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1 .TH PCRETEST 1 "09 February 2014" "PCRE 8.35"
3 pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.
5 .rs
6 .sp
7 .B pcretest "[options] [input file [output file]]"
8 .sp
9 \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
10 library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
11 expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
12 details of the regular expressions themselves, see the
13 .\" HREF
14 \fBpcrepattern\fP
15 .\"
16 documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17 options, see the
18 .\" HREF
19 \fBpcreapi\fP
20 .\"
21 ,
22 .\" HREF
23 \fBpcre16\fP
24 and
25 .\" HREF
26 \fBpcre32\fP
27 .\"
28 documentation.
29 .P
30 The input for \fBpcretest\fP is a sequence of regular expression patterns and
31 strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the result of each
32 match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and
33 exactly what is output.
34 .P
35 As PCRE has evolved, it has acquired many different features, and as a result,
36 \fBpcretest\fP now has rather a lot of obscure options for testing every
37 possible feature. Some of these options are specifically designed for use in
38 conjunction with the test script and data files that are distributed as part of
39 PCRE, and are unlikely to be of use otherwise. They are all documented here,
40 but without much justification.
41 .
42 .
44 .rs
45 .sp
46 Input to \fBpcretest\fP is processed line by line, either by calling the C
47 library's \fBfgets()\fP function, or via the \fBlibreadline\fP library (see
48 below). In Unix-like environments, \fBfgets()\fP treats any bytes other than
49 newline as data characters. However, in some Windows environments character 26
50 (hex 1A) causes an immediate end of file, and no further data is read. For
51 maximum portability, therefore, it is safest to use only ASCII characters in
52 \fBpcretest\fP input files.
53 .
54 .
56 .rs
57 .sp
58 From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The original one
59 supports 8-bit character strings, whereas the newer 16-bit library supports
60 character strings encoded in 16-bit units. From release 8.32, a third library
61 can be built, supporting character strings encoded in 32-bit units. The
62 \fBpcretest\fP program can be used to test all three libraries. However, it is
63 itself still an 8-bit program, reading 8-bit input and writing 8-bit output.
64 When testing the 16-bit or 32-bit library, the patterns and data strings are
65 converted to 16- or 32-bit format before being passed to the PCRE library
66 functions. Results are converted to 8-bit for output.
67 .P
68 References to functions and structures of the form \fBpcre[16|32]_xx\fP below
69 mean "\fBpcre_xx\fP when using the 8-bit library, \fBpcre16_xx\fP when using
70 the 16-bit library, or \fBpcre32_xx\fP when using the 32-bit library".
71 .
72 .
74 .rs
75 .TP 10
76 \fB-8\fP
77 If both the 8-bit library has been built, this option causes the 8-bit library
78 to be used (which is the default); if the 8-bit library has not been built,
79 this option causes an error.
80 .TP 10
81 \fB-16\fP
82 If both the 8-bit or the 32-bit, and the 16-bit libraries have been built, this
83 option causes the 16-bit library to be used. If only the 16-bit library has been
84 built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 32-bit
85 library has been built, this option causes an error.
86 .TP 10
87 \fB-32\fP
88 If both the 8-bit or the 16-bit, and the 32-bit libraries have been built, this
89 option causes the 32-bit library to be used. If only the 32-bit library has been
90 built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 16-bit
91 library has been built, this option causes an error.
92 .TP 10
93 \fB-b\fP
94 Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/B\fP (show byte code) modifier; the
95 internal form is output after compilation.
96 .TP 10
97 \fB-C\fP
98 Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
99 about the optional features that are included, and then exit with zero exit
100 code. All other options are ignored.
101 .TP 10
102 \fB-C\fP \fIoption\fP
103 Output information about a specific build-time option, then exit. This
104 functionality is intended for use in scripts such as \fBRunTest\fP. The
105 following options output the value and set the exit code as indicated:
106 .sp
107 ebcdic-nl the code for LF (= NL) in an EBCDIC environment:
108 0x15 or 0x25
109 0 if used in an ASCII environment
110 exit code is always 0
111 linksize the configured internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
112 exit code is set to the link size
113 newline the default newline setting:
115 exit code is always 0
116 bsr the default setting for what \eR matches:
118 exit code is always 0
119 .sp
120 The following options output 1 for true or 0 for false, and set the exit code
121 to the same value:
122 .sp
123 ebcdic compiled for an EBCDIC environment
124 jit just-in-time support is available
125 pcre16 the 16-bit library was built
126 pcre32 the 32-bit library was built
127 pcre8 the 8-bit library was built
128 ucp Unicode property support is available
129 utf UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 and/or UTF-32 support
130 is available
131 .sp
132 If an unknown option is given, an error message is output; the exit code is 0.
133 .TP 10
134 \fB-d\fP
135 Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal
136 form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
137 \fB-d\fP is equivalent to \fB-b -i\fP.
