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1 PCREGREP(1) PCREGREP(1)
2
3
4 NAME
5 pcregrep - a grep with Perl-compatible regular expressions.
6
7
8 SYNOPSIS
9 pcregrep [options] [long options] [pattern] [path1 path2 ...]
10
11
12 DESCRIPTION
13
14 pcregrep searches files for character patterns, in the same way as
15 other grep commands do, but it uses the PCRE regular expression library
16 to support patterns that are compatible with the regular expressions of
17 Perl 5. See pcrepattern(3) for a full description of syntax and seman-
18 tics of the regular expressions that PCRE supports.
19
20 Patterns, whether supplied on the command line or in a separate file,
21 are given without delimiters. For example:
22
23 pcregrep Thursday /etc/motd
24
25 If you attempt to use delimiters (for example, by surrounding a pattern
26 with slashes, as is common in Perl scripts), they are interpreted as
27 part of the pattern. Quotes can of course be used to delimit patterns
28 on the command line because they are interpreted by the shell, and
29 indeed they are required if a pattern contains white space or shell
30 metacharacters.
31
32 The first argument that follows any option settings is treated as the
33 single pattern to be matched when neither -e nor -f is present. Con-
34 versely, when one or both of these options are used to specify pat-
35 terns, all arguments are treated as path names. At least one of -e, -f,
36 or an argument pattern must be provided.
37
38 If no files are specified, pcregrep reads the standard input. The stan-
39 dard input can also be referenced by a name consisting of a single
40 hyphen. For example:
41
42 pcregrep some-pattern /file1 - /file3
43
44 By default, each line that matches a pattern is copied to the standard
45 output, and if there is more than one file, the file name is output at
46 the start of each line, followed by a colon. However, there are options
47 that can change how pcregrep behaves. In particular, the -M option
48 makes it possible to search for patterns that span line boundaries.
49 What defines a line boundary is controlled by the -N (--newline)
50 option.
51
52 The amount of memory used for buffering files that are being scanned is
53 controlled by a parameter that can be set by the --buffer-size option.
54 The default value for this parameter is specified when pcregrep is
55 built, with the default default being 20K. A block of memory three
56 times this size is used (to allow for buffering "before" and "after"
57 lines). An error occurs if a line overflows the buffer.
58
59 Patterns are limited to 8K or BUFSIZ bytes, whichever is the greater.
60 BUFSIZ is defined in <stdio.h>. When there is more than one pattern
61 (specified by the use of -e and/or -f), each pattern is applied to each
62 line in the order in which they are defined, except that all the -e
63 patterns are tried before the -f patterns.
64
65 By default, as soon as one pattern matches (or fails to match when -v
66 is used), no further patterns are considered. However, if --colour (or
67 --color) is used to colour the matching substrings, or if --only-match-
68 ing, --file-offsets, or --line-offsets is used to output only the part
69 of the line that matched (either shown literally, or as an offset),
70 scanning resumes immediately following the match, so that further
71 matches on the same line can be found. If there are multiple patterns,
72 they are all tried on the remainder of the line, but patterns that fol-
73 low the one that matched are not tried on the earlier part of the line.
74
75 This is the same behaviour as GNU grep, but it does mean that the order
76 in which multiple patterns are specified can affect the output when one
77 of the above options is used.
78
79 Patterns that can match an empty string are accepted, but empty string
80 matches are never recognized. An example is the pattern
81 "(super)?(man)?", in which all components are optional. This pattern
82 finds all occurrences of both "super" and "man"; the output differs
83 from matching with "super|man" when only the matching substrings are
84 being shown.
85
86 If the LC_ALL or LC_CTYPE environment variable is set, pcregrep uses
87 the value to set a locale when calling the PCRE library. The --locale
88 option can be used to override this.
89
90
91 SUPPORT FOR COMPRESSED FILES
92
93 It is possible to compile pcregrep so that it uses libz or libbz2 to
94 read files whose names end in .gz or .bz2, respectively. You can find
95 out whether your binary has support for one or both of these file types
96 by running it with the --help option. If the appropriate support is not
97 present, files are treated as plain text. The standard input is always
98 so treated.
