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revision 86 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:40:45 2007 UTC revision 87 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:41:21 2007 UTC
# Line 2  Line 2 
2  .SH NAME  .SH NAME
3  pcregrep - a grep with Perl-compatible regular expressions.  pcregrep - a grep with Perl-compatible regular expressions.
4  .SH SYNOPSIS  .SH SYNOPSIS
5  .B pcregrep [options] [long options] [pattern] [file1 file2 ...]  .B pcregrep [options] [long options] [pattern] [path1 path2 ...]
6  .  .
7  .SH DESCRIPTION  .SH DESCRIPTION
8  .rs  .rs
# Line 16  patterns that are compatible with the re Line 16  patterns that are compatible with the re
16  for a full description of syntax and semantics of the regular expressions that  for a full description of syntax and semantics of the regular expressions that
17  PCRE supports.  PCRE supports.
18  .P  .P
19  A pattern must be specified on the command line unless the \fB-f\fP option is  Patterns, whether supplied on the command line or in a separate file, are given
20  used (see below).  without delimiters. For example:
21    .sp
22      pcregrep Thursday /etc/motd
23    .sp
24    If you attempt to use delimiters (for example, by surrounding a pattern with
25    slashes, as is common in Perl scripts), they are interpreted as part of the
26    pattern. Quotes can of course be used on the command line because they are
27    interpreted by the shell, and indeed they are required if a pattern contains
28    white space or shell metacharacters.
29    .P
30    The first argument that follows any option settings is treated as the single
31    pattern to be matched when neither \fB-e\fP nor \fB-f\fP is present.
32    Conversely, when one or both of these options are used to specify patterns, all
33    arguments are treated as path names. At least one of \fB-e\fP, \fB-f\fP, or an
34    argument pattern must be provided.
35  .P  .P
36  If no files are specified, \fBpcregrep\fP reads the standard input. The  If no files are specified, \fBpcregrep\fP reads the standard input. The
37  standard input can also be referenced by a name consisting of a single hyphen.  standard input can also be referenced by a name consisting of a single hyphen.
# Line 26  For example: Line 40  For example:
40    pcregrep some-pattern /file1 - /file3    pcregrep some-pattern /file1 - /file3
41  .sp  .sp
42  By default, each line that matches the pattern is copied to the standard  By default, each line that matches the pattern is copied to the standard
43  output, and if there is more than one file, the file name is printed before  output, and if there is more than one file, the file name is output at the
44  each line of output. However, there are options that can change how  start of each line. However, there are options that can change how
45  \fBpcregrep\fP behaves. In particular, the \fB-M\fP option makes it possible to  \fBpcregrep\fP behaves. In particular, the \fB-M\fP option makes it possible to
46  search for patterns that span line boundaries.  search for patterns that span line boundaries.
47  .P  .P
48  Patterns are limited to 8K or BUFSIZ characters, whichever is the greater.  Patterns are limited to 8K or BUFSIZ characters, whichever is the greater.
49  BUFSIZ is defined in \fB<stdio.h>\fP.  BUFSIZ is defined in \fB<stdio.h>\fP.
50    .P
51    If the \fBLC_ALL\fP or \fBLC_CTYPE\fP environment variable is set,
52    \fBpcregrep\fP uses the value to set a locale when calling the PCRE library.
53    The \fB--locale\fP option can be used to override this.
54  .  .
55  .SH OPTIONS  .SH OPTIONS
56  .rs  .rs
57  .TP 10  .TP 10
58  \fB--\fP  \fB--\fP
59  This terminate the list of options. It is useful if the next item on the  This terminate the list of options. It is useful if the next item on the
60  command line starts with a hyphen, but is not an option.  command line starts with a hyphen but is not an option. This allows for the
61    processing of patterns and filenames that start with hyphens.
