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1  .TH PCREPATTERN 3 "04 May 2012" "PCRE 8.31"  .TH PCREPATTERN 3 "27 February 2013" "PCRE 8.33"
2  .SH NAME  .SH NAME
3  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions  PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions
4  .SH "PCRE REGULAR EXPRESSION DETAILS"  .SH "PCRE REGULAR EXPRESSION DETAILS"
# Line 21  published by O'Reilly, covers regular ex Line 21  published by O'Reilly, covers regular ex
21  description of PCRE's regular expressions is intended as reference material.  description of PCRE's regular expressions is intended as reference material.
22  .P  .P
23  The original operation of PCRE was on strings of one-byte characters. However,  The original operation of PCRE was on strings of one-byte characters. However,
24  there is now also support for UTF-8 strings in the original library, and a  there is now also support for UTF-8 strings in the original library, an
25  second library that supports 16-bit and UTF-16 character strings. To use these  extra library that supports 16-bit and UTF-16 character strings, and a
26    third library that supports 32-bit and UTF-32 character strings. To use these
27  features, PCRE must be built to include appropriate support. When using UTF  features, PCRE must be built to include appropriate support. When using UTF
28  strings you must either call the compiling function with the PCRE_UTF8 or  strings you must either call the compiling function with the PCRE_UTF8,
29  PCRE_UTF16 option, or the pattern must start with one of these special  PCRE_UTF16, or PCRE_UTF32 option, or the pattern must start with one of
30  sequences:  these special sequences:
31  .sp  .sp
32    (*UTF8)    (*UTF8)
33    (*UTF16)    (*UTF16)
34      (*UTF32)
35      (*UTF)
36  .sp  .sp
37    (*UTF) is a generic sequence that can be used with any of the libraries.
38  Starting a pattern with such a sequence is equivalent to setting the relevant  Starting a pattern with such a sequence is equivalent to setting the relevant
39  option. This feature is not Perl-compatible. How setting a UTF mode affects  option. This feature is not Perl-compatible. How setting a UTF mode affects
40  pattern matching is mentioned in several places below. There is also a summary  pattern matching is mentioned in several places below. There is also a summary
# Line 41  of features in the Line 45  of features in the
45  page.  page.
46  .P  .P
47  Another special sequence that may appear at the start of a pattern or in  Another special sequence that may appear at the start of a pattern or in
48  combination with (*UTF8) or (*UTF16) is:  combination with (*UTF8), (*UTF16), (*UTF32) or (*UTF) is:
49  .sp  .sp
50    (*UCP)    (*UCP)
51  .sp  .sp
# Line 57  of newlines; they are described below. Line 61  of newlines; they are described below.
61  .P  .P
62  The remainder of this document discusses the patterns that are supported by  The remainder of this document discusses the patterns that are supported by
63  PCRE when one its main matching functions, \fBpcre_exec()\fP (8-bit) or  PCRE when one its main matching functions, \fBpcre_exec()\fP (8-bit) or
64  \fBpcre16_exec()\fP (16-bit), is used. PCRE also has alternative matching  \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP (16- or 32-bit), is used. PCRE also has alternative
65  functions, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP and \fBpcre16_dfa_exec()\fP, which match using  matching functions, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP and \fBpcre[16|32_dfa_exec()\fP,
66  a different algorithm that is not Perl-compatible. Some of the features  which match using a different algorithm that is not Perl-compatible. Some of
67  discussed below are not available when DFA matching is used. The advantages and  the features discussed below are not available when DFA matching is used. The
68  disadvantages of the alternative functions, and how they differ from the normal  advantages and disadvantages of the alternative functions, and how they differ
69  functions, are discussed in the  from the normal functions, are discussed in the
70  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
71  \fBpcrematching\fP  \fBpcrematching\fP
72  .\"  .\"
73  page.  page.
74  .  .
75  .  .
76    .SH "EBCDIC CHARACTER CODES"
77    .rs
78    .sp
79    PCRE can be compiled to run in an environment that uses EBCDIC as its character
80    code rather than ASCII or Unicode (typically a mainframe system). In the
81    sections below, character code values are ASCII or Unicode; in an EBCDIC
82    environment these characters may have different code values, and there are no
83    code points greater than 255.