138 .TP 10
139 \fB-dfa\fP
140 Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the
141 alternative matching function, \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead
142 of the standard \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).
143 .TP 10
144 \fB-help\fP
145 Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
146 .TP 10
147 \fB-i\fP
148 Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the
149 compiled pattern is given after compilation.
150 .TP 10
151 \fB-M\fP
152 Behave as if each data line contains the \eM escape sequence; this causes
153 PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
154 calling \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP repeatedly with different limits.
155 .TP 10
156 \fB-m\fP
157 Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
158 equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. The size is given in
159 bytes for both libraries.
160 .TP 10
161 \fB-O\fP
162 Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/O\fP modifier, that is disable
163 auto-possessification for all patterns.
164 .TP 10
165 \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP
166 Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
167 \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The
168 default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for
169 \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP or 22 different matches for
170 \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP.
171 The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by including \eO
172 in the data line (see below).
173 .TP 10
174 \fB-p\fP
175 Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
176 used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is
177 set. This option can be used only with the 8-bit library.
178 .TP 10
179 \fB-q\fP
180 Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.
181 .TP 10
182 \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP
183 On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to \fIsize\fP
184 megabytes.
185 .TP 10
186 \fB-s\fP or \fB-s+\fP
187 Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/S\fP modifier; in other words, force each
188 pattern to be studied. If \fB-s+\fP is used, all the JIT compile options are
189 passed to \fBpcre[16|32]_study()\fP, causing just-in-time optimization to be set
190 up if it is available, for both full and partial matching. Specific JIT compile
191 options can be selected by following \fB-s+\fP with a digit in the range 1 to
192 7, which selects the JIT compile modes as follows:
193 .sp
194 1 normal match only
195 2 soft partial match only
196 3 normal match and soft partial match
197 4 hard partial match only
198 6 soft and hard partial match
199 7 all three modes (default)
200 .sp
201 If \fB-s++\fP is used instead of \fB-s+\fP (with or without a following digit),
202 the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
203 when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
204 .sp
205 Note that there are pattern options that can override \fB-s\fP, either
206 specifying no studying at all, or suppressing JIT compilation.
207 .sp
208 If the \fB/I\fP or \fB/D\fP option is present on a pattern (requesting output
209 about the compiled pattern), information about the result of studying is not
210 included when studying is caused only by \fB-s\fP and neither \fB-i\fP nor
211 \fB-d\fP is present on the command line. This behaviour means that the output
212 from tests that are run with and without \fB-s\fP should be identical, except
213 when options that output information about the actual running of a match are
214 set.
215 .sp
216 The \fB-M\fP, \fB-t\fP, and \fB-tm\fP options, which give information about
217 resources used, are likely to produce different output with and without
218 \fB-s\fP. Output may also differ if the \fB/C\fP option is present on an
219 individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the matching process, and
220 this may be different between studied and non-studied patterns. If the pattern
221 contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences, for the same reason. The
222 \fB-s\fP command line option can be overridden for specific patterns that
223 should never be studied (see the \fB/S\fP pattern modifier below).
224 .TP 10
225 \fB-t\fP
226 Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output the
227 resulting times per compile, study, or match (in milliseconds). Do not set
228 \fB-m\fP with \fB-t\fP, because you will then get the size output a zillion
229 times, and the timing will be distorted. You can control the number of
230 iterations that are used for timing by following \fB-t\fP with a number (as a
231 separate item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" iterates 1000 times.
232 The default is to iterate 500000 times.
233 .TP 10
234 \fB-tm\fP
235 This is like \fB-t\fP except that it times only the matching phase, not the
236 compile or study phases.
237 .TP 10
238 \fB-T\fP \fB-TM\fP
239 These behave like \fB-t\fP and \fB-tm\fP, but in addition, at the end of a run,
240 the total times for all compiles, studies, and matches are output.
241 .
242 .
244 .rs
245 .sp
246 If \fBpcretest\fP is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and
247 writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from
248 that file and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to
249 stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular
250 expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.
