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revision 227 by ph10, Tue Aug 21 15:00:15 2007 UTC revision 1103 by chpe, Tue Oct 16 15:56:38 2012 UTC
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1  .TH PCRETEST 1  .TH PCRETEST 1 "10 September 2012" "PCRE 8.32"
2  .SH NAME  .SH NAME
3  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.
4  .SH SYNOPSIS  .SH SYNOPSIS
5  .rs  .rs
6  .sp  .sp
7  .B pcretest "[options] [source] [destination]"  .B pcretest "[options] [input file [output file]]"
8  .sp  .sp
9  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
10  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
# Line 18  options, see the Line 18  options, see the
18  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
19  \fBpcreapi\fP  \fBpcreapi\fP
20  .\"  .\"
21  documentation.  ,
22    .\" HREF
23    \fBpcre16\fP
24    and
25    .\" HREF
26    \fBpcre32\fP
27    .\"
28    documentation.
29    .P
30    The input for \fBpcretest\fP is a sequence of regular expression patterns and
31    strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the result of each
32    match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and
33    exactly what is output.
34    .P
35    As PCRE has evolved, it has acquired many different features, and as a result,
36    \fBpcretest\fP now has rather a lot of obscure options for testing every
37    possible feature. Some of these options are specifically designed for use in
38    conjunction with the test script and data files that are distributed as part of
39    PCRE, and are unlikely to be of use otherwise. They are all documented here,
40    but without much justification.
41    .
42    .
43    .SH "PCRE's 8-BIT, 16-BIT AND 32-BIT LIBRARIES"
44    .rs
45    .sp
46    From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The original one
47    supports 8-bit character strings, whereas the newer 16-bit library supports
48    character strings encoded in 16-bit units. From release 8.32, a third
49    library can be built, supporting character strings encoded in 32-bit units.
50    The \fBpcretest\fP program can be
51    used to test all three libraries. However, it is itself still an 8-bit program,
52    reading 8-bit input and writing 8-bit output. When testing the 16-bit or 32-bit
53    library, the patterns and data strings are converted to 16- or 32-bit format
54    before being passed to the PCRE library functions. Results are converted to
55    8-bit for output.
56    .P
57    References to functions and structures of the form \fBpcre[16|32]_xx\fP below
58    mean "\fBpcre_xx\fP when using the 8-bit library or \fBpcre16_xx\fP when using
59    the 16-bit library".
60  .  .
61  .  .
62  .SH OPTIONS  .SH "COMMAND LINE OPTIONS"
63  .rs  .rs
64  .TP 10  .TP 10
65    \fB-8\fP
66    If both the 8-bit library has been built, this option causes the 8-bit library
67    to be used (which is the default); if the 8-bit library has not been built,
68    this option causes an error.
69    .TP 10
70    \fB-16\fP
71    If both the 8-bit or the 32-bit, and the 16-bit libraries have been built, this
72    option causes the 16-bit library to be used. If only the 16-bit library has been
73    built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 32-bit
74    library has been built, this option causes an error.
75    .TP 10
76    \fB-32\fP
77    If both the 8-bit or the 16-bit, and the 32-bit libraries have been built, this
78    option causes the 32-bit library to be used. If only the 32-bit library has been
79    built, this is the default (so has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 16-bit
80    library has been built, this option causes an error.
81    .TP 10
82  \fB-b\fP  \fB-b\fP
83  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/B\fP (show bytecode) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/B\fP (show byte code) modifier; the
84  form is output after compilation.  internal form is output after compilation.
85  .TP 10  .TP 10
86  \fB-C\fP  \fB-C\fP
87  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
88  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit. All other options
89    are ignored.
90    .TP 10
91    \fB-C\fP \fIoption\fP
92    Output information about a specific build-time option, then exit. This
93    functionality is intended for use in scripts such as \fBRunTest\fP. The
94    following options output the value indicated:
95    .sp
96      ebcdic-nl  the code for LF (= NL) in an EBCDIC environment:
97                   0x15 or 0x25
98                   0 if used in an ASCII environment
99      linksize   the internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
100      newline    the default newline setting:
101                   CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
102    .sp
103    The following options output 1 for true or zero for false:
104    .sp
105      ebcdic     compiled for an EBCDIC environment
106      jit        just-in-time support is available
107      pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
108      pcre32     the 32-bit library was built
109      pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
110      ucp        Unicode property support is available
111      utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 and/or UTF-32 support is available
112  .TP 10  .TP 10
113  \fB-d\fP  \fB-d\fP
114  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal
115  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
116  \fB-d\fP is equivalent to \fB-b -i\fP.  \fB-d\fP is equivalent to \fB-b -i\fP.
117  .TP 10  .TP 10
118  \fB-dfa\fP  \fB-dfa\fP
119  Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the  Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the
120  alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead of the  alternative matching function, \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead
121  standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).  of the standard \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).
