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revision 73 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:40:30 2007 UTC revision 386 by ph10, Tue Mar 10 11:48:33 2009 UTC
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2  .SH NAME  .SH NAME
3  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.
4  .SH SYNOPSIS  .SH SYNOPSIS
5  .B pcretest "[-d] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source] [destination]"  .rs
6    .sp
7  \fBpcretest\fR was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  .B pcretest "[options] [source] [destination]"
8    .sp
9    \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
10  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
11  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
12  details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  details of the regular expressions themselves, see the
13  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
14  \fBpcrepattern\fR  \fBpcrepattern\fP
15  .\"  .\"
16  documentation. For details of PCRE and its options, see the  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17    options, see the
18  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
19  \fBpcreapi\fR  \fBpcreapi\fP
20  .\"  .\"
21  documentation.  documentation.
22    .
23    .
24  .SH OPTIONS  .SH OPTIONS
25  .rs  .rs
 .sp  
26  .TP 10  .TP 10
27  \fB-C\fR  \fB-b\fP
28    Behave as if each regex has the \fB/B\fP (show bytecode) modifier; the internal
29    form is output after compilation.
30    .TP 10
31    \fB-C\fP
32  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
33  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
34  .TP 10  .TP 10
35  \fB-d\fR  \fB-d\fP
36  Behave as if each regex had the \fB/D\fR modifier (see below); the internal  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal
37  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
38    \fB-d\fP is equivalent to \fB-b -i\fP.
39  .TP 10  .TP 10
40  \fB-i\fR  \fB-dfa\fP
41  Behave as if each regex had the \fB/I\fR modifier; information about the  Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the
42    alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead of the
43    standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).
44    .TP 10
45    \fB-help\fP
46    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
47    .TP 10
48    \fB-i\fP
49    Behave as if each regex has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the
50  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
51  .TP 10  .TP 10
52  \fB-m\fR  \fB-M\fP
53    Behave as if each data line contains the \eM escape sequence; this causes
54    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
55    calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP repeatedly with different limits.
56    .TP 10
57    \fB-m\fP
58  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
59  equivalent to adding /M to each regular expression. For compatibility with  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. For compatibility
60  earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s\fR is a synonym for \fB-m\fR.  with earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s\fP is a synonym for \fB-m\fP.
61    .TP 10
62    \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP
63    Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
64    \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The default value
65    is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
66    22 different matches for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. The vector size can be
67    changed for individual matching calls by including \eO in the data line (see
68    below).
69  .TP 10  .TP 10
70  \fB-o\fR \fIosize\fR  \fB-p\fP
71  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling PCRE  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
72  to be \fIosize\fR. The default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is
73  subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by  set.
 including \\O in the data line (see below).  
 .TP 10  
 \fB-p\fR  
 Behave as if each regex has \fB/P\fR modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is used  
 to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fR is set.  
74  .TP 10  .TP 10
75  \fB-t\fR  \fB-q\fP
76    Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.
77    .TP 10
78    \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP
79    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to \fIsize\fP
80    megabytes.
81    .TP 10
82    \fB-t\fP
83  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
84  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-t\fR with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with
85  \fB-m\fR, because you will then get the size output 20000 times and the timing  \fB-t\fP, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
86  will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
87    used for timing by following \fB-t\fP with a number (as a separate item on the
88    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
89    to iterate 500000 times.
90    .TP 10
91    \fB-tm\fP
92    This is like \fB-t\fP except that it times only the matching phase, not the
93    compile or study phases.
94    .
95    .
96  .SH DESCRIPTION  .SH DESCRIPTION
97  .rs  .rs
98  .sp  .sp
99  If \fBpcretest\fR is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and  If \fBpcretest\fP is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and
100  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from
101  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to
102  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular
103  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.
104    .P
105    When \fBpcretest\fP is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
106    be linked with the \fBlibreadline\fP library. When this is done, if the input
107    is from a terminal, it is read using the \fBreadline()\fP function. This
108    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the \fB-help\fP
109    option states whether or not \fBreadline()\fP will be used.