251 .P
252 When \fBpcretest\fP is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
253 be linked with the \fBlibreadline\fP library. When this is done, if the input
254 is from a terminal, it is read using the \fBreadline()\fP function. This
255 provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the \fB-help\fP
256 option states whether or not \fBreadline()\fP will be used.
257 .P
258 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
259 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
260 lines to be matched against that pattern.
261 .P
262 Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
263 multi-line matches, you have to use the \en escape sequence (or \er or \er\en,
264 etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
265 newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
266 buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
267 .P
268 An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
269 expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
270 non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
271 .sp
272 /(a|bc)x+yz/
273 .sp
274 White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may
275 be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are
276 included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern
277 by escaping it, for example
278 .sp
279 /abc\e/def/
280 .sp
281 If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since
282 delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect its interpretation.
283 If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for
284 example,
285 .sp
286 /abc/\e
287 .sp
288 then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a
289 way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a
290 backslash, because
291 .sp
292 /abc\e/
293 .sp
294 is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
295 pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
296 .
297 .
299 .rs
300 .sp
301 A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
302 characters, though some of these can be qualified by further characters.
303 Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example, "the
304 \fB/i\fP modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not always be
305 a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may appear
306 between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between the
307 modifiers themselves. For reference, here is a complete list of modifiers. They
308 fall into several groups that are described in detail in the following
309 sections.
310 .sp
311 \fB/8\fP set UTF mode
312 \fB/9\fP set PCRE_NEVER_UTF (locks out UTF mode)
313 \fB/?\fP disable UTF validity check
314 \fB/+\fP show remainder of subject after match
315 \fB/=\fP show all captures (not just those that are set)
316 .sp
317 \fB/A\fP set PCRE_ANCHORED
318 \fB/B\fP show compiled code
320 \fB/D\fP same as \fB/B\fP plus \fB/I\fP
322 \fB/F\fP flip byte order in compiled pattern
323 \fB/f\fP set PCRE_FIRSTLINE
324 \fB/G\fP find all matches (shorten string)
325 \fB/g\fP find all matches (use startoffset)
326 \fB/I\fP show information about pattern
327 \fB/i\fP set PCRE_CASELESS
328 \fB/J\fP set PCRE_DUPNAMES
329 \fB/K\fP show backtracking control names
330 \fB/L\fP set locale
331 \fB/M\fP show compiled memory size
332 \fB/m\fP set PCRE_MULTILINE
335 \fB/P\fP use the POSIX wrapper
336 \fB/Q\fP test external stack check function
337 \fB/S\fP study the pattern after compilation
338 \fB/s\fP set PCRE_DOTALL
339 \fB/T\fP select character tables
340 \fB/U\fP set PCRE_UNGREEDY
341 \fB/W\fP set PCRE_UCP
342 \fB/X\fP set PCRE_EXTRA
343 \fB/x\fP set PCRE_EXTENDED
345 \fB/Z\fP don't show lengths in \fB/B\fP output
346 .sp
347 \fB/<any>\fP set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
348 \fB/<anycrlf>\fP set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
349 \fB/<cr>\fP set PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
350 \fB/<crlf>\fP set PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
351 \fB/<lf>\fP set PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
352 \fB/<bsr_anycrlf>\fP set PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
353 \fB/<bsr_unicode>\fP set PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
355 .sp
356 .
357 .
358 .SS "Perl-compatible modifiers"
359 .rs
360 .sp
361 The \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, \fB/s\fP, and \fB/x\fP modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
362 PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
363 \fBpcre[16|32]_compile()\fP is called. These four modifier letters have the same
364 effect as they do in Perl. For example:
365 .sp
366 /caseless/i
367 .sp
368 .
369 .
370 .SS "Modifiers for other PCRE options"
371 .rs
372 .sp
373 The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
374 options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
375 .sp
376 \fB/8\fP PCRE_UTF8 ) when using the 8-bit
377 \fB/?\fP PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK ) library
378 .sp
379 \fB/8\fP PCRE_UTF16 ) when using the 16-bit
380 \fB/?\fP PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK ) library
381 .sp
382 \fB/8\fP PCRE_UTF32 ) when using the 32-bit
383 \fB/?\fP PCRE_NO_UTF32_CHECK ) library
384 .sp
394 \fB/W\fP PCRE_UCP
397 \fB/<any>\fP PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
398 \fB/<anycrlf>\fP PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
399 \fB/<cr>\fP PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
400 \fB/<crlf>\fP PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
401 \fB/<lf>\fP PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
402 \fB/<bsr_anycrlf>\fP PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
403 \fB/<bsr_unicode>\fP PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
405 .sp
406 The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
407 including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
408 This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
409 .sp
410 /^abc/m<CRLF>
411 .sp
412 As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16/32 option, the \fB/8\fP modifier causes
413 all non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
414 \ex{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in hex without
415 the curly brackets.