122  .TP 10  .TP 10
123  \fB-help\fP  \fB-help\fP
124  Output a brief summary these options and then exit.  Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
125  .TP 10  .TP 10
126  \fB-i\fP  \fB-i\fP
127  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the
128  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
129  .TP 10  .TP 10
130    \fB-M\fP
131    Behave as if each data line contains the \eM escape sequence; this causes
132    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
133    calling \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP repeatedly with different limits.
134    .TP 10
135  \fB-m\fP  \fB-m\fP
136  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
137  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. The size is given in
138  with earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s\fP is a synonym for \fB-m\fP.  bytes for both libraries.
139  .TP 10  .TP 10
140  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP
141  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
142  \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The default value  \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The
143  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or  default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for
144  22 different matches for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. The vector size can be  \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP or 22 different matches for
145  changed for individual matching calls by including \eO in the data line (see  \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP.
146  below).  The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by including \eO
147    in the data line (see below).
148  .TP 10  .TP 10
149  \fB-p\fP  \fB-p\fP
150  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
151  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is
152  set.  set. This option can be used only with the 8-bit library.
153  .TP 10  .TP 10
154  \fB-q\fP  \fB-q\fP
155  Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.  Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.
156  .TP 10  .TP 10
157  \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP  \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP
158  On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to \fIsize\fP  On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to \fIsize\fP
159  megabytes.  megabytes.
160  .TP 10  .TP 10
161    \fB-s\fP or \fB-s+\fP
162    Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/S\fP modifier; in other words, force each
163    pattern to be studied. If \fB-s+\fP is used, all the JIT compile options are
164    passed to \fBpcre[16|32]_study()\fP, causing just-in-time optimization to be set
165    up if it is available, for both full and partial matching. Specific JIT compile
166    options can be selected by following \fB-s+\fP with a digit in the range 1 to
167    7, which selects the JIT compile modes as follows:
168    .sp
169      1  normal match only
170      2  soft partial match only
171      3  normal match and soft partial match
172      4  hard partial match only
173      6  soft and hard partial match
174      7  all three modes (default)
175    .sp
176    If \fB-s++\fP is used instead of \fB-s+\fP (with or without a following digit),
177    the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
178    when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
179    .sp
180    Note that there are pattern options that can override \fB-s\fP, either
181    specifying no studying at all, or suppressing JIT compilation.
182    .sp
183    If the \fB/I\fP or \fB/D\fP option is present on a pattern (requesting output
184    about the compiled pattern), information about the result of studying is not
185    included when studying is caused only by \fB-s\fP and neither \fB-i\fP nor
186    \fB-d\fP is present on the command line. This behaviour means that the output
187    from tests that are run with and without \fB-s\fP should be identical, except
188    when options that output information about the actual running of a match are
189    set.
190    .sp
191    The \fB-M\fP, \fB-t\fP, and \fB-tm\fP options, which give information about
192    resources used, are likely to produce different output with and without
193    \fB-s\fP. Output may also differ if the \fB/C\fP option is present on an
194    individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the matching process, and
195    this may be different between studied and non-studied patterns. If the pattern
196    contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences, for the same reason. The
197    \fB-s\fP command line option can be overridden for specific patterns that
198    should never be studied (see the \fB/S\fP pattern modifier below).
199    .TP 10
200  \fB-t\fP  \fB-t\fP
201  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
202  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with
# Line 97  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis Line 220  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis
220  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular
221  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.
222  .P  .P
223    When \fBpcretest\fP is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
224    be linked with the \fBlibreadline\fP library. When this is done, if the input
225    is from a terminal, it is read using the \fBreadline()\fP function. This
226    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the \fB-help\fP
227    option states whether or not \fBreadline()\fP will be used.
228    .P
229  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
230  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
231  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
# Line 141  pcretest to read the next line as a cont Line 270  pcretest to read the next line as a cont
270  .rs  .rs
271  .sp  .sp
272  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
273  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,  characters, though some of these can be qualified by further characters.
274  "the \fB/i\fP modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not  Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example, "the
275  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may  \fB/i\fP modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not always be
276  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between  a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may appear
277  the modifiers themselves.  between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between the
278  .P  modifiers themselves. For reference, here is a complete list of modifiers. They
279    fall into several groups that are described in detail in the following
280    sections.
