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Sat Apr 5 16:11:05 2008 UTC (13 years, 6 months ago) by ph10
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Alan Lehotsky's patch for REG_STARTEND.
3 PCRE - Perl-compatible regular expressions.
5 .rs
6 .sp
7 .B #include <pcreposix.h>
8 .PP
9 .SM
10 .B int regcomp(regex_t *\fIpreg\fP, const char *\fIpattern\fP,
11 .ti +5n
12 .B int \fIcflags\fP);
13 .PP
14 .B int regexec(regex_t *\fIpreg\fP, const char *\fIstring\fP,
15 .ti +5n
16 .B size_t \fInmatch\fP, regmatch_t \fIpmatch\fP[], int \fIeflags\fP);
17 .PP
18 .B size_t regerror(int \fIerrcode\fP, const regex_t *\fIpreg\fP,
19 .ti +5n
20 .B char *\fIerrbuf\fP, size_t \fIerrbuf_size\fP);
21 .PP
22 .B void regfree(regex_t *\fIpreg\fP);
23 .
25 .rs
26 .sp
27 This set of functions provides a POSIX-style API to the PCRE regular expression
28 package. See the
29 .\" HREF
30 \fBpcreapi\fP
31 .\"
32 documentation for a description of PCRE's native API, which contains much
33 additional functionality.
34 .P
35 The functions described here are just wrapper functions that ultimately call
36 the PCRE native API. Their prototypes are defined in the \fBpcreposix.h\fP
37 header file, and on Unix systems the library itself is called
38 \fBpcreposix.a\fP, so can be accessed by adding \fB-lpcreposix\fP to the
39 command for linking an application that uses them. Because the POSIX functions
40 call the native ones, it is also necessary to add \fB-lpcre\fP.
41 .P
42 I have implemented only those option bits that can be reasonably mapped to PCRE
43 native options. In addition, the option REG_EXTENDED is defined with the value
44 zero. This has no effect, but since programs that are written to the POSIX
45 interface often use it, this makes it easier to slot in PCRE as a replacement
46 library. Other POSIX options are not even defined.
47 .P
48 When PCRE is called via these functions, it is only the API that is POSIX-like
49 in style. The syntax and semantics of the regular expressions themselves are
50 still those of Perl, subject to the setting of various PCRE options, as
51 described below. "POSIX-like in style" means that the API approximates to the
52 POSIX definition; it is not fully POSIX-compatible, and in multi-byte encoding
53 domains it is probably even less compatible.
54 .P
55 The header for these functions is supplied as \fBpcreposix.h\fP to avoid any
56 potential clash with other POSIX libraries. It can, of course, be renamed or
57 aliased as \fBregex.h\fP, which is the "correct" name. It provides two
58 structure types, \fIregex_t\fP for compiled internal forms, and
59 \fIregmatch_t\fP for returning captured substrings. It also defines some
60 constants whose names start with "REG_"; these are used for setting options and
61 identifying error codes.
62 .P
64 .rs
65 .sp
66 The function \fBregcomp()\fP is called to compile a pattern into an
67 internal form. The pattern is a C string terminated by a binary zero, and
68 is passed in the argument \fIpattern\fP. The \fIpreg\fP argument is a pointer
69 to a \fBregex_t\fP structure that is used as a base for storing information
70 about the compiled regular expression.
71 .P
72 The argument \fIcflags\fP is either zero, or contains one or more of the bits
73 defined by the following macros:
74 .sp
76 .sp
77 The PCRE_DOTALL option is set when the regular expression is passed for
78 compilation to the native function. Note that REG_DOTALL is not part of the
79 POSIX standard.
80 .sp
82 .sp
83 The PCRE_CASELESS option is set when the regular expression is passed for
84 compilation to the native function.
85 .sp
87 .sp
88 The PCRE_MULTILINE option is set when the regular expression is passed for
89 compilation to the native function. Note that this does \fInot\fP mimic the
90 defined POSIX behaviour for REG_NEWLINE (see the following section).
91 .sp
93 .sp
94 The PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE option is set when the regular expression is passed
95 for compilation to the native function. In addition, when a pattern that is
96 compiled with this flag is passed to \fBregexec()\fP for matching, the
97 \fInmatch\fP and \fIpmatch\fP arguments are ignored, and no captured strings
98 are returned.
99 .sp
100 REG_UTF8
101 .sp
102 The PCRE_UTF8 option is set when the regular expression is passed for
103 compilation to the native function. This causes the pattern itself and all data
104 strings used for matching it to be treated as UTF-8 strings. Note that REG_UTF8
105 is not part of the POSIX standard.
106 .P
107 In the absence of these flags, no options are passed to the native function.
108 This means the the regex is compiled with PCRE default semantics. In
109 particular, the way it handles newline characters in the subject string is the
110 Perl way, not the POSIX way. Note that setting PCRE_MULTILINE has only
111 \fIsome\fP of the effects specified for REG_NEWLINE. It does not affect the way
112 newlines are matched by . (they aren't) or by a negative class such as [^a]
113 (they are).