110    .P
111  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
112  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
113  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
114    .P
115  Each line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
116  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \\n escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \en escape sequence (or \er or \er\en,
117  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
118  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
119    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
120    .P
121  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
122  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
123  non-alphameric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
124    .sp
125    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
126    .sp
127  White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may  White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may
128  be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are  be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are
129  included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern  included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern
130  by escaping it, for example  by escaping it, for example
131    .sp
132    /abc\\/def/    /abc\e/def/
133    .sp
134  If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since  If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since
135  delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.  delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect its interpretation.
136  If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for  If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for
137  example,  example,
138    .sp
139    /abc/\\    /abc/\e
140    .sp
141  then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a  then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a
142  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a
143  backslash, because  backslash, because
144    .sp
145    /abc\\/    /abc\e/
146    .sp
147  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
148  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
149    .
150  .SH PATTERN MODIFIERS  .
151    .SH "PATTERN MODIFIERS"
152  .rs  .rs
153  .sp  .sp
154  The pattern may be followed by \fBi\fR, \fBm\fR, \fBs\fR, or \fBx\fR to set the  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
155  PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options,  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,
156  respectively. For example:  "the \fB/i\fP modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not
157    always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may
158    appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between
159    the modifiers themselves.
160    .P
161    The \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, \fB/s\fP, and \fB/x\fP modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
162    PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
163    \fBpcre_compile()\fP is called. These four modifier letters have the same
164    effect as they do in Perl. For example:
165    .sp
166    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
167    .sp
168  These modifier letters have the same effect as they do in Perl. There are  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do
169  others that set PCRE options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:  not correspond to anything in Perl:
170  \fB/A\fR, \fB/E\fR, \fB/N\fR, \fB/U\fR, and \fB/X\fR set PCRE_ANCHORED,  .sp
171  PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE, PCRE_UNGREEDY, and PCRE_EXTRA    \fB/A\fP              PCRE_ANCHORED
172  respectively.    \fB/C\fP              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
173      \fB/E\fP              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
174      \fB/f\fP              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
175      \fB/J\fP              PCRE_DUPNAMES
176      \fB/N\fP              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
177      \fB/U\fP              PCRE_UNGREEDY
178      \fB/X\fP              PCRE_EXTRA
179      \fB/<JS>\fP           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
180      \fB/<cr>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
181      \fB/<lf>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
182      \fB/<crlf>\fP         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
183      \fB/<anycrlf>\fP      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
184      \fB/<any>\fP          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
185      \fB/<bsr_anycrlf>\fP  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
186      \fB/<bsr_unicode>\fP  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
187    .sp
188    Those specifying line ending sequences are literal strings as shown, but the
189    letters can be in either case. This example sets multiline matching with CRLF
190    as the line ending sequence:
191    .sp
192      /^abc/m<crlf>
193    .sp
194    Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the
195    .\" HREF
196    \fBpcreapi\fP
197    .\"
198    documentation.
199    .
200    .
201    .SS "Finding all matches in a string"
202    .rs
203    .sp
204  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
205  by the \fB/g\fR or \fB/G\fR modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
206  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
207  \fB/g\fR and \fB/G\fR is that the former uses the \fIstartoffset\fR argument to  \fB/g\fP and \fB/G\fP is that the former uses the \fIstartoffset\fP argument to
208  \fBpcre_exec()\fR to start searching at a new point within the entire string  \fBpcre_exec()\fP to start searching at a new point within the entire string
209  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a shortened  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a shortened
210  substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the pattern  substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the pattern
211  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \\b or \\B).  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).
212    .P
213  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fR in a \fB/g\fR or \fB/G\fR sequence matches an  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an
214  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED
215  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.
216  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal
217  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the
218  \fB/g\fR modifier or the \fBsplit()\fR function.  \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function.
219    .
220  There are a number of other modifiers for controlling the way \fBpcretest\fR  .
221    .SS "Other modifiers"
222    .rs
223    .sp
224    There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way \fBpcretest\fP
225  operates.  operates.
226    .P
227  The \fB/+\fR modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that  The \fB/+\fP modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
228  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of
229  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains
230  multiple copies of the same substring.  multiple copies of the same substring.