99
100
101 OPTIONS
102
103 The order in which some of the options appear can affect the output.
104 For example, both the -h and -l options affect the printing of file
105 names. Whichever comes later in the command line will be the one that
106 takes effect. Numerical values for options may be followed by K or M,
107 to signify multiplication by 1024 or 1024*1024 respectively.
108
109 -- This terminates the list of options. It is useful if the next
110 item on the command line starts with a hyphen but is not an
111 option. This allows for the processing of patterns and file-
112 names that start with hyphens.
113
114 -A number, --after-context=number
115 Output number lines of context after each matching line. If
116 filenames and/or line numbers are being output, a hyphen sep-
117 arator is used instead of a colon for the context lines. A
118 line containing "--" is output between each group of lines,
119 unless they are in fact contiguous in the input file. The
120 value of number is expected to be relatively small. However,
121 pcregrep guarantees to have up to 8K of following text avail-
122 able for context output.
123
124 -B number, --before-context=number
125 Output number lines of context before each matching line. If
126 filenames and/or line numbers are being output, a hyphen sep-
127 arator is used instead of a colon for the context lines. A
128 line containing "--" is output between each group of lines,
129 unless they are in fact contiguous in the input file. The
130 value of number is expected to be relatively small. However,
131 pcregrep guarantees to have up to 8K of preceding text avail-
132 able for context output.
133
134 --buffer-size=number
135 Set the parameter that controls how much memory is used for
136 buffering files that are being scanned.
137
138 -C number, --context=number
139 Output number lines of context both before and after each
140 matching line. This is equivalent to setting both -A and -B
141 to the same value.
142
143 -c, --count
144 Do not output individual lines from the files that are being
145 scanned; instead output the number of lines that would other-
146 wise have been shown. If no lines are selected, the number
147 zero is output. If several files are are being scanned, a
148 count is output for each of them. However, if the --files-
149 with-matches option is also used, only those files whose
150 counts are greater than zero are listed. When -c is used, the
151 -A, -B, and -C options are ignored.
152
153 --colour, --color
154 If this option is given without any data, it is equivalent to
155 "--colour=auto". If data is required, it must be given in
156 the same shell item, separated by an equals sign.
157
158 --colour=value, --color=value
159 This option specifies under what circumstances the parts of a
160 line that matched a pattern should be coloured in the output.
161 By default, the output is not coloured. The value (which is
162 optional, see above) may be "never", "always", or "auto". In
163 the latter case, colouring happens only if the standard out-
164 put is connected to a terminal. More resources are used when
165 colouring is enabled, because pcregrep has to search for all
166 possible matches in a line, not just one, in order to colour
167 them all.
168
169 The colour that is used can be specified by setting the envi-
170 ronment variable PCREGREP_COLOUR or PCREGREP_COLOR. The value
171 of this variable should be a string of two numbers, separated
172 by a semicolon. They are copied directly into the control
173 string for setting colour on a terminal, so it is your
174 responsibility to ensure that they make sense. If neither of
175 the environment variables is set, the default is "1;31",
176 which gives red.
177
178 -D action, --devices=action
179 If an input path is not a regular file or a directory,
180 "action" specifies how it is to be processed. Valid values
181 are "read" (the default) or "skip" (silently skip the path).
182
183 -d action, --directories=action
184 If an input path is a directory, "action" specifies how it is
185 to be processed. Valid values are "read" (the default),
186 "recurse" (equivalent to the -r option), or "skip" (silently
187 skip the path). In the default case, directories are read as
188 if they were ordinary files. In some operating systems the
189 effect of reading a directory like this is an immediate end-
190 of-file.
191
192 -e pattern, --regex=pattern, --regexp=pattern
193 Specify a pattern to be matched. This option can be used mul-
194 tiple times in order to specify several patterns. It can also
195 be used as a way of specifying a single pattern that starts
196 with a hyphen. When -e is used, no argument pattern is taken
197 from the command line; all arguments are treated as file
198 names. There is an overall maximum of 100 patterns. They are
199 applied to each line in the order in which they are defined
200 until one matches (or fails to match if -v is used). If -f is
201 used with -e, the command line patterns are matched first,
202 followed by the patterns from the file, independent of the
203 order in which these options are specified. Note that multi-
204 ple use of -e is not the same as a single pattern with alter-
205 natives. For example, X|Y finds the first character in a line
206 that is X or Y, whereas if the two patterns are given sepa-
207 rately, pcregrep finds X if it is present, even if it follows
208 Y in the line. It finds Y only if there is no X in the line.
209 This really matters only if you are using -o to show the
210 part(s) of the line that matched.