114 .P
115 The yield of \fBregcomp()\fP is zero on success, and non-zero otherwise. The
116 \fIpreg\fP structure is filled in on success, and one member of the structure
117 is public: \fIre_nsub\fP contains the number of capturing subpatterns in
118 the regular expression. Various error codes are defined in the header file.
119 .
120 .
122 .rs
123 .sp
124 This area is not simple, because POSIX and Perl take different views of things.
125 It is not possible to get PCRE to obey POSIX semantics, but then PCRE was never
126 intended to be a POSIX engine. The following table lists the different
127 possibilities for matching newline characters in PCRE:
128 .sp
129 Default Change with
130 .sp
131 . matches newline no PCRE_DOTALL
132 newline matches [^a] yes not changeable
133 $ matches \en at end yes PCRE_DOLLARENDONLY
134 $ matches \en in middle no PCRE_MULTILINE
135 ^ matches \en in middle no PCRE_MULTILINE
136 .sp
137 This is the equivalent table for POSIX:
138 .sp
139 Default Change with
140 .sp
141 . matches newline yes REG_NEWLINE
142 newline matches [^a] yes REG_NEWLINE
143 $ matches \en at end no REG_NEWLINE
144 $ matches \en in middle no REG_NEWLINE
145 ^ matches \en in middle no REG_NEWLINE
146 .sp
147 PCRE's behaviour is the same as Perl's, except that there is no equivalent for
148 PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY in Perl. In both PCRE and Perl, there is no way to stop
149 newline from matching [^a].
150 .P
151 The default POSIX newline handling can be obtained by setting PCRE_DOTALL and
152 PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, but there is no way to make PCRE behave exactly as for the
153 REG_NEWLINE action.
154 .
155 .
157 .rs
158 .sp
159 The function \fBregexec()\fP is called to match a compiled pattern \fIpreg\fP
160 against a given \fIstring\fP, which is by default terminated by a zero byte
161 (but see REG_STARTEND below), subject to the options in \fIeflags\fP. These can
162 be:
163 .sp
165 .sp
166 The PCRE_NOTBOL option is set when calling the underlying PCRE matching
167 function.
168 .sp
170 .sp
171 The PCRE_NOTEOL option is set when calling the underlying PCRE matching
172 function.
173 .sp
175 .sp
176 The string is considered to start at \fIstring\fP + \fIpmatch[0].rm_so\fP and
177 to have a terminating NUL located at \fIstring\fP + \fIpmatch[0].rm_eo\fP
178 (there need not actually be a NUL at that location), regardless of the value of
179 \fInmatch\fP. This is a BSD extension, compatible with but not specified by
180 IEEE Standard 1003.2 (POSIX.2), and should be used with caution in software
181 intended to be portable to other systems. Note that a non-zero \fIrm_so\fP does
182 not imply REG_NOTBOL; REG_STARTEND affects only the location of the string, not
183 how it is matched.
184 .P
185 If the pattern was compiled with the REG_NOSUB flag, no data about any matched
186 strings is returned. The \fInmatch\fP and \fIpmatch\fP arguments of
187 \fBregexec()\fP are ignored.
188 .P
189 Otherwise,the portion of the string that was matched, and also any captured
190 substrings, are returned via the \fIpmatch\fP argument, which points to an
191 array of \fInmatch\fP structures of type \fIregmatch_t\fP, containing the
192 members \fIrm_so\fP and \fIrm_eo\fP. These contain the offset to the first
193 character of each substring and the offset to the first character after the end
194 of each substring, respectively. The 0th element of the vector relates to the
195 entire portion of \fIstring\fP that was matched; subsequent elements relate to
196 the capturing subpatterns of the regular expression. Unused entries in the
197 array have both structure members set to -1.
198 .P
199 A successful match yields a zero return; various error codes are defined in the
200 header file, of which REG_NOMATCH is the "expected" failure code.
201 .
202 .
204 .rs
205 .sp
206 The \fBregerror()\fP function maps a non-zero errorcode from either
207 \fBregcomp()\fP or \fBregexec()\fP to a printable message. If \fIpreg\fP is not
208 NULL, the error should have arisen from the use of that structure. A message
209 terminated by a binary zero is placed in \fIerrbuf\fP. The length of the
210 message, including the zero, is limited to \fIerrbuf_size\fP. The yield of the
211 function is the size of buffer needed to hold the whole message.
212 .
213 .
215 .rs
216 .sp
217 Compiling a regular expression causes memory to be allocated and associated
218 with the \fIpreg\fP structure. The function \fBregfree()\fP frees all such
219 memory, after which \fIpreg\fP may no longer be used as a compiled expression.
220 .
221 .
223 .rs
224 .sp
225 .nf
226 Philip Hazel
227 University Computing Service
228 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
229 .fi
230 .
231 .
233 .rs
234 .sp
235 .nf
236 Last updated: 05 April 2008
237 Copyright (c) 1997-2008 University of Cambridge.
238 .fi


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