84    .
85    .
86  .\" HTML <a name="newlines"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="newlines"></a>
87  .SH "NEWLINE CONVENTIONS"  .SH "NEWLINE CONVENTIONS"
88  .rs  .rs
# Line 108  Perl-compatible, are recognized only at Line 122  Perl-compatible, are recognized only at
122  they must be in upper case. If more than one of them is present, the last one  they must be in upper case. If more than one of them is present, the last one
123  is used.  is used.
124  .P  .P
125  The newline convention affects the interpretation of the dot metacharacter when  The newline convention affects where the circumflex and dollar assertions are
126  PCRE_DOTALL is not set, and also the behaviour of \eN. However, it does not  true. It also affects the interpretation of the dot metacharacter when
127  affect what the \eR escape sequence matches. By default, this is any Unicode  PCRE_DOTALL is not set, and the behaviour of \eN. However, it does not affect
128  newline sequence, for Perl compatibility. However, this can be changed; see the  what the \eR escape sequence matches. By default, this is any Unicode newline
129    sequence, for Perl compatibility. However, this can be changed; see the
130  description of \eR in the section entitled  description of \eR in the section entitled
131  .\" HTML <a href="#newlineseq">  .\" HTML <a href="#newlineseq">
132  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
# Line 259  recognized when PCRE is compiled in EBCD Line 274  recognized when PCRE is compiled in EBCD
274  bytes. In this mode, all values are valid after \ec. If the next character is a  bytes. In this mode, all values are valid after \ec. If the next character is a
275  lower case letter, it is converted to upper case. Then the 0xc0 bits of the  lower case letter, it is converted to upper case. Then the 0xc0 bits of the
276  byte are inverted. Thus \ecA becomes hex 01, as in ASCII (A is C1), but because  byte are inverted. Thus \ecA becomes hex 01, as in ASCII (A is C1), but because
277  the EBCDIC letters are disjoint, \ecZ becomes hex 29 (Z is E9), and other  the EBCDIC letters are disjoint, \ecZ becomes hex 29 (Z is E9), and other
278  characters also generate different values.  characters also generate different values.
279  .P  .P
280  By default, after \ex, from zero to two hexadecimal digits are read (letters  By default, after \ex, from zero to two hexadecimal digits are read (letters
# Line 270  between \ex{ and }, but the character co Line 285  between \ex{ and }, but the character co
285    8-bit UTF-8 mode      less than 0x10ffff and a valid codepoint    8-bit UTF-8 mode      less than 0x10ffff and a valid codepoint
286    16-bit non-UTF mode   less than 0x10000    16-bit non-UTF mode   less than 0x10000
287    16-bit UTF-16 mode    less than 0x10ffff and a valid codepoint    16-bit UTF-16 mode    less than 0x10ffff and a valid codepoint
288      32-bit non-UTF mode   less than 0x80000000
289      32-bit UTF-32 mode    less than 0x10ffff and a valid codepoint
290  .sp  .sp
291  Invalid Unicode codepoints are the range 0xd800 to 0xdfff (the so-called  Invalid Unicode codepoints are the range 0xd800 to 0xdfff (the so-called
292  "surrogate" codepoints).  "surrogate" codepoints), and 0xffef.
293  .P  .P
294  If characters other than hexadecimal digits appear between \ex{ and }, or if  If characters other than hexadecimal digits appear between \ex{ and }, or if
295  there is no terminating }, this form of escape is not recognized. Instead, the  there is no terminating }, this form of escape is not recognized. Instead, the
# Line 320  subsequent digits stand for themselves. Line 337  subsequent digits stand for themselves.
337  constrained in the same way as characters specified in hexadecimal.  constrained in the same way as characters specified in hexadecimal.