231    .P
232  The \fB/L\fR modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The \fB/B\fP modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that \fBpcretest\fP
233    output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally
234    this information contains length and offset values; however, if \fB/Z\fP is
235    also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for
236    use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated
237    for different internal link sizes.
238    .P
239    The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
240  example,  example,
241    .sp
242    /pattern/Lfr    /pattern/Lfr_FR
243    .sp
244  For this reason, it must be the last modifier letter. The given locale is set,  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
245  \fBpcre_maketables()\fR is called to build a set of character tables for the  \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the
246  locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fR when compiling the  locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the
247  regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fR modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP modifier, NULL is passed as the tables
248  pointer; that is, \fB/L\fR applies only to the expression on which it appears.  pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on which it appears.
249    .P
250  The \fB/I\fR modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fR output information about the  The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the
251  compiled expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
252  so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fR after compiling an  so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a
253  expression, and outputting the information it gets back. If the pattern is  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
254  studied, the results of that are also output.  .P
255    The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
256  The \fB/D\fR modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes \fB/I\fR.  \fB/BI\fP, that is, both the \fB/B\fP and the \fB/I\fP modifiers.
257  It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  .P
258  compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the
259  output.  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This
260    facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns
261  The \fB/S\fR modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fR to be called after the  that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not
262    available when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the
263    \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
264    reloading compiled patterns below.
265    .P
266    The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be called after the
267  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is
268  matched.  matched.
269    .P
270  The \fB/M\fR modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled
271  pattern to be output.  pattern to be output.
272    .P
273  The \fB/P\fR modifier causes \fBpcretest\fR to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
274  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except
275  \fB/i\fR, \fB/m\fR, and \fB/+\fR are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if \fB/i\fR is  \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, and \fB/+\fP are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if \fB/i\fP is
276  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if \fB/m\fR is present. The wrapper functions  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if \fB/m\fP is present. The wrapper functions
277  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.
278    .P
279  The \fB/8\fR modifier causes \fBpcretest\fR to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8  The \fB/8\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8
280  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,
281  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also
282  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
283  \\x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.  \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.
284    .P
285  If the \fB/?\fR modifier is used with \fB/8\fR, it causes \fBpcretest\fR to  If the \fB/?\fP modifier is used with \fB/8\fP, it causes \fBpcretest\fP to
286  call \fBpcre_compile()\fR with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  call \fBpcre_compile()\fP with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the
287  checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.
288    .
289  .SH CALLOUTS  .
290  .rs  .SH "DATA LINES"
 .sp  
 If the pattern contains any callout requests, \fBpcretest\fR's callout function  
 will be called. By default, it displays the callout number, and the start and  
 current positions in the text at the callout time. For example, the output  
   
   --->pqrabcdef  
     0    ^  ^  
   
 indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the  
 fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh  
 character. The callout function returns zero (carry on matching) by default.  
   
 Inserting callouts may be helpful when using \fBpcretest\fR to check  
 complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see  
 the  
 .\" HREF  
 \fBpcrecallout\fR  
 .\"  
 documentation.  
   
 For testing the PCRE library, additional control of callout behaviour is  
 available via escape sequences in the data, as described in the following  
 section. In particular, it is possible to pass in a number as callout data (the  
 default is zero). If the callout function receives a non-zero number, it  
 returns that value instead of zero.  