62  .TP  .TP
63  \fB-A\fP \fInumber\fP  \fB-A\fP \fInumber\fP, \fB--after-context=\fP\fInumber\fP
64  Print \fInumber\fP lines of context after each matching line. If file names  Output \fInumber\fP lines of context after each matching line. If filenames
65  and/or line numbers are being printed, a hyphen separator is used instead of a  and/or line numbers are being output, a hyphen separator is used instead of a
66  colon for the context lines. A line containing "--" is printed between each  colon for the context lines. A line containing "--" is output between each
67  group of lines, unless they are in fact contiguous in the input file. The value  group of lines, unless they are in fact contiguous in the input file. The value
68  of \fInumber\fP is expected to be relatively small. However, \fBpcregrep\fP  of \fInumber\fP is expected to be relatively small. However, \fBpcregrep\fP
69  guarantees to have up to 8K of following text available for context printing.  guarantees to have up to 8K of following text available for context output.
70  .TP  .TP
71  \fB-B\fP \fInumber\fP  \fB-B\fP \fInumber\fP, \fB--before-context=\fP\fInumber\fP
72  Print \fInumber\fP lines of context before each matching line. If file names  Output \fInumber\fP lines of context before each matching line. If filenames
73  and/or line numbers are being printed, a hyphen separator is used instead of a  and/or line numbers are being output, a hyphen separator is used instead of a
74  colon for the context lines. A line containing "--" is printed between each  colon for the context lines. A line containing "--" is output between each
75  group of lines, unless they are in fact contiguous in the input file. The value  group of lines, unless they are in fact contiguous in the input file. The value
76  of \fInumber\fP is expected to be relatively small. However, \fBpcregrep\fP  of \fInumber\fP is expected to be relatively small. However, \fBpcregrep\fP
77  guarantees to have up to 8K of preceding text available for context printing.  guarantees to have up to 8K of preceding text available for context output.
78  .TP  .TP
79  \fB-C\fP \fInumber\fP  \fB-C\fP \fInumber\fP, \fB--context=\fP\fInumber\fP
80  Print \fInumber\fP lines of context both before and after each matching line.  Output \fInumber\fP lines of context both before and after each matching line.
81  This is equivalent to setting both \fB-A\fP and \fB-B\fP to the same value.  This is equivalent to setting both \fB-A\fP and \fB-B\fP to the same value.
82  .TP  .TP
83  \fB-c\fP  \fB-c\fP, \fB--count\fP
84  Do not print individual lines; instead just print a count of the number of  Do not output individual lines; instead just output a count of the number of
85  lines that would otherwise have been printed. If several files are given, a  lines that would otherwise have been output. If several files are given, a
86  count is printed for each of them.  count is output for each of them. In this mode, the \fB-A\fP, \fB-B\fP, and
87    \fB-C\fP options are ignored.
88    .TP
89    \fB--colour\fP, \fB--color\fP
90    If this option is given without any data, it is equivalent to "--colour=auto".
91    If data is required, it must be given in the same shell item, separated by an
92    equals sign.
93    .TP
94    \fB--colour=\fP\fIvalue\fP, \fB--color=\fP\fIvalue\fP
95    This option specifies under what circumstances the part of a line that matched
96    a pattern should be coloured in the output. The value may be "never" (the
97    default), "always", or "auto". In the latter case, colouring happens only if
98    the standard output is connected to a terminal. The colour can be specified by
99    setting the environment variable PCREGREP_COLOUR or PCREGREP_COLOR. The value
100    of this variable should be a string of two numbers, separated by a semicolon.
101    They are copied directly into the control string for setting colour on a
102    terminal, so it is your responsibility to ensure that they make sense. If
103    neither of the environment variables is set, the default is "1;31", which gives
104    red.
105    .TP
106    \fB-D\fP \fIaction\fP, \fB--devices=\fP\fIaction\fP
107    If an input path is not a regular file or a directory, "action" specifies how
108    it is to be processed. Valid values are "read" (the default) or "skip"
109    (silently skip the path).