416 .P
417 Full details of the PCRE options are given in the
418 .\" HREF
419 \fBpcreapi\fP
420 .\"
421 documentation.
422 .
423 .
424 .SS "Finding all matches in a string"
425 .rs
426 .sp
427 Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
428 by the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
429 again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
430 \fB/g\fP and \fB/G\fP is that the former uses the \fIstartoffset\fP argument to
431 \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP to start searching at a new point within the entire
432 string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a
433 shortened substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the
434 pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).
435 .P
436 If any call to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches
437 an empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
438 PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
439 same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
440 normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
441 using the \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function. Normally, the start
442 offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
443 CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
444 of two is used.
445 .
446 .
447 .SS "Other modifiers"
448 .rs
449 .sp
450 There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way \fBpcretest\fP
451 operates.
452 .P
453 The \fB/+\fP modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
454 matched the entire pattern, \fBpcretest\fP should in addition output the
455 remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
456 contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the \fB+\fP modifier appears
457 twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
458 remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
459 capture number. Note that this modifier must not immediately follow the /S
460 modifier because /S+ and /S++ have other meanings.
461 .P
462 The \fB/=\fP modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
463 parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up to the highest
464 one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the return code
465 from \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP). Values in the offsets vector corresponding to
466 higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as "<unset>". This
467 modifier gives a way of checking that this is happening.
468 .P
469 The \fB/B\fP modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that \fBpcretest\fP
470 output a representation of the compiled code after compilation. Normally this
471 information contains length and offset values; however, if \fB/Z\fP is also
472 present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for use in
473 the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated for
474 different internal link sizes.
475 .P
476 The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
477 \fB/BI\fP, that is, both the \fB/B\fP and the \fB/I\fP modifiers.
478 .P
479 The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the
480 2-byte and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
481 the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were compiled on a
482 host with a different endianness. This feature is not available when the POSIX
483 interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is
484 specified. See also the section about saving and reloading compiled patterns
485 below.
486 .P
487 The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the
488 compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
489 so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre[16|32]_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a
490 pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output. In
491 this output, the word "char" means a non-UTF character, that is, the value of a
492 single data item (8-bit, 16-bit, or 32-bit, depending on the library that is
493 being tested).
494 .P
495 The \fB/K\fP modifier requests \fBpcretest\fP to show names from backtracking
496 control verbs that are returned from calls to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP. It causes
497 \fBpcretest\fP to create a \fBpcre[16|32]_extra\fP block if one has not already
498 been created by a call to \fBpcre[16|32]_study()\fP, and to set the
499 PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and the \fBmark\fP field within it, every time that
500 \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP is called. If the variable that the \fBmark\fP field
501 points to is non-NULL for a match, non-match, or partial match, \fBpcretest\fP
502 prints the string to which it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by
503 itself, tagged with "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
504 .P
505 The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
506 example,
507 .sp
508 /pattern/Lfr_FR
509 .sp
510 For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
511 \fBpcre[16|32]_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for
512 the locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre[16|32]_compile()\fP when compiling
513 the regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP (or \fB/T\fP) modifier, NULL is
514 passed as the tables pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression
515 on which it appears.
516 .P
517 The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to hold
518 the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the size of the
519 \fBpcre[16|32]\fP block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pattern is
520 successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size of the
521 JIT compiled code is also output.
522 .P
523 The \fB/Q\fP modifier is used to test the use of \fBpcre_stack_guard\fP. It
524 must be followed by '0' or '1', specifying the return code to be given from an
525 external function that is passed to PCRE and used for stack checking during
526 compilation (see the
527 .\" HREF
528 \fBpcreapi\fP
529 .\"
530 documentation for details).
531 .P
532 The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre[16|32]_study()\fP to be called after the
533 expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is
534 matched. There are a number of qualifying characters that may follow \fB/S\fP.
535 They may appear in any order.
536 .P
537 If \fB/S\fP is followed by an exclamation mark, \fBpcre[16|32]_study()\fP is
538 called with the PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED option, causing it always to return a
539 \fBpcre_extra\fP block, even when studying discovers no useful information.