211
212 --exclude=pattern
213 When pcregrep is searching the files in a directory as a con-
214 sequence of the -r (recursive search) option, any regular
215 files whose names match the pattern are excluded. Subdirecto-
216 ries are not excluded by this option; they are searched
217 recursively, subject to the --exclude-dir and --include_dir
218 options. The pattern is a PCRE regular expression, and is
219 matched against the final component of the file name (not the
220 entire path). If a file name matches both --include and
221 --exclude, it is excluded. There is no short form for this
222 option.
223
224 --exclude-dir=pattern
225 When pcregrep is searching the contents of a directory as a
226 consequence of the -r (recursive search) option, any subdi-
227 rectories whose names match the pattern are excluded. (Note
228 that the --exclude option does not affect subdirectories.)
229 The pattern is a PCRE regular expression, and is matched
230 against the final component of the name (not the entire
231 path). If a subdirectory name matches both --include-dir and
232 --exclude-dir, it is excluded. There is no short form for
233 this option.
234
235 -F, --fixed-strings
236 Interpret each pattern as a list of fixed strings, separated
237 by newlines, instead of as a regular expression. The -w
238 (match as a word) and -x (match whole line) options can be
239 used with -F. They apply to each of the fixed strings. A line
240 is selected if any of the fixed strings are found in it (sub-
241 ject to -w or -x, if present).
242
243 -f filename, --file=filename
244 Read a number of patterns from the file, one per line, and
245 match them against each line of input. A data line is output
246 if any of the patterns match it. The filename can be given as
247 "-" to refer to the standard input. When -f is used, patterns
248 specified on the command line using -e may also be present;
249 they are tested before the file's patterns. However, no other
250 pattern is taken from the command line; all arguments are
251 treated as file names. There is an overall maximum of 100
252 patterns. Trailing white space is removed from each line, and
253 blank lines are ignored. An empty file contains no patterns
254 and therefore matches nothing. See also the comments about
255 multiple patterns versus a single pattern with alternatives
256 in the description of -e above.
257
258 --file-offsets
259 Instead of showing lines or parts of lines that match, show
260 each match as an offset from the start of the file and a
261 length, separated by a comma. In this mode, no context is
262 shown. That is, the -A, -B, and -C options are ignored. If
263 there is more than one match in a line, each of them is shown
264 separately. This option is mutually exclusive with --line-
265 offsets and --only-matching.
266
267 -H, --with-filename
268 Force the inclusion of the filename at the start of output
269 lines when searching a single file. By default, the filename
270 is not shown in this case. For matching lines, the filename
271 is followed by a colon; for context lines, a hyphen separator
272 is used. If a line number is also being output, it follows
273 the file name.
274
275 -h, --no-filename
276 Suppress the output filenames when searching multiple files.
277 By default, filenames are shown when multiple files are
278 searched. For matching lines, the filename is followed by a
279 colon; for context lines, a hyphen separator is used. If a
280 line number is also being output, it follows the file name.
281
282 --help Output a help message, giving brief details of the command
283 options and file type support, and then exit.
284
285 -i, --ignore-case
286 Ignore upper/lower case distinctions during comparisons.
287
288 --include=pattern
289 When pcregrep is searching the files in a directory as a con-
290 sequence of the -r (recursive search) option, only those reg-
291 ular files whose names match the pattern are included. Subdi-
292 rectories are always included and searched recursively, sub-
293 ject to the --include-dir and --exclude-dir options. The pat-
294 tern is a PCRE regular expression, and is matched against the
295 final component of the file name (not the entire path). If a
296 file name matches both --include and --exclude, it is
297 excluded. There is no short form for this option.
298
299 --include-dir=pattern
300 When pcregrep is searching the contents of a directory as a
301 consequence of the -r (recursive search) option, only those
302 subdirectories whose names match the pattern are included.