110    .TP
111    \fB-d\fP \fIaction\fP, \fB--directories=\fP\fIaction\fP
112    If an input path is a directory, "action" specifies how it is to be processed.
113    Valid values are "read" (the default), "recurse" (equivalent to the \fB-r\fP
114    option), or "skip" (silently skip the path). In the default case, directories
115    are read as if they were ordinary files. In some operating systems the effect
116    of reading a directory like this is an immediate end-of-file.
117    .TP
118    \fB-e\fP \fIpattern\fP, \fB--regex=\fP\fIpattern\fP,
119    \fB--regexp=\fP\fIpattern\fP Specify a pattern to be matched. This option can
120    be used multiple times in order to specify several patterns. It can also be
121    used as a way of specifying a single pattern that starts with a hyphen. When
122    \fB-e\fP is used, no argument pattern is taken from the command line; all
123    arguments are treated as file names. There is an overall maximum of 100
124    patterns. They are applied to each line in the order in which they are defined
125    until one matches (or fails to match if \fB-v\fP is used). If \fB-f\fP is used
126    with \fB-e\fP, the command line patterns are matched first, followed by the
127    patterns from the file, independent of the order in which these options are
128    specified. Note that multiple use of \fB-e\fP is not the same as a single
129    pattern with alternatives. For example, X|Y finds the first character in a line
130    that is X or Y, whereas if the two patterns are given separately,
131    \fBpcregrep\fP finds X if it is present, even if it follows Y in the line. It
132    finds Y only if there is no X in the line. This really matters only if you are
133    using \fB-o\fP to show the portion of the line that matched.
134  .TP  .TP
135  \fB--exclude\fP=\fIpattern\fP  \fB--exclude\fP=\fIpattern\fP
136  When \fBpcregrep\fP is searching the files in a directory as a consequence of  When \fBpcregrep\fP is searching the files in a directory as a consequence of
# Line 73  are excluded. The pattern is a PCRE regu Line 139  are excluded. The pattern is a PCRE regu
139  both \fB--include\fP and \fB--exclude\fP, it is excluded. There is no short  both \fB--include\fP and \fB--exclude\fP, it is excluded. There is no short
140  form for this option.  form for this option.
141  .TP  .TP
142  \fB-f\fP\fIfilename\fP  \fB-F\fP, \fB--fixed-strings\fP
143  Read a number of patterns from the file, one per line, and match all of them  Interpret each pattern as a list of fixed strings, separated by newlines,
144  against each line of input. A line is output if any of the patterns match it.  instead of as a regular expression. The \fB-w\fP (match as a word) and \fB-x\fP
145  When \fB-f\fP is used, no pattern is taken from the command line; all arguments  (match whole line) options can be used with \fB-F\fP. They apply to each of the
146  are treated as file names. There is a maximum of 100 patterns. Trailing white  fixed strings. A line is selected if any of the fixed strings are found in it
147  space is removed, and blank lines are ignored. An empty file contains no  (subject to \fB-w\fP or \fB-x\fP, if present).
148  patterns and therefore matches nothing.  .TP
149    \fB-f\fP \fIfilename\fP, \fB--file=\fP\fIfilename\fP
150    Read a number of patterns from the file, one per line, and match them against
151    each line of input. A data line is output if any of the patterns match it. The
152    filename can be given as "-" to refer to the standard input. When \fB-f\fP is
153    used, patterns specified on the command line using \fB-e\fP may also be
154    present; they are tested before the file's patterns. However, no other pattern
155    is taken from the command line; all arguments are treated as file names. There
156    is an overall maximum of 100 patterns. Trailing white space is removed from
157    each line, and blank lines are ignored. An empty file contains no patterns and
158    therefore matches nothing.
159    .TP
160    \fB-H\fP, \fB--with-filename\fP
161    Force the inclusion of the filename at the start of output lines when searching
162    a single file. By default, the filename is not shown in this case. For matching
163    lines, the filename is followed by a colon and a space; for context lines, a
164    hyphen separator is used. If a line number is also being output, it follows the
165    file name without a space.