   
 .SH DATA LINES  
291  .rs  .rs
292  .sp  .sp
293  Before each data line is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fR, leading and trailing  Before each data line is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP, leading and trailing
294  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \\ escapes. Some of these are  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \e escapes. Some of these are
295  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
296  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
297  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
298  recognized:  recognized:
299    .sp
300    \\a         alarm (= BEL)    \ea         alarm (BEL, \ex07)
301    \\b         backspace    \eb         backspace (\ex08)
302    \\e         escape    \ee         escape (\ex27)
303    \\f         formfeed    \ef         formfeed (\ex0c)
304    \\n         newline    \en         newline (\ex0a)
305    \\r         carriage return  .\" JOIN
306    \\t         tab    \eqdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
307    \\v         vertical tab                 (any number of digits)
308    \\nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \er         carriage return (\ex0d)
309    \\xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)    \et         tab (\ex09)
310    \\x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits    \ev         vertical tab (\ex0b)
311      \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
312      \exhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)
313    .\" JOIN
314      \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
315                 in UTF-8 mode                 in UTF-8 mode
316    \\A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre_exec()\fR  .\" JOIN
317    \\B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fR    \eA         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
318    \\Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
319                 after a successful match (any decimal number  .\" JOIN
320                 less than 32)    \eB         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
321    \\Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
322    .\" JOIN
323      \eCdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd
324                   after a successful match (number less than 32)
325    .\" JOIN
326      \eCname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring
327                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-
328                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
329    \\C+        show the current captured substrings at callout  .\" JOIN
330      \eC+        show the current captured substrings at callout
331                 time                 time
332    \\C-        do not supply a callout function    \eC-        do not supply a callout function
333    \\C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is  .\" JOIN
334      \eC!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is
335                 reached                 reached
336    \\C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is  .\" JOIN
337      \eC!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is
338                 reached for the nth time                 reached for the nth time
339    \\C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout  .\" JOIN
340                 data    \eC*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
341    \\Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd                 data; this is used as the callout return value
342                 after a successful match (any decimal number    \eD         use the \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP match function
343                 less than 32)    \eF         only shortest match for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
344    \\Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring  .\" JOIN
345      \eGdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd
346                   after a successful match (number less than 32)
347    .\" JOIN
348      \eGname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring
349                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-
350                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
351    \\L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a  .\" JOIN
352      \eL         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a
353                 successful match                 successful match
354    \\M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting  .\" JOIN
355    \\N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fR    \eM         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
356    \\Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to                 MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
357                 \fBpcre_exec()\fR to dd (any number of decimal  .\" JOIN
358                 digits)    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
359    \\S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
360    \\Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fR  .\" JOIN
361    \\?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to
362                 \fBpcre_exec()\fR                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)
363    .\" JOIN
364  If \\M is present, \fBpcretest\fR calls \fBpcre_exec()\fR several times, with    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
365  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fR field of the \fBpcre_extra\fR data                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
366  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for  .\" JOIN
367  \fBpcre_exec()\fR to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of    \eQdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
368  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be                 (any number of digits)
369  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
370  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
371  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.  .\" JOIN
372      \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
373  When \\O is used, it may be higher or lower than the size set by the \fB-O\fR                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
374  option (or defaulted to 45); \\O applies only to the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fR  .\" JOIN
375  for the line in which it appears.    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
376                   \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
377  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the    \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);
378  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  .\" JOIN
379  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.                 this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP
380                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
381  If \fB/P\fR was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used,  .\" JOIN
382  only \fB\B\fR, and \fB\Z\fR have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL    \e<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
383  to be passed to \fBregexec()\fR respectively.                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
384    .\" JOIN
385  The use of \\x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use    \e<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
386  of the \fB/8\fR modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
387    .\" JOIN
388      \e<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
389                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
390    .\" JOIN
391      \e<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
392                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
393    .\" JOIN
394      \e<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
395                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
396    .sp
397    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
398    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
399    .P
400    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
401    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
402    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
403    input.
404    .P
405    If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with
406    different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP
407    fields of the \fBpcre_extra\fP data structure, until it finds the minimum
408    numbers for each parameter that allow \fBpcre_exec()\fP to complete. The
409    \fImatch_limit\fP number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes
410    place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the
411    number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
412    possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of
413    subject string. The \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP number is a measure of how much
414    stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed
415    to complete the match attempt.
416    .P
417    When \eO is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
418    by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or defaulted to 45); \eO applies only to
419    the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.
420    .P
421    If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
422    API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB
423    and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to
424    \fBregexec()\fP.
425    .P
426    The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
427    of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be
428  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to
429  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  six bytes, encoded according to the original UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This
430    allows for values in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are
431  .SH OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  valid Unicode code points, or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the
432    later rules in RFC 3629.
433    .
434    .