338  For example:  For example:
339  .sp  .sp
340    \e040   is another way of writing a space    \e040   is another way of writing an ASCII space
341  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
342    \e40    is the same, provided there are fewer than 40    \e40    is the same, provided there are fewer than 40
343              previous capturing subpatterns              previous capturing subpatterns
# Line 478  release 5.10. In contrast to the other s Line 495  release 5.10. In contrast to the other s
495  characters by default, these always match certain high-valued codepoints,  characters by default, these always match certain high-valued codepoints,
496  whether or not PCRE_UCP is set. The horizontal space characters are:  whether or not PCRE_UCP is set. The horizontal space characters are:
497  .sp  .sp
498    U+0009     Horizontal tab    U+0009     Horizontal tab (HT)
499    U+0020     Space    U+0020     Space
500    U+00A0     Non-break space    U+00A0     Non-break space
501    U+1680     Ogham space mark    U+1680     Ogham space mark
# Line 500  whether or not PCRE_UCP is set. The hori Line 517  whether or not PCRE_UCP is set. The hori
517  .sp  .sp
518  The vertical space characters are:  The vertical space characters are:
519  .sp  .sp
520    U+000A     Linefeed    U+000A     Linefeed (LF)
521    U+000B     Vertical tab    U+000B     Vertical tab (VT)
522    U+000C     Form feed    U+000C     Form feed (FF)
523    U+000D     Carriage return    U+000D     Carriage return (CR)
524    U+0085     Next line    U+0085     Next line (NEL)
525    U+2028     Line separator    U+2028     Line separator
526    U+2029     Paragraph separator    U+2029     Paragraph separator
527  .sp  .sp
# Line 558  change of newline convention; for exampl Line 575  change of newline convention; for exampl
575  .sp  .sp
576    (*ANY)(*BSR_ANYCRLF)    (*ANY)(*BSR_ANYCRLF)
577  .sp  .sp
578  They can also be combined with the (*UTF8), (*UTF16), or (*UCP) special  They can also be combined with the (*UTF8), (*UTF16), (*UTF32), (*UTF) or
579  sequences. Inside a character class, \eR is treated as an unrecognized escape  (*UCP) special sequences. Inside a character class, \eR is treated as an
580  sequence, and so matches the letter "R" by default, but causes an error if  unrecognized escape sequence, and so matches the letter "R" by default, but
581  PCRE_EXTRA is set.  causes an error if PCRE_EXTRA is set.
582  .  .
583  .  .
584  .\" HTML <a name="uniextseq"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="uniextseq"></a>
# Line 769  a modifier or "other". Line 786  a modifier or "other".
786  The Cs (Surrogate) property applies only to characters in the range U+D800 to  The Cs (Surrogate) property applies only to characters in the range U+D800 to
787  U+DFFF. Such characters are not valid in Unicode strings and so  U+DFFF. Such characters are not valid in Unicode strings and so
788  cannot be tested by PCRE, unless UTF validity checking has been turned off  cannot be tested by PCRE, unless UTF validity checking has been turned off
789  (see the discussion of PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK and PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK in the  (see the discussion of PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK and
790    PCRE_NO_UTF32_CHECK in the
791  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
792  \fBpcreapi\fP  \fBpcreapi\fP
793  .\"  .\"
# Line 784  Instead, this property is assumed for an Line 802  Instead, this property is assumed for an
802  Unicode table.  Unicode table.
803  .P  .P
804  Specifying caseless matching does not affect these escape sequences. For  Specifying caseless matching does not affect these escape sequences. For
805  example, \ep{Lu} always matches only upper case letters.  example, \ep{Lu} always matches only upper case letters. This is different from
806    the behaviour of current versions of Perl.
807  .P  .P
808  Matching characters by Unicode property is not fast, because PCRE has to do a  Matching characters by Unicode property is not fast, because PCRE has to do a
809  multistage table lookup in order to find a character's property. That is why  multistage table lookup in order to find a character's property. That is why
# Line 817  property, and creating rules that use th Line 836  property, and creating rules that use th
836  of extended grapheme clusters. In releases of PCRE later than 8.31, \eX matches  of extended grapheme clusters. In releases of PCRE later than 8.31, \eX matches
837  one of these clusters.  one of these clusters.
838  .P  .P
839  \eX always matches at least one character. Then it decides whether to add  \eX always matches at least one character. Then it decides whether to add
840  additional characters according to the following rules for ending a cluster:  additional characters according to the following rules for ending a cluster:
841  .P  .P
842  1. End at the end of the subject string.  1. End at the end of the subject string.