166    .TP
167    \fB-h\fP, \fB--no-filename\fP
168    Suppress the output filenames when searching multiple files. By default,
169    filenames are shown when multiple files are searched. For matching lines, the
170    filename is followed by a colon and a space; for context lines, a hyphen
171    separator is used. If a line number is also being output, it follows the file
172    name without a space.
173  .TP  .TP
174  \fB-h\fP  \fB--help\fP
175  Suppress printing of filenames when searching multiple files.  Output a brief help message and exit.
176  .TP  .TP
177  \fB-i\fP  \fB-i\fP, \fB--ignore-case\fP
178  Ignore upper/lower case distinctions during comparisons.  Ignore upper/lower case distinctions during comparisons.
179  .TP  .TP
180  \fB--include\fP=\fIpattern\fP  \fB--include\fP=\fIpattern\fP
181  When \fBpcregrep\fP is searching the files in a directory as a consequence of  When \fBpcregrep\fP is searching the files in a directory as a consequence of
182  the \fB-r\fP (recursive search) option, only files whose names match the  the \fB-r\fP (recursive search) option, only those files whose names match the
183  pattern are included. The pattern is a PCRE regular expression. If a file name  pattern are included. The pattern is a PCRE regular expression. If a file name
184  matches both \fB--include\fP and \fB--exclude\fP, it is excluded. There is no  matches both \fB--include\fP and \fB--exclude\fP, it is excluded. There is no
185  short form for this option.  short form for this option.
186  .TP  .TP
187  \fB-L\fP  \fB-L\fP, \fB--files-without-match\fP
188  Instead of printing lines from the files, just print the names of the files  Instead of outputting lines from the files, just output the names of the files
189  that do not contain any lines that would have been printed. Each file name is  that do not contain any lines that would have been output. Each file name is
190  printed once, on a separate line.  output once, on a separate line.
191  .TP  .TP
192  \fB-l\fP  \fB-l\fP, \fB--files-with-matches\fP
193  Instead of printing lines from the files, just print the names of the files  Instead of outputting lines from the files, just output the names of the files
194  containing lines that would have been printed. Each file name is printed  containing lines that would have been output. Each file name is output
195  once, on a separate line.  once, on a separate line. Searching stops as soon as a matching line is found
196    in a file.
197  .TP  .TP
198  \fB--label\fP=\fIname\fP  \fB--label\fP=\fIname\fP
199  This option supplies a name to be used for the standard input when file names  This option supplies a name to be used for the standard input when file names
200  are being printed. If not supplied, "(standard input)" is used. There is no  are being output. If not supplied, "(standard input)" is used. There is no
201  short form for this option.  short form for this option.
202  .TP  .TP
203  \fB-M\fP  \fB--locale\fP=\fIlocale-name\fP
204    This option specifies a locale to be used for pattern matching. It overrides
205    the value in the \fBLC_ALL\fP or \fBLC_CTYPE\fP environment variables. If no
206    locale is specified, the PCRE library's default (usually the "C" locale) is
207    used. There is no short form for this option.
208    .TP
209    \fB-M\fP, \fB--multiline\fP
210  Allow patterns to match more than one line. When this option is given, patterns  Allow patterns to match more than one line. When this option is given, patterns
211  may usefully contain literal newline characters and internal occurrences of ^  may usefully contain literal newline characters and internal occurrences of ^
212  and $ characters. The output for any one match may consist of more than one  and $ characters. The output for any one match may consist of more than one
# Line 121  that \fBpcregrep\fP buffers the input fi Line 218  that \fBpcregrep\fP buffers the input fi
218  the previous 8K characters (or all the previous characters, if fewer than 8K)  the previous 8K characters (or all the previous characters, if fewer than 8K)
219  are guaranteed to be available for lookbehind assertions.  are guaranteed to be available for lookbehind assertions.
220  .TP  .TP
221  \fB-n\fP  \fB-n\fP, \fB--line-number\fP
222  Precede each line by its line number in the file.  Precede each output line by its line number in the file, followed by a colon
223    and a space for matching lines or a hyphen and a space for context lines. If
224    the filename is also being output, it precedes the line number.