435    .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
436    .rs
437    .sp
438    By default, \fBpcretest\fP uses the standard PCRE matching function,
439    \fBpcre_exec()\fP to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
440    alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_test()\fP, which operates in a
441    different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
442    functions are described in the
443    .\" HREF
444    \fBpcrematching\fP
445    .\"
446    documentation.
447    .P
448    If a data line contains the \eD escape sequence, or if the command line
449    contains the \fB-dfa\fP option, the alternative matching function is called.
450    This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \eF
451    escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
452    found. This is always the shortest possible match.
453    .
454    .
455    .SH "DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST"
456  .rs  .rs
457  .sp  .sp
458    This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
459    \fBpcre_exec()\fP, is being used.
460    .P
461  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that
462  \fBpcre_exec()\fR returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched
463  the whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"
464    when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,
465    respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example
466    of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.
467    .sp
468    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
469    PCRE version 4.00 08-Jan-2003    PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
470    .sp
471      re> /^abc(\\d+)/      re> /^abc(\ed+)/
472    data> abc123    data> abc123
473     0: abc123     0: abc123
474     1: 123     1: 123
475    data> xyz    data> xyz
476    No match    No match
477    .sp
478  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \\0x  Note that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set
479  escapes, or as \\x{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fR modifier was present on the  are not returned by \fBpcre_exec()\fP, and are not shown by \fBpcretest\fP. In
480  pattern. If the pattern has the \fB/+\fR modifier, then the output for  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first
481  substring 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by  data line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal"
482  "0+" like this:  unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second data line.
483    .sp
484        re> /(a)|(b)/
485      data> a
486       0: a
487       1: a
488      data> b
489       0: b
490       1: <unset>
491       2: b
492    .sp
493    If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x
494    escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the
495    pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
496    pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by
497    the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
498    .sp
499      re> /cat/+      re> /cat/+
500    data> cataract    data> cataract
501     0: cat     0: cat
502     0+ aract     0+ aract
503    .sp
504  If the pattern has the \fB/g\fR or \fB/G\fR modifier, the results of successive  If the pattern has the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier, the results of successive
505  matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:  matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
506    .sp
507      re> /\\Bi(\\w\\w)/g      re> /\eBi(\ew\ew)/g
508    data> Mississippi    data> Mississippi
509     0: iss     0: iss
510     1: ss     1: ss
# Line 335  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 512  matching attempts are output in sequence
512     1: ss     1: ss
513     0: ipp     0: ipp
514     1: pp     1: pp
515    .sp
516  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.
517    .P
518  If any of the sequences \fB\\C\fR, \fB\\G\fR, or \fB\\L\fR are present in a  If any of the sequences \fB\eC\fP, \fB\eG\fP, or \fB\eL\fP are present in a
519  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the
520  convenience functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number  convenience functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number
521  instead of a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string  instead of a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string
522  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in
523  parentheses after each string for \fB\\C\fR and \fB\\G\fR.  parentheses after each string for \fB\eC\fP and \fB\eG\fP.
524    .P
525  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"
526  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
527  included in data by means of the \\n escape.  included in data by means of the \en escape (or \er, \er\en, etc., depending on
528    the newline sequence setting).
529    .
530    .
531    .
532    .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
533    .rs
534    .sp
535    When the alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, is used (by
536    means of the \eD escape sequence or the \fB-dfa\fP command line option), the
537    output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
538    the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
539    .sp
540        re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
541      data> yellow tangerine\eD
542       0: tangerine
543       1: tang
544       2: tan
545    .sp
546    (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
547    longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).
548    .P
549    If \fB/g\fP is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
550    at the end of the longest match. For example:
551    .sp
552        re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
553      data> yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\eD
554       0: tangerine
555       1: tang
556       2: tan
557       0: tang
558       1: tan
559       0: tan
560    .sp
561    Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
562    sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
563    .
564    .