843  .P  .P
844  2. Do not end between CR and LF; otherwise end after any control character.  2. Do not end between CR and LF; otherwise end after any control character.
845  .P  .P
846  3. Do not break Hangul (a Korean script) syllable sequences. Hangul characters  3. Do not break Hangul (a Korean script) syllable sequences. Hangul characters
847  are of five types: L, V, T, LV, and LVT. An L character may be followed by an  are of five types: L, V, T, LV, and LVT. An L character may be followed by an
848  L, V, LV, or LVT character; an LV or V character may be followed by a V or T  L, V, LV, or LVT character; an LV or V character may be followed by a V or T
849  character; an LVT or T character may be follwed only by a T character.  character; an LVT or T character may be follwed only by a T character.
850  .P  .P
851  4. Do not end before extending characters or spacing marks. Characters with  4. Do not end before extending characters or spacing marks. Characters with
# Line 844  the "mark" property always have the "ext Line 863  the "mark" property always have the "ext
863  As well as the standard Unicode properties described above, PCRE supports four  As well as the standard Unicode properties described above, PCRE supports four
864  more that make it possible to convert traditional escape sequences such as \ew  more that make it possible to convert traditional escape sequences such as \ew
865  and \es and POSIX character classes to use Unicode properties. PCRE uses these  and \es and POSIX character classes to use Unicode properties. PCRE uses these
866  non-standard, non-Perl properties internally when PCRE_UCP is set. They are:  non-standard, non-Perl properties internally when PCRE_UCP is set. However,
867    they may also be used explicitly. These properties are:
868  .sp  .sp
869    Xan   Any alphanumeric character    Xan   Any alphanumeric character
870    Xps   Any POSIX space character    Xps   Any POSIX space character
# Line 856  property. Xps matches the characters tab Line 876  property. Xps matches the characters tab
876  carriage return, and any other character that has the Z (separator) property.  carriage return, and any other character that has the Z (separator) property.
877  Xsp is the same as Xps, except that vertical tab is excluded. Xwd matches the  Xsp is the same as Xps, except that vertical tab is excluded. Xwd matches the
878  same characters as Xan, plus underscore.  same characters as Xan, plus underscore.
879    .P
880    There is another non-standard property, Xuc, which matches any character that
881    can be represented by a Universal Character Name in C++ and other programming
882    languages. These are the characters $, @, ` (grave accent), and all characters
883    with Unicode code points greater than or equal to U+00A0, except for the
884    surrogates U+D800 to U+DFFF. Note that most base (ASCII) characters are
885    excluded. (Universal Character Names are of the form \euHHHH or \eUHHHHHHHH
886    where H is a hexadecimal digit. Note that the Xuc property does not match these
887    sequences but the characters that they represent.)
888  .  .
889  .  .
890  .\" HTML <a name="resetmatchstart"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="resetmatchstart"></a>
# Line 961  regular expression. Line 990  regular expression.
990  .SH "CIRCUMFLEX AND DOLLAR"  .SH "CIRCUMFLEX AND DOLLAR"
991  .rs  .rs
992  .sp  .sp
993    The circumflex and dollar metacharacters are zero-width assertions. That is,
994    they test for a particular condition being true without consuming any
995    characters from the subject string.
996    .P
997  Outside a character class, in the default matching mode, the circumflex  Outside a character class, in the default matching mode, the circumflex
998  character is an assertion that is true only if the current matching point is  character is an assertion that is true only if the current matching point is at
999  at the start of the subject string. If the \fIstartoffset\fP argument of  the start of the subject string. If the \fIstartoffset\fP argument of
1000  \fBpcre_exec()\fP is non-zero, circumflex can never match if the PCRE_MULTILINE  \fBpcre_exec()\fP is non-zero, circumflex can never match if the PCRE_MULTILINE
1001  option is unset. Inside a character class, circumflex has an entirely different  option is unset. Inside a character class, circumflex has an entirely different
1002  meaning  meaning
# Line 980  constrained to match only at the start o Line 1013  constrained to match only at the start o
1013  "anchored" pattern. (There are also other constructs that can cause a pattern  "anchored" pattern. (There are also other constructs that can cause a pattern
1014  to be anchored.)  to be anchored.)