540 .P
541 If \fB/S\fP is followed by a second S character, it suppresses studying, even
542 if it was requested externally by the \fB-s\fP command line option. This makes
543 it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
544 never studied, independently of \fB-s\fP. This feature is used in the test
545 files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
546 .P
547 If the \fB/S\fP modifier is followed by a + character, the call to
548 \fBpcre[16|32]_study()\fP is made with all the JIT study options, requesting
549 just-in-time optimization support if it is available, for both normal and
550 partial matching. If you want to restrict the JIT compiling modes, you can
551 follow \fB/S+\fP with a digit in the range 1 to 7:
552 .sp
553 1 normal match only
554 2 soft partial match only
555 3 normal match and soft partial match
556 4 hard partial match only
557 6 soft and hard partial match
558 7 all three modes (default)
559 .sp
560 If \fB/S++\fP is used instead of \fB/S+\fP (with or without a following digit),
561 the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
562 when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
563 .P
564 Note that there is also an independent \fB/+\fP modifier; it must not be given
565 immediately after \fB/S\fP or \fB/S+\fP because this will be misinterpreted.
566 .P
567 If JIT studying is successful, the compiled JIT code will automatically be used
568 when \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP is run, except when incompatible run-time options
569 are specified. For more details, see the
570 .\" HREF
571 \fBpcrejit\fP
572 .\"
573 documentation. See also the \fB\eJ\fP escape sequence below for a way of
574 setting the size of the JIT stack.
575 .P
576 Finally, if \fB/S\fP is followed by a minus character, JIT compilation is
577 suppressed, even if it was requested externally by the \fB-s\fP command line
578 option. This makes it possible to specify that JIT is never to be used for
579 certain patterns.
580 .P
581 The \fB/T\fP modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
582 set of built-in character tables to be passed to \fBpcre[16|32]_compile()\fP. It
583 is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
584 tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
585 .sp
586 0 the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
587 pcre_chartables.c.dist
588 1 a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
589 .sp
590 In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
591 letters, digits, spaces, etc.
592 .
593 .
594 .SS "Using the POSIX wrapper API"
595 .rs
596 .sp
597 The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
598 API rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library. When
599 \fB/P\fP is set, the following modifiers set options for the \fBregcomp()\fP
600 function:
601 .sp
602 /i REG_ICASE
605 /s REG_DOTALL )
606 /U REG_UNGREEDY ) These options are not part of
607 /W REG_UCP ) the POSIX standard
608 /8 REG_UTF8 )
609 .sp
610 The \fB/+\fP modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
611 ignored.
612 .
613 .
614 .SS "Locking out certain modifiers"
615 .rs
616 .sp
617 PCRE can be compiled with or without support for certain features such as
618 UTF-8/16/32 or Unicode properties. Accordingly, the standard tests are split up
619 into a number of different files that are selected for running depending on
620 which features are available. When updating the tests, it is all too easy to
621 put a new test into the wrong file by mistake; for example, to put a test that
622 requires UTF support into a file that is used when it is not available. To help
623 detect such mistakes as early as possible, there is a facility for locking out
624 specific modifiers. If an input line for \fBpcretest\fP starts with the string
625 "< forbid " the following sequence of characters is taken as a list of
626 forbidden modifiers. For example, in the test files that must not use UTF or
627 Unicode property support, this line appears:
628 .sp
629 < forbid 8W
630 .sp
631 This locks out the /8 and /W modifiers. An immediate error is given if they are
632 subsequently encountered. If the character string contains < but not >, all the
633 multi-character modifiers that begin with < are locked out. Otherwise, such
634 modifiers must be explicitly listed, for example:
635 .sp
636 < forbid <JS><cr>
637 .sp
638 There must be a single space between < and "forbid" for this feature to be
639 recognised. If there is not, the line is interpreted either as a request to
640 re-load a pre-compiled pattern (see "SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS"
641 below) or, if there is a another < character, as a pattern that uses < as its
642 delimiter.
643 .
644 .