565    .SH "RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH"
566    .rs
567    .sp
568    When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
569    indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
570    match with additional subject data by means of the \eR escape sequence. For
571    example:
572    .sp
573        re> /^\ed?\ed(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\ed\ed$/
574      data> 23ja\eP\eD
575      Partial match: 23ja
576      data> n05\eR\eD
577       0: n05
578    .sp
579    For further information about partial matching, see the
580    .\" HREF
581    \fBpcrepartial\fP
582    .\"
583    documentation.
584    .
585    .
586    .SH CALLOUTS
587    .rs
588    .sp
589    If the pattern contains any callout requests, \fBpcretest\fP's callout function
590    is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
591    the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
592    positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
593    tested. For example, the output
594    .sp
595      --->pqrabcdef
596        0    ^  ^     \ed
597    .sp
598    indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the
599    fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh
600    character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \ed. Just one
601    circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
602    .P
603    Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
604    result of the \fB/C\fP pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing the
605    callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is output. For
606    example:
607    .sp
608        re> /\ed?[A-E]\e*/C
609      data> E*
610      --->E*
611       +0 ^      \ed?
612       +3 ^      [A-E]
613       +8 ^^     \e*
614      +10 ^ ^
615       0: E*
616    .sp
617    The callout function in \fBpcretest\fP returns zero (carry on matching) by
618    default, but you can use a \eC item in a data line (as described above) to
619    change this.
620    .P
621    Inserting callouts can be helpful when using \fBpcretest\fP to check
622    complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
623    the
624    .\" HREF
625    \fBpcrecallout\fP
626    .\"
627    documentation.
628    .
629    .
630    .
631    .SH "NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS"
632    .rs
633    .sp
634    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
635    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
636    therefore shown as hex escapes.
637    .P
638    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
639    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
640    the pattern (using the \fB/L\fP modifier). In this case, the \fBisprint()\fP
641    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
642    .
643    .
644    .
645    .SH "SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS"
646    .rs
647    .sp
648    The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
649    inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is
650    specified.
651    .P
652    When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause \fBpcretest\fP to write a
653    compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a file name.
654    For example:
655    .sp
656      /pattern/im >/some/file
657    .sp
658    See the
659    .\" HREF
660    \fBpcreprecompile\fP
661    .\"
662    documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
663    .P
664    The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
665    compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each
666    written as four bytes in big-endian order (most significant byte first). If
667    there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
668    return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
669    exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
670    follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,
671    \fBpcretest\fP expects to read a new pattern.
672    .P
673    A saved pattern can be reloaded into \fBpcretest\fP by specifing < and a file
674    name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a < character,
675    as otherwise \fBpcretest\fP will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by <
676    characters.
677    For example:
678    .sp
679       re> </some/file
680      Compiled regex loaded from /some/file
681      No study data
682    .sp
683    When the pattern has been loaded, \fBpcretest\fP proceeds to read data lines in
684    the usual way.
685    .P
686    You can copy a file written by \fBpcretest\fP to a different host and reload it
687    there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
688    pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
689    a SPARC machine.
690    .P
691    File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
692    the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with a tilde (~) is not
693    available.
694    .P
695    The ability to save and reload files in \fBpcretest\fP is intended for testing
696    and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because only a
697    single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is no facility for
698    supplying custom character tables for use with a reloaded pattern. If the
699    original pattern was compiled with custom tables, an attempt to match a subject
700    string using a reloaded pattern is likely to cause \fBpcretest\fP to crash.
701    Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
702    result is undefined.
703    .
704    .
705    .SH "SEE ALSO"
706    .rs
707    .sp
708    \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcreapi\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrematching\fP(3),
709    \fBpcrepartial\fP(d), \fBpcrepattern\fP(3), \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3).
710    .
711    .
712  .SH AUTHOR  .SH AUTHOR
713  .rs  .rs
714  .sp  .sp
715  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  .nf
716  .br  Philip Hazel
717  University Computing Service,  University Computing Service
718  .br  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
719  Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  .fi
720    .
721  .in 0  .
722  Last updated: 09 December 2003  .SH REVISION
723  .br  .rs
724  Copyright (c) 1997-2003 University of Cambridge.  .sp
725    .nf
726    Last updated: 10 March 2009
727    Copyright (c) 1997-2009 University of Cambridge.
728    .fi

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