225    .TP
226    \fB-o\fP, \fB--only-matching\fP
227    Show only the part of the line that matched a pattern. In this mode, no
228    context is shown. That is, the \fB-A\fP, \fB-B\fP, and \fB-C\fP options are
229    ignored.
230    .TP
231    \fB-q\fP, \fB--quiet\fP
232    Work quietly, that is, display nothing except error messages. The exit
233    status indicates whether or not any matches were found.
234  .TP  .TP
235  \fB-q\fP  \fB-r\fP, \fB--recursive\fP
 Work quietly, that is, display nothing except error messages.  
 The exit status indicates whether or not any matches were found.  
 .TP  
 \fB-r\fP  
236  If any given path is a directory, recursively scan the files it contains,  If any given path is a directory, recursively scan the files it contains,
237  taking note of any \fB--include\fP and \fB--exclude\fP settings. Without  taking note of any \fB--include\fP and \fB--exclude\fP settings. By default, a
238  \fB-r\fP a directory is scanned as a normal file.  directory is read as a normal file; in some operating systems this gives an
239    immediate end-of-file. This option is a shorthand for setting the \fB-d\fP
240    option to "recurse".
241  .TP  .TP
242  \fB-s\fP  \fB-s\fP, \fB--no-messages\fP
243  Suppress error messages about non-existent or unreadable files. Such files are  Suppress error messages about non-existent or unreadable files. Such files are
244  quietly skipped. However, the return code is still 2, even if matches were  quietly skipped. However, the return code is still 2, even if matches were
245  found in other files.  found in other files.
246  .TP  .TP
247  \fB-u\fP  \fB-u\fP, \fB--utf-8\fP
248  Operate in UTF-8 mode. This option is available only if PCRE has been compiled  Operate in UTF-8 mode. This option is available only if PCRE has been compiled
249  with UTF-8 support. Both the pattern and each subject line must be valid  with UTF-8 support. Both patterns and subject lines must be valid strings of
250  strings of UTF-8 characters.  UTF-8 characters.
251  .TP  .TP
252  \fB-V\fP  \fB-V\fP, \fB--version\fP
253  Write the version numbers of \fBpcregrep\fP and the PCRE library that is being  Write the version numbers of \fBpcregrep\fP and the PCRE library that is being
254  used to the standard error stream.  used to the standard error stream.
255  .TP  .TP
256  \fB-v\fP  \fB-v\fP, \fB--invert-match\fP
257  Invert the sense of the match, so that lines which do \fInot\fP match the  Invert the sense of the match, so that lines which do \fInot\fP match any of
258  pattern are the ones that are found.  the patterns are the ones that are found.
259  .TP  .TP
260  \fB-w\fP  \fB-w\fP, \fB--word-regex\fP, \fB--word-regexp\fP
261  Force the pattern to match only whole words. This is equivalent to having \eb  Force the patterns to match only whole words. This is equivalent to having \eb
262  at the start and end of the pattern.  at the start and end of the pattern.
263  .TP  .TP
264  \fB-x\fP  \fB-x\fP, \fB--line-regex\fP, \fP--line-regexp\fP
265  Force the pattern to be anchored (it must start matching at the beginning of  Force the patterns to be anchored (each must start matching at the beginning of
266  the line) and in addition, require it to match the entire line. This is  a line) and in addition, require them to match entire lines. This is
267  equivalent to having ^ and $ characters at the start and end of each  equivalent to having ^ and $ characters at the start and end of each
268  alternative branch in the regular expression.  alternative branch in every pattern.
269    .
270  .  .
271  .SH "LONG OPTIONS"  .SH "ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES"
272  .rs  .rs
273  .sp  .sp
274  Long forms of all the options are available, as in GNU grep. They are shown in  The environment variables \fBLC_ALL\fP and \fBLC_CTYPE\fP are examined, in that
275  the following table:  order, for a locale. The first one that is set is used. This can be overridden
276    by the \fB--locale\fP option. If no locale is set, the PCRE library's default
277    (usually the "C" locale) is used.