1015  .P  .P
1016  A dollar character is an assertion that is true only if the current matching  The dollar character is an assertion that is true only if the current matching
1017  point is at the end of the subject string, or immediately before a newline  point is at the end of the subject string, or immediately before a newline at
1018  at the end of the string (by default). Dollar need not be the last character of  the end of the string (by default). Note, however, that it does not actually
1019  the pattern if a number of alternatives are involved, but it should be the last  match the newline. Dollar need not be the last character of the pattern if a
1020  item in any branch in which it appears. Dollar has no special meaning in a  number of alternatives are involved, but it should be the last item in any
1021  character class.  branch in which it appears. Dollar has no special meaning in a character class.
1022  .P  .P
1023  The meaning of dollar can be changed so that it matches only at the very end of  The meaning of dollar can be changed so that it matches only at the very end of
1024  the string, by setting the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option at compile time. This  the string, by setting the PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY option at compile time. This
# Line 1046  name; PCRE does not support this. Line 1079  name; PCRE does not support this.
1079  .sp  .sp
1080  Outside a character class, the escape sequence \eC matches any one data unit,  Outside a character class, the escape sequence \eC matches any one data unit,
1081  whether or not a UTF mode is set. In the 8-bit library, one data unit is one  whether or not a UTF mode is set. In the 8-bit library, one data unit is one
1082  byte; in the 16-bit library it is a 16-bit unit. Unlike a dot, \eC always  byte; in the 16-bit library it is a 16-bit unit; in the 32-bit library it is
1083    a 32-bit unit. Unlike a dot, \eC always
1084  matches line-ending characters. The feature is provided in Perl in order to  matches line-ending characters. The feature is provided in Perl in order to
1085  match individual bytes in UTF-8 mode, but it is unclear how it can usefully be  match individual bytes in UTF-8 mode, but it is unclear how it can usefully be
1086  used. Because \eC breaks up characters into individual data units, matching one  used. Because \eC breaks up characters into individual data units, matching one
1087  unit with \eC in a UTF mode means that the rest of the string may start with a  unit with \eC in a UTF mode means that the rest of the string may start with a
1088  malformed UTF character. This has undefined results, because PCRE assumes that  malformed UTF character. This has undefined results, because PCRE assumes that
1089  it is dealing with valid UTF strings (and by default it checks this at the  it is dealing with valid UTF strings (and by default it checks this at the
1090  start of processing unless the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK or PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK option  start of processing unless the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK, PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK or
1091  is used).  PCRE_NO_UTF32_CHECK option is used).
1092  .P  .P
1093  PCRE does not allow \eC to appear in lookbehind assertions  PCRE does not allow \eC to appear in lookbehind assertions
1094  .\" HTML <a href="#lookbehind">  .\" HTML <a href="#lookbehind">
# Line 1113  circumflex is not an assertion; it still Line 1147  circumflex is not an assertion; it still
1147  string, and therefore it fails if the current pointer is at the end of the  string, and therefore it fails if the current pointer is at the end of the
1148  string.  string.
1149  .P  .P
1150  In UTF-8 (UTF-16) mode, characters with values greater than 255 (0xffff) can be  In UTF-8 (UTF-16, UTF-32) mode, characters with values greater than 255 (0xffff)
1151  included in a class as a literal string of data units, or by using the \ex{  can be included in a class as a literal string of data units, or by using the
1152  escaping mechanism.  \ex{ escaping mechanism.
1153  .P  .P
1154  When caseless matching is set, any letters in a class represent both their  When caseless matching is set, any letters in a class represent both their
1155  upper case and lower case versions, so for example, a caseless [aeiou] matches  upper case and lower case versions, so for example, a caseless [aeiou] matches
# Line 1328  the section entitled Line 1362  the section entitled
1362  .\" </a>  .\" </a>
1363  "Newline sequences"  "Newline sequences"
1364  .\"  .\"
1365  above. There are also the (*UTF8), (*UTF16), and (*UCP) leading sequences that  above. There are also the (*UTF8), (*UTF16),(*UTF32), and (*UCP) leading
1366  can be used to set UTF and Unicode property modes; they are equivalent to  sequences that can be used to set UTF and Unicode property modes; they are
1367  setting the PCRE_UTF8, PCRE_UTF16, and the PCRE_UCP options, respectively.  equivalent to setting the PCRE_UTF8, PCRE_UTF16, PCRE_UTF32 and the PCRE_UCP
1368    options, respectively. The (*UTF) sequence is a generic version that can be
1369    used with any of the libraries.
