matching. See
73    the
74  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
75  \fBpcrecallout\fP  \fBpcrecallout\fP
76  .\"  .\"
77  documentation for details.  documentation for details.
78  .P  .P
79  9. There are some differences that are concerned with the settings of captured  9. Subpatterns that are called recursively or as "subroutines" are always
80    treated as atomic groups in PCRE. This is like Python, but unlike Perl. There
81    is a discussion of an example that explains this in more detail in the
82    .\" HTML <a href="pcrepattern.html#recursiondifference">
83    .\" </a>
84    section on recursion differences from Perl
85    .\"
86    in the
87    .\" HREF
88    \fBpcrepattern\fP
89    .\"
90    page.
91    .P
92    10. There are some differences that are concerned with the settings of captured
93  strings when part of a pattern is repeated. For example, matching "aba" against  strings when part of a pattern is repeated. For example, matching "aba" against
94  the pattern /^(a(b)?)+$/ in Perl leaves $2 unset, but in PCRE it is set to "b".  the pattern /^(a(b)?)+$/ in Perl leaves $2 unset, but in PCRE it is set to "b".
95  .P  .P
96  10. PCRE provides some extensions to the Perl regular expression facilities:  11. PCRE's handling of duplicate subpattern numbers and duplicate subpattern
97  .sp  names is not as general as Perl's. This is a consequence of the fact the PCRE
98  (a) Although lookbehind assertions must match fixed length strings, each  works internally just with numbers, using an external table to translate
99  alternative branch of a lookbehind assertion can match a different length of  between numbers and names. In particular, a pattern such as (?|(?<a>A)|(?<b)B),
100  string. Perl requires them all to have the same length.  where the two capturing parentheses have the same number but different names,
101    is not supported, and causes an error at compile time. If it were allowed, it
102    would not be possible to distinguish which parentheses matched, because both
103    names map to capturing subpattern number 1. To avoid this confusing situation,
104    an error is given at compile time.
105    .P
106    12. Perl recognizes comments in some places that PCRE doesn't, for example,
107    between the ( and ? at the start of a subpattern.
108    .P
109    13. PCRE provides some extensions to the Perl regular expression facilities.
110    Perl 5.10 includes new features that are not in earlier versions of Perl, some
111    of which (such as named parentheses) have been in PCRE for some time. This list
112    is with respect to Perl 5.10:
113    .sp
114    (a) Although lookbehind assertions in PCRE must match fixed length strings,
115    each alternative branch of a lookbehind assertion can match a different length
116    of string. Perl requires them all to have the same length.
117  .sp  .sp
118  (b) If PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY is set and PCRE_MULTILINE is not set, the $  (b) If PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY is set and PCRE_MULTILINE is not set, the $
119  meta-character matches only at the very end of the string.  meta-character matches only at the very end of the string.
120  .sp  .sp
121  (c) If PCRE_EXTRA is set, a backslash followed by a letter with no special  (c) If PCRE_EXTRA is set, a backslash followed by a letter with no special
122  meaning is faulted.  meaning is faulted. Otherwise, like Perl, the backslash is quietly ignored.
123    (Perl can be made to issue a warning.)
124  .sp  .sp
125  (d) If PCRE_UNGREEDY is set, the greediness of the repetition quantifiers is  (d) If PCRE_UNGREEDY is set, the greediness of the repetition quantifiers is
126  inverted, that is, by default they are not greedy, but if followed by a  inverted, that is, by default they are not greedy, but if followed by a
# Line 94  question mark they are. Line 129  question mark they are.
129  (e) PCRE_ANCHORED can be used at matching time to force a pattern to be tried  (e) PCRE_ANCHORED can be used at matching time to force a pattern to be tried
130  only at the first matching position in the subject string.  only at the first matching position in the subject string.
131  .sp  .sp
132  (f) The PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, and PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE  (f) The PCRE_NOTBOL, PCRE_NOTEOL, PCRE_NOTEMPTY, PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART, and
133  options for \fBpcre_exec()\fP have no Perl equivalents.  PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE options for \fBpcre_exec()\fP have no Perl equivalents.
 .sp  
 (g) The (?R), (?number), and (?P>name) constructs allows for recursive pattern  
 matching (Perl can do this using the (?p{code}) construct, which PCRE cannot  
 support.)  
 .sp  
 (h) PCRE supports named capturing substrings, using the Python syntax.  
134  .sp  .sp
135  (i) PCRE supports the possessive quantifier "++" syntax, taken from Sun's Java  (g) The \eR escape sequence can be restricted to match only CR, LF, or CRLF
136  package.  by the PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF option.
137  .sp  .sp
138  (j) The (R) condition, for testing recursion, is a PCRE extension.  (h) The callout facility is PCRE-specific.
139  .sp  .sp
140  (k) The callout facility is PCRE-specific.  (i) The partial matching facility is PCRE-specific.
141  .sp  .sp
142  (l) The partial matching facility is PCRE-specific.  (j) Patterns compiled by PCRE can be saved and re-used at a later time, even on
 .sp  
 (m) Patterns compiled by PCRE can be saved and re-used at a later time, even on  
143  different hosts that have the other endianness.  different hosts that have the other endianness.
144  .sp  .sp
145  (n) The alternative matching function (\fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP) matches in a  (k) The alternative matching function (\fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP) matches in a
146  different way and is not Perl-compatible.  different way and is not Perl-compatible.
147  .P  .sp
148  .in 0  (l) PCRE recognizes some special sequences such as (*CR) at the start of
149  Last updated: 28 February 2005  a pattern that set overall options that cannot be changed within the pattern.
150  .br  .
151  Copyright (c) 1997-2005 University of Cambridge.  .
152    .SH AUTHOR
153    .rs
154    .sp
155    .nf
156    Philip Hazel
157    University Computing Service
158    Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
159    .fi
160    .
161    .
162    .SH REVISION
163    .rs
164    .sp
165    .nf
166    Last updated: 02 May 2011
167    Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
168    .fi

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