646 .rs
647 .sp
648 Before each data line is passed to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP, leading and trailing
649 white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \e escapes. Some of these
650 are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
651 complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
652 expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
653 recognized:
654 .sp
655 \ea alarm (BEL, \ex07)
656 \eb backspace (\ex08)
657 \ee escape (\ex27)
658 \ef form feed (\ex0c)
659 \en newline (\ex0a)
660 .\" JOIN
661 \eqdd set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
662 (any number of digits)
663 \er carriage return (\ex0d)
664 \et tab (\ex09)
665 \ev vertical tab (\ex0b)
666 \ennn octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
667 a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit or 32-bit mode
668 \eo{dd...} octal character (any number of octal digits}
669 \exhh hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
670 \ex{hh...} hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
671 .\" JOIN
672 \eA pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
673 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
674 .\" JOIN
675 \eB pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
676 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
677 .\" JOIN
678 \eCdd call pcre[16|32]_copy_substring() for substring dd
679 after a successful match (number less than 32)
680 .\" JOIN
681 \eCname call pcre[16|32]_copy_named_substring() for substring
682 "name" after a successful match (name termin-
683 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
684 .\" JOIN
685 \eC+ show the current captured substrings at callout
686 time
687 \eC- do not supply a callout function
688 .\" JOIN
689 \eC!n return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is
690 reached
691 .\" JOIN
692 \eC!n!m return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is
693 reached for the nth time
694 .\" JOIN
695 \eC*n pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
696 data; this is used as the callout return value
697 \eD use the \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP match function
698 \eF only shortest match for \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
699 .\" JOIN
700 \eGdd call pcre[16|32]_get_substring() for substring dd
701 after a successful match (number less than 32)
702 .\" JOIN
703 \eGname call pcre[16|32]_get_named_substring() for substring
704 "name" after a successful match (name termin-
705 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
706 .\" JOIN
707 \eJdd set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
708 number of digits)
709 .\" JOIN
710 \eL call pcre[16|32]_get_substringlist() after a
711 successful match
712 .\" JOIN
713 \eM discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
715 .\" JOIN
716 \eN pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
717 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
719 .\" JOIN
720 \eOdd set the size of the output vector passed to
721 \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)
722 .\" JOIN
723 \eP pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
724 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
726 .\" JOIN
727 \eQdd set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
728 (any number of digits)
729 \eR pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
730 \eS output details of memory get/free calls during matching
731 .\" JOIN
732 \eY pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
733 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
734 .\" JOIN
735 \eZ pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
736 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
737 .\" JOIN
738 \e? pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16|32]_CHECK option to
739 \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
740 .\" JOIN
741 \e>dd start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
742 any number of digits); this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP
743 argument for \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
744 .\" JOIN
745 \e<cr> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
746 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
747 .\" JOIN
748 \e<lf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
749 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
750 .\" JOIN
751 \e<crlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
752 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
753 .\" JOIN
754 \e<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
755 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
756 .\" JOIN
757 \e<any> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
758 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
759 .sp
760 The use of \ex{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the \fB/8\fP modifier on
761 the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexadecimal
762 digits inside the braces; invalid values provoke error messages.
763 .P
764 Note that \exhh specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8 mode;
765 this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing
766 purposes. On the other hand, \ex{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
767 UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127.
768 When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode, \ex{hh} generates one byte
769 for values less than 256, and causes an error for greater values.
770 .P
771 In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \ex{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
772 possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
773 .P
774 In UTF-32 mode, all 4- to 8-digit \ex{...} values are accepted. This makes it
775 possible to construct invalid UTF-32 sequences for testing purposes.
776 .P
777 The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
778 shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
779 .P
780 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
781 the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
782 passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
783 input.
784 .P
785 The \fB\eJ\fP escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
786 used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT optimization
787 is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the default 32K is
788 necessary only for very complicated patterns.
789 .P
790 If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP several times,
791 with different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP
792 fields of the \fBpcre[16|32]_extra\fP data structure, until it finds the minimum
793 numbers for each parameter that allow \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP to complete without
794 error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal interpretive
795 \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might
796 have been set up by the \fB/S+\fP qualifier of \fB-s+\fP option is disabled.
797 .P
798 The \fImatch_limit\fP number is a measure of the amount of backtracking
799 that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
800 matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of
801 matching possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length
802 of subject string. The \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP number is a measure of how
803 much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is
804 needed to complete the match attempt.
805 .P
806 When \eO is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
807 by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or defaulted to 45); \eO applies only to
808 the call of \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.
809 .P
810 If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
811 API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB,
812 \eN, and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
813 to be passed to \fBregexec()\fP.
814 .
815 .