303 (Note that the --include option does not affect subdirecto-
304 ries.) The pattern is a PCRE regular expression, and is
305 matched against the final component of the name (not the
306 entire path). If a subdirectory name matches both --include-
307 dir and --exclude-dir, it is excluded. There is no short form
308 for this option.
309
310 -L, --files-without-match
311 Instead of outputting lines from the files, just output the
312 names of the files that do not contain any lines that would
313 have been output. Each file name is output once, on a sepa-
314 rate line.
315
316 -l, --files-with-matches
317 Instead of outputting lines from the files, just output the
318 names of the files containing lines that would have been out-
319 put. Each file name is output once, on a separate line.
320 Searching normally stops as soon as a matching line is found
321 in a file. However, if the -c (count) option is also used,
322 matching continues in order to obtain the correct count, and
323 those files that have at least one match are listed along
324 with their counts. Using this option with -c is a way of sup-
325 pressing the listing of files with no matches.
326
327 --label=name
328 This option supplies a name to be used for the standard input
329 when file names are being output. If not supplied, "(standard
330 input)" is used. There is no short form for this option.
331
332 --line-buffered
333 When this option is given, input is read and processed line
334 by line, and the output is flushed after each write. By
335 default, input is read in large chunks, unless pcregrep can
336 determine that it is reading from a terminal (which is cur-
337 rently possible only in Unix environments). Output to termi-
338 nal is normally automatically flushed by the operating sys-
339 tem. This option can be useful when the input or output is
340 attached to a pipe and you do not want pcregrep to buffer up
341 large amounts of data. However, its use will affect perfor-
342 mance, and the -M (multiline) option ceases to work.
343
344 --line-offsets
345 Instead of showing lines or parts of lines that match, show
346 each match as a line number, the offset from the start of the
347 line, and a length. The line number is terminated by a colon
348 (as usual; see the -n option), and the offset and length are
349 separated by a comma. In this mode, no context is shown.
350 That is, the -A, -B, and -C options are ignored. If there is
351 more than one match in a line, each of them is shown sepa-
352 rately. This option is mutually exclusive with --file-offsets
353 and --only-matching.
354
355 --locale=locale-name
356 This option specifies a locale to be used for pattern match-
357 ing. It overrides the value in the LC_ALL or LC_CTYPE envi-
358 ronment variables. If no locale is specified, the PCRE
359 library's default (usually the "C" locale) is used. There is
360 no short form for this option.
361
362 --match-limit=number
363 Processing some regular expression patterns can require a
364 very large amount of memory, leading in some cases to a pro-
365 gram crash if not enough is available. Other patterns may
366 take a very long time to search for all possible matching
367 strings. The pcre_exec() function that is called by pcregrep
368 to do the matching has two parameters that can limit the
369 resources that it uses.
370
371 The --match-limit option provides a means of limiting
372 resource usage when processing patterns that are not going to
373 match, but which have a very large number of possibilities in
374 their search trees. The classic example is a pattern that
375 uses nested unlimited repeats. Internally, PCRE uses a func-
376 tion called match() which it calls repeatedly (sometimes
377 recursively). The limit set by --match-limit is imposed on
378 the number of times this function is called during a match,
379 which has the effect of limiting the amount of backtracking
380 that can take place.
381
382 The --recursion-limit option is similar to --match-limit, but
383 instead of limiting the total number of times that match() is
384 called, it limits the depth of recursive calls, which in turn
385 limits the amount of memory that can be used. The recursion
386 depth is a smaller number than the total number of calls,
387 because not all calls to match() are recursive. This limit is
388 of use only if it is set smaller than --match-limit.
389
390 There are no short forms for these options. The default set-
391 tings are specified when the PCRE library is compiled, with
392 the default default being 10 million.
393
394 -M, --multiline
395 Allow patterns to match more than one line. When this option
396 is given, patterns may usefully contain literal newline char-
397 acters and internal occurrences of ^ and $ characters. The
398 output for a successful match may consist of more than one
399 line, the last of which is the one in which the match ended.
400 If the matched string ends with a newline sequence the output
401 ends at the end of that line.