281    .sp
282      \fB/8\fP              set UTF mode
283      \fB/?\fP              disable UTF validity check
284      \fB/+\fP              show remainder of subject after match
285      \fB/=\fP              show all captures (not just those that are set)
286    .sp
287      \fB/A\fP              set PCRE_ANCHORED
288      \fB/B\fP              show compiled code
289      \fB/C\fP              set PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
290      \fB/D\fP              same as \fB/B\fP plus \fB/I\fP
291      \fB/E\fP              set PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
292      \fB/F\fP              flip byte order in compiled pattern
293      \fB/f\fP              set PCRE_FIRSTLINE
294      \fB/G\fP              find all matches (shorten string)
295      \fB/g\fP              find all matches (use startoffset)
296      \fB/I\fP              show information about pattern
297      \fB/i\fP              set PCRE_CASELESS
298      \fB/J\fP              set PCRE_DUPNAMES
299      \fB/K\fP              show backtracking control names
300      \fB/L\fP              set locale
301      \fB/M\fP              show compiled memory size
302      \fB/m\fP              set PCRE_MULTILINE
303      \fB/N\fP              set PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
304      \fB/P\fP              use the POSIX wrapper
305      \fB/S\fP              study the pattern after compilation
306      \fB/s\fP              set PCRE_DOTALL
307      \fB/T\fP              select character tables
308      \fB/U\fP              set PCRE_UNGREEDY
309      \fB/W\fP              set PCRE_UCP
310      \fB/X\fP              set PCRE_EXTRA
311      \fB/x\fP              set PCRE_EXTENDED
312      \fB/Y\fP              set PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
313      \fB/Z\fP              don't show lengths in \fB/B\fP output
314    .sp
315      \fB/<any>\fP          set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
316      \fB/<anycrlf>\fP      set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
317      \fB/<cr>\fP           set PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
318      \fB/<crlf>\fP         set PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
319      \fB/<lf>\fP           set PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
320      \fB/<bsr_anycrlf>\fP  set PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
321      \fB/<bsr_unicode>\fP  set PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
322      \fB/<JS>\fP           set PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
323    .sp
324    .
325    .
326    .SS "Perl-compatible modifiers"
327    .rs
328    .sp
329  The \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, \fB/s\fP, and \fB/x\fP modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,  The \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, \fB/s\fP, and \fB/x\fP modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
330  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when  PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
331  \fBpcre_compile()\fP is called. These four modifier letters have the same  \fBpcre[16|32]_compile()\fP is called. These four modifier letters have the same
332  effect as they do in Perl. For example:  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
333  .sp  .sp
334    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
335  .sp  .sp
336  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  .
337  not correspond to anything in Perl:  .
338    .SS "Modifiers for other PCRE options"
339    .rs
340    .sp
341    The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
342    options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
343  .sp  .sp
344    \fB/A\fP          PCRE_ANCHORED    \fB/8\fP              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
345    \fB/C\fP          PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT    \fB/?\fP              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
   \fB/E\fP          PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY  
   \fB/f\fP          PCRE_FIRSTLINE  
   \fB/J\fP          PCRE_DUPNAMES  
   \fB/N\fP          PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE  
   \fB/U\fP          PCRE_UNGREEDY  
   \fB/X\fP          PCRE_EXTRA  
   \fB/<cr>\fP       PCRE_NEWLINE_CR  
   \fB/<lf>\fP       PCRE_NEWLINE_LF  
   \fB/<crlf>\fP     PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF  
   \fB/<anycrlf>\fP  PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF  
   \fB/<any>\fP      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY  
 .sp  
 Those specifying line ending sequences are literal strings as shown, but the  
 letters can be in either case. This example sets multiline matching with CRLF  
 as the line ending sequence:  
346  .sp  .sp
347    /^abc/m<crlf>    \fB/8\fP              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
348      \fB/?\fP              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
349  .sp  .sp
350  Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the    \fB/8\fP              PCRE_UTF32          ) when using the 32-bit
351      \fB/?\fP              PCRE_NO_UTF32_CHECK )   library
352    .sp
353      \fB/A\fP              PCRE_ANCHORED
354      \fB/C\fP              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
355      \fB/E\fP              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
356      \fB/f\fP              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
357      \fB/J\fP              PCRE_DUPNAMES
358      \fB/N\fP              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
359      \fB/U\fP              PCRE_UNGREEDY
360      \fB/W\fP              PCRE_UCP
361      \fB/X\fP              PCRE_EXTRA
362      \fB/Y\fP              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
363      \fB/<any>\fP          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
364      \fB/<anycrlf>\fP      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
365      \fB/<cr>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
366      \fB/<crlf>\fP         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
367      \fB/<lf>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
368      \fB/<bsr_anycrlf>\fP  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
369      \fB/<bsr_unicode>\fP  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
370      \fB/<JS>\fP           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
371    .sp
372    The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
373    including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
374    This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
375    .sp
376      /^abc/m<CRLF>
377    .sp
378    As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16/32 option, the \fB/8\fP modifier causes
379    all non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
380    \ex{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in hex without
381    the curly brackets.
382    .P
383    Full details of the PCRE options are given in the
384  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
385  \fBpcreapi\fP  \fBpcreapi\fP
386  .\"  .\"
# Line 191  Searching for all possible matches withi Line 394  Searching for all possible matches withi
394  by the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
395  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
396  \fB/g\fP and \fB/G\fP is that the former uses the \fIstartoffset\fP argument to  \fB/g\fP and \fB/G\fP is that the former uses the \fIstartoffset\fP argument to
397  \fBpcre_exec()\