1370  .  .
1371  .  .
1372  .\" HTML <a name="subpattern"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="subpattern"></a>
# Line 1668  one succeeds. Consider this pattern: Line 1704  one succeeds. Consider this pattern:
1704  .sp  .sp
1705    (?>.*?a)b    (?>.*?a)b
1706  .sp  .sp
1707  It matches "ab" in the subject "aab". The use of the backtracking control verbs  It matches "ab" in the subject "aab". The use of the backtracking control verbs
1708  (*PRUNE) and (*SKIP) also disable this optimization.  (*PRUNE) and (*SKIP) also disable this optimization.
1709  .P  .P
1710  When a capturing subpattern is repeated, the value captured is the substring  When a capturing subpattern is repeated, the value captured is the substring
# Line 2592  same pair of parentheses when there is a Line 2628  same pair of parentheses when there is a
2628  PCRE provides a similar feature, but of course it cannot obey arbitrary Perl  PCRE provides a similar feature, but of course it cannot obey arbitrary Perl
2629  code. The feature is called "callout". The caller of PCRE provides an external  code. The feature is called "callout". The caller of PCRE provides an external
2630  function by putting its entry point in the global variable \fIpcre_callout\fP  function by putting its entry point in the global variable \fIpcre_callout\fP
2631  (8-bit library) or \fIpcre16_callout\fP (16-bit library). By default, this  (8-bit library) or \fIpcre[16|32]_callout\fP (16-bit or 32-bit library).
2632  variable contains NULL, which disables all calling out.  By default, this variable contains NULL, which disables all calling out.
2633  .P  .P
2634  Within a regular expression, (?C) indicates the points at which the external  Within a regular expression, (?C) indicates the points at which the external
2635  function is to be called. If you want to identify different callout points, you  function is to be called. If you want to identify different callout points, you
# Line 2648  parenthesis followed by an asterisk. The Line 2684  parenthesis followed by an asterisk. The
2684  (*VERB) or (*VERB:NAME). Some may take either form, with differing behaviour,  (*VERB) or (*VERB:NAME). Some may take either form, with differing behaviour,
2685  depending on whether or not an argument is present. A name is any sequence of  depending on whether or not an argument is present. A name is any sequence of
2686  characters that does not include a closing parenthesis. The maximum length of  characters that does not include a closing parenthesis. The maximum length of
2687  name is 255 in the 8-bit library and 65535 in the 16-bit library. If the name  name is 255 in the 8-bit library and 65535 in the 16-bit and 32-bit library.
2688  is empty, that is, if the closing parenthesis immediately follows the colon,  If the name is empty, that is, if the closing parenthesis immediately follows
2689  the effect is as if the colon were not there. Any number of these verbs may  the colon, the effect is as if the colon were not there. Any number of these
2690  occur in a pattern.  verbs may occur in a pattern.
2691  .  .
2692  .  .
2693  .\" HTML <a name="nooptimize"></a>  .\" HTML <a name="nooptimize"></a>
# Line 2936  overrides. Line 2972  overrides.
2972  .rs  .rs
2973  .sp  .sp
2974  \fBpcreapi\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrematching\fP(3),  \fBpcreapi\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrematching\fP(3),
2975  \fBpcresyntax\fP(3), \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcre16(3)\fP.  \fBpcresyntax\fP(3), \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcre16(3)\fP, \fBpcre32(3)\fP.
2976  .  .
2977  .  .
2978  .SH AUTHOR  .SH AUTHOR
# Line 2953  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England. Line 2989  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
2989  .rs  .rs
2990  .sp  .sp
2991  .nf  .nf
2992  Last updated: 25 August 2012  Last updated: 27 February 2013
2993  Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.  Copyright (c) 1997-2013 University of Cambridge.
2994  .fi  .fi

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