402
403 When this option is set, the PCRE library is called in "mul-
404 tiline" mode. There is a limit to the number of lines that
405 can be matched, imposed by the way that pcregrep buffers the
406 input file as it scans it. However, pcregrep ensures that at
407 least 8K characters or the rest of the document (whichever is
408 the shorter) are available for forward matching, and simi-
409 larly the previous 8K characters (or all the previous charac-
410 ters, if fewer than 8K) are guaranteed to be available for
411 lookbehind assertions. This option does not work when input
412 is read line by line (see --line-buffered.)
413
414 -N newline-type, --newline=newline-type
415 The PCRE library supports five different conventions for
416 indicating the ends of lines. They are the single-character
417 sequences CR (carriage return) and LF (linefeed), the two-
418 character sequence CRLF, an "anycrlf" convention, which rec-
419 ognizes any of the preceding three types, and an "any" con-
420 vention, in which any Unicode line ending sequence is assumed
421 to end a line. The Unicode sequences are the three just men-
422 tioned, plus VT (vertical tab, U+000B), FF (form feed,
423 U+000C), NEL (next line, U+0085), LS (line separator,
424 U+2028), and PS (paragraph separator, U+2029).
425
426 When the PCRE library is built, a default line-ending
427 sequence is specified. This is normally the standard
428 sequence for the operating system. Unless otherwise specified
429 by this option, pcregrep uses the library's default. The
430 possible values for this option are CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or
431 ANY. This makes it possible to use pcregrep on files that
432 have come from other environments without having to modify
433 their line endings. If the data that is being scanned does
434 not agree with the convention set by this option, pcregrep
435 may behave in strange ways.
436
437 -n, --line-number
438 Precede each output line by its line number in the file, fol-
439 lowed by a colon for matching lines or a hyphen for context
440 lines. If the filename is also being output, it precedes the
441 line number. This option is forced if --line-offsets is used.
442
443 -o, --only-matching
444 Show only the part of the line that matched a pattern instead
445 of the whole line. In this mode, no context is shown. That
446 is, the -A, -B, and -C options are ignored. If there is more
447 than one match in a line, each of them is shown separately.
448 If -o is combined with -v (invert the sense of the match to
449 find non-matching lines), no output is generated, but the
450 return code is set appropriately. If the matched portion of
451 the line is empty, nothing is output unless the file name or
452 line number are being printed, in which case they are shown
453 on an otherwise empty line. This option is mutually exclusive
454 with --file-offsets and --line-offsets.
455
456 -onumber, --only-matching=number
457 Show only the part of the line that matched the capturing
458 parentheses of the given number. Up to 32 capturing parenthe-
459 ses are supported. Because these options can be given without
460 an argument (see above), if an argument is present, it must
461 be given in the same shell item, for example, -o3 or --only-
462 matching=2. The comments given for the non-argument case
463 above also apply to this case. If the specified capturing
464 parentheses do not exist in the pattern, or were not set in
465 the match, nothing is output unless the file name or line
466 number are being printed.
467
468 -q, --quiet
469 Work quietly, that is, display nothing except error messages.
470 The exit status indicates whether or not any matches were
471 found.
472
473 -r, --recursive
474 If any given path is a directory, recursively scan the files
475 it contains, taking note of any --include and --exclude set-
476 tings. By default, a directory is read as a normal file; in
477 some operating systems this gives an immediate end-of-file.
478 This option is a shorthand for setting the -d option to
479 "recurse".
480
481 --recursion-limit=number
482 See --match-limit above.
483
484 -s, --no-messages
485 Suppress error messages about non-existent or unreadable
486 files. Such files are quietly skipped. However, the return
487 code is still 2, even if matches were found in other files.
488
489 -u, --utf-8
490 Operate in UTF-8 mode. This option is available only if PCRE
491 has been compiled with UTF-8 support. Both patterns and sub-
492 ject lines must be valid strings of UTF-8 characters.
493
494 -V, --version
495 Write the version numbers of pcregrep and the PCRE library
496 that is being used to the standard error stream.
497
498 -v, --invert-match
499 Invert the sense of the match, so that lines which do not
500 match any of the patterns are the ones that are found.
501
502 -w, --word-regex, --word-regexp
503 Force the patterns to match only whole words. This is equiva-
504 lent to having \b at the start and end of the pattern.