817 .rs
818 .sp
819 By default, \fBpcretest\fP uses the standard PCRE matching function,
820 \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP to match each data line. PCRE also supports an
821 alternative matching function, \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_test()\fP, which operates in a
822 different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
823 functions are described in the
824 .\" HREF
825 \fBpcrematching\fP
826 .\"
827 documentation.
828 .P
829 If a data line contains the \eD escape sequence, or if the command line
830 contains the \fB-dfa\fP option, the alternative matching function is used.
831 This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \eF
832 escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
833 found. This is always the shortest possible match.
834 .
835 .
837 .rs
838 .sp
839 This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
840 \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP, is being used.
841 .P
842 When a match succeeds, \fBpcretest\fP outputs the list of captured substrings
843 that \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
844 matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
845 PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
846 substring when \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that
847 this is the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it
848 may include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
849 \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.) For any other return, \fBpcretest\fP outputs
850 the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
851 a failed UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
852 the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the output vector is
853 at least two. Here is an example of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.
854 .sp
855 $ pcretest
856 PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
857 .sp
858 re> /^abc(\ed+)/
859 data> abc123
860 0: abc123
861 1: 123
862 data> xyz
863 No match
864 .sp
865 Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
866 returned by \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP, and are not shown by \fBpcretest\fP. In the
867 following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
868 line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
869 substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second data line.
870 .sp
871 re> /(a)|(b)/
872 data> a
873 0: a
874 1: a
875 data> b
876 0: b
877 1: <unset>
878 2: b
879 .sp
880 If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \exhh
881 escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set. Otherwise they
882 are output as \ex{hh...} escapes. See below for the definition of non-printing
883 characters. If the pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring
884 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
885 this:
886 .sp
887 re> /cat/+
888 data> cataract
889 0: cat
890 0+ aract
891 .sp
892 If the pattern has the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier, the results of successive
893 matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
894 .sp
895 re> /\eBi(\ew\ew)/g
896 data> Mississippi
897 0: iss
898 1: ss
899 0: iss
900 1: ss
901 0: ipp
902 1: pp
903 .sp
904 "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
905 of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \e>4 is past the end of
906 the subject string):
907 .sp
908 re> /xyz/
909 data> xyz\e>4
910 Error -24 (bad offset value)
911 .P
912 If any of the sequences \fB\eC\fP, \fB\eG\fP, or \fB\eL\fP are present in a
913 data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the
914 convenience functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number
915 instead of a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string
916 length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in
917 parentheses after each string for \fB\eC\fP and \fB\eG\fP.
918 .P
919 Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"
920 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
921 included in data by means of the \en escape (or \er, \er\en, etc., depending on
922 the newline sequence setting).
923 .
924 .
925 .
927 .rs
928 .sp
929 When the alternative matching function, \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP, is used (by
930 means of the \eD escape sequence or the \fB-dfa\fP command line option), the
931 output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
932 the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
933 .sp
934 re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
935 data> yellow tangerine\eD
936 0: tangerine
937 1: tang
938 2: tan
939 .sp
940 (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
941 longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
942 PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
943 partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
944 inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
945 match start if a lookbehind assertion, \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.)
946 .P
947 If \fB/g\fP is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
948 at the end of the longest match. For example:
949 .sp
950 re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
951 data> yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\eD
952 0: tangerine
953 1: tang
954 2: tan
955 0: tang
956 1: tan
957 0: tan
958 .sp
959 Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
960 sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
961 .
962 .
964 .rs
965 .sp
966 When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
967 indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
968 match with additional subject data by means of the \eR escape sequence. For
969 example:
970 .sp
971 re> /^\ed?\ed(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\ed\ed$/
972 data> 23ja\eP\eD
973 Partial match: 23ja
974 data> n05\eR\eD
975 0: n05
976 .sp
977 For further information about partial matching, see the
978 .\" HREF
979 \fBpcrepartial\fP
980 .\"
981 documentation.
982 .
983 .
985 .rs
986 .sp
987 If the pattern contains any callout requests, \fBpcretest\fP's callout function
988 is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
989 the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
990 positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
991 tested. For example:
992 .sp
993 --->pqrabcdef
994 0 ^ ^ \ed
995 .sp
996 This output indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt
997 starting at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at
998 the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \ed. Just
999 one circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
1000 .P
1001 Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
1002 result of the \fB/C\fP pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing the
1003 callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is output. For
1004 example:
1005 .sp
1006 re> /\ed?[A-E]\e*/C
1007 data> E*
1008 --->E*
1009 +0 ^ \ed?