278    .
279    .
280    .SH "OPTIONS COMPATIBILITY"
281    .rs
282  .sp  .sp
283    -A   --after-context  The majority of short and long forms of \fBpcregrep\fP's options are the same
284    -B   --before-context  as in the GNU \fBgrep\fP program. Any long option of the form
285    -C   --context  \fB--xxx-regexp\fP (GNU terminology) is also available as \fB--xxx-regex\fP
286    -c   --count  (PCRE terminology). However, the \fB--locale\fP, \fB-M\fP, \fB--multiline\fP,
287         --exclude (no short form)  \fB-u\fP, and \fB--utf-8\fP options are specific to \fBpcregrep\fP.
288    -f   --file  .
   -h   --no-filename  
        --help (no short form)  
   -i   --ignore-case  
        --include (no short form)  
   -L   --files-without-match  
   -l   --files-with-matches  
        --label (no short form)  
   -n   --line-number  
   -r   --recursive  
   -q   --quiet  
   -s   --no-messages  
   -u   --utf-8  
   -V   --version  
   -v   --invert-match  
   -x   --line-regex  
   -x   --line-regexp  
289  .  .
290  .SH "OPTIONS WITH DATA"  .SH "OPTIONS WITH DATA"
291  .rs  .rs
# Line 201  command line item. For example: Line 298  command line item. For example:
298    -f /some/file    -f /some/file
299  .sp  .sp
300  If a long form option is used, the data may appear in the same command line  If a long form option is used, the data may appear in the same command line
301  item, separated by an = character, or it may appear in the next command line  item, separated by an equals character, or (with one exception) it may appear
302  item. For example:  in the next command line item. For example:
303  .sp  .sp
304    --file=/some/file    --file=/some/file
305    --file /some/file    --file /some/file
306  .sp  .sp
307    Note, however, that if you want to supply a file name beginning with ~ as data
308    in a shell command, and have the shell expand ~ to a home directory, you must
309    separate the file name from the option, because the shell does not treat ~
310    specially unless it is at the start of an item.
311    .P
312    The exception to the above is the \fB--colour\fP (or \fB--color\fP) option,
313    for which the data is optional. If this option does have data, it must be given
314    in the first form, using an equals character. Otherwise it will be assumed that
315    it has no data.
316    .
317    .
318    .SH MATCHING ERRORS
319    .rs
320    .sp
321    It is possible to supply a regular expression that takes a very long time to
322    fail to match certain lines. Such patterns normally involve nested indefinite
323    repeats, for example: (a+)*\ed when matched against a line of a's with no final
324    digit. The PCRE matching function has a resource limit that causes it to abort
325    in these circumstances. If this happens, \fBpcregrep\fP outputs an error
326    message and the line that caused the problem to the standard error stream. If
327    there are more than 20 such errors, \fBpcregrep\fP gives up.
328    .
329  .  .
330  .SH DIAGNOSTICS  .SH DIAGNOSTICS
331  .rs  .rs
332  .sp  .sp
333  Exit status is 0 if any matches were found, 1 if no matches were found, and 2  Exit status is 0 if any matches were found, 1 if no matches were found, and 2
334  for syntax errors and non-existent or inacessible files (even if matches were  for syntax errors and non-existent or inacessible files (even if matches were
335  found in other files). Using the \fB-s\fP option to suppress error messages  found in other files) or too many matching errors. Using the \fB-s\fP option to
336  about inaccessble files does not affect the return code.  suppress error messages about inaccessble files does not affect the return
337    code.
338  .  .
339  .  .
340  .SH AUTHOR  .SH AUTHOR
# Line 227  University Computing Service Line 347  University Computing Service
347  Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.
348  .P  .P
349  .in 0  .in 0
350  Last updated: 16 May 2005  Last updated: 23 January 2006
351  .br  .br
352  Copyright (c) 1997-2005 University of Cambridge.  Copyright (c) 1997-2006 University of Cambridge.

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