505
506 -x, --line-regex, --line-regexp
507 Force the patterns to be anchored (each must start matching
508 at the beginning of a line) and in addition, require them to
509 match entire lines. This is equivalent to having ^ and $
510 characters at the start and end of each alternative branch in
511 every pattern.
512
513
514 ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
515
516 The environment variables LC_ALL and LC_CTYPE are examined, in that
517 order, for a locale. The first one that is set is used. This can be
518 overridden by the --locale option. If no locale is set, the PCRE
519 library's default (usually the "C" locale) is used.
520
521
522 NEWLINES
523
524 The -N (--newline) option allows pcregrep to scan files with different
525 newline conventions from the default. However, the setting of this
526 option does not affect the way in which pcregrep writes information to
527 the standard error and output streams. It uses the string "\n" in C
528 printf() calls to indicate newlines, relying on the C I/O library to
529 convert this to an appropriate sequence if the output is sent to a
530 file.
531
532
533 OPTIONS COMPATIBILITY
534
535 Many of the short and long forms of pcregrep's options are the same as
536 in the GNU grep program (version 2.5.4). Any long option of the form
537 --xxx-regexp (GNU terminology) is also available as --xxx-regex (PCRE
538 terminology). However, the --file-offsets, --include-dir, --line-off-
539 sets, --locale, --match-limit, -M, --multiline, -N, --newline, --recur-
540 sion-limit, -u, and --utf-8 options are specific to pcregrep, as is the
541 use of the --only-matching option with a capturing parentheses number.
542
543 Although most of the common options work the same way, a few are dif-
544 ferent in pcregrep. For example, the --include option's argument is a
545 glob for GNU grep, but a regular expression for pcregrep. If both the
546 -c and -l options are given, GNU grep lists only file names, without
547 counts, but pcregrep gives the counts.
548
549
550 OPTIONS WITH DATA
551
552 There are four different ways in which an option with data can be spec-
553 ified. If a short form option is used, the data may follow immedi-
554 ately, or (with one exception) in the next command line item. For exam-
555 ple:
556
557 -f/some/file
558 -f /some/file
559
560 The exception is the -o option, which may appear with or without data.
561 Because of this, if data is present, it must follow immediately in the
562 same item, for example -o3.
563
564 If a long form option is used, the data may appear in the same command
565 line item, separated by an equals character, or (with two exceptions)
566 it may appear in the next command line item. For example:
567
568 --file=/some/file
569 --file /some/file
570
571 Note, however, that if you want to supply a file name beginning with ~
572 as data in a shell command, and have the shell expand ~ to a home
573 directory, you must separate the file name from the option, because the
574 shell does not treat ~ specially unless it is at the start of an item.
575
576 The exceptions to the above are the --colour (or --color) and --only-
577 matching options, for which the data is optional. If one of these
578 options does have data, it must be given in the first form, using an
579 equals character. Otherwise pcregrep will assume that it has no data.
580
581
582 MATCHING ERRORS
583
584 It is possible to supply a regular expression that takes a very long
585 time to fail to match certain lines. Such patterns normally involve
586 nested indefinite repeats, for example: (a+)*\d when matched against a
587 line of a's with no final digit. The PCRE matching function has a
588 resource limit that causes it to abort in these circumstances. If this
589 happens, pcregrep outputs an error message and the line that caused the
590 problem to the standard error stream. If there are more than 20 such
591 errors, pcregrep gives up.
592
593 The --match-limit option of pcregrep can be used to set the overall
594 resource limit; there is a second option called --recursion-limit that
595 sets a limit on the amount of memory (usually stack) that is used (see
596 the discussion of these options above).
597
598
599 DIAGNOSTICS
600
601 Exit status is 0 if any matches were found, 1 if no matches were found,
602 and 2 for syntax errors, overlong lines, non-existent or inaccessible
603 files (even if matches were found in other files) or too many matching
604 errors. Using the -s option to suppress error messages about inaccessi-
605 ble files does not affect the return code.
606
607
608 SEE ALSO
609
610 pcrepattern(3), pcretest(1).
611
612
613 AUTHOR
614
615 Philip Hazel
616 University Computing Service
617 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
618
619
620 REVISION
621
622 Last updated: 30 July 2011
623 Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.

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