1010 +3 ^ [A-E]
1011 +8 ^^ \e*
1012 +10 ^ ^
1013 0: E*
1014 .sp
1015 If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output whenever
1016 a change of latest mark is passed to the callout function. For example:
1017 .sp
1018 re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
1019 data> abc
1020 --->abc
1021 +0 ^ a
1022 +1 ^^ (*MARK:X)
1023 +10 ^^ b
1024 Latest Mark: X
1025 +11 ^ ^ c
1026 +12 ^ ^
1027 0: abc
1028 .sp
1029 The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for the rest
1030 of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of backtracking, the
1031 mark reverts to being unset, the text "<unset>" is output.
1032 .P
1033 The callout function in \fBpcretest\fP returns zero (carry on matching) by
1034 default, but you can use a \eC item in a data line (as described above) to
1035 change this and other parameters of the callout.
1036 .P
1037 Inserting callouts can be helpful when using \fBpcretest\fP to check
1038 complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
1039 the
1040 .\" HREF
1041 \fBpcrecallout\fP
1042 .\"
1043 documentation.
1044 .
1045 .
1046 .
1048 .rs
1049 .sp
1050 When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
1051 bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
1052 therefore shown as hex escapes.
1053 .P
1054 When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
1055 string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
1056 the pattern (using the \fB/L\fP modifier). In this case, the \fBisprint()\fP
1057 function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
1058 .
1059 .
1060 .
1062 .rs
1063 .sp
1064 The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
1065 interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is
1066 specified.
1067 .P
1068 When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause \fBpcretest\fP to write a
1069 compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a file name.
1070 For example:
1071 .sp
1072 /pattern/im >/some/file
1073 .sp
1074 See the
1075 .\" HREF
1076 \fBpcreprecompile\fP
1077 .\"
1078 documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
1079 Note that if the pattern was successfully studied with JIT optimization, the
1080 JIT data cannot be saved.
1081 .P
1082 The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
1083 compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each
1084 written as four bytes in big-endian order (most significant byte first). If
1085 there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
1086 return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
1087 exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
1088 (excluding any JIT data) follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After
1089 writing the file, \fBpcretest\fP expects to read a new pattern.
1090 .P
1091 A saved pattern can be reloaded into \fBpcretest\fP by specifying < and a file
1092 name instead of a pattern. There must be no space between < and the file name,
1093 which must not contain a < character, as otherwise \fBpcretest\fP will
1094 interpret the line as a pattern delimited by < characters. For example:
1095 .sp
1096 re> </some/file
1097 Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
1098 No study data
1099 .sp
1100 If the pattern was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the JIT
1101 information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the pattern has
1102 been loaded, \fBpcretest\fP proceeds to read data lines in the usual way.
1103 .P
1104 You can copy a file written by \fBpcretest\fP to a different host and reload it
1105 there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
1106 pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
1107 a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a host with different
1108 endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
1109 .sp
1110 Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
1111 .sp
1112 The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
1113 endianness. These are reloaded using "<!" instead of just "<". This suppresses
1114 the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on all hosts. It also
1115 forces debugging output once the pattern has been reloaded.
1116 .P
1117 File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
1118 the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with a tilde (~) is not
1119 available.
1120 .P
1121 The ability to save and reload files in \fBpcretest\fP is intended for testing
1122 and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because only a
1123 single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is no facility for
1124 supplying custom character tables for use with a reloaded pattern. If the
1125 original pattern was compiled with custom tables, an attempt to match a subject
1126 string using a reloaded pattern is likely to cause \fBpcretest\fP to crash.
1127 Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
1128 result is undefined.
1129 .
1130 .
1131 .SH "SEE ALSO"
1132 .rs
1133 .sp
1134 \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcre16\fP(3), \fBpcre32\fP(3), \fBpcreapi\fP(3),
1135 \fBpcrecallout\fP(3),
1136 \fBpcrejit\fP, \fBpcrematching\fP(3), \fBpcrepartial\fP(d),
1137 \fBpcrepattern\fP(3), \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3).
1138 .
1139 .
1141 .rs
1142 .sp
1143 .nf
1144 Philip Hazel
1145 University Computing Service
1146 Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
1147 .fi
1148 .
1149 .
1151 .rs
1152 .sp
1153 .nf
1154 Last updated: 09 February 2014
1155 Copyright (c) 1997-2014 University of Cambridge.
1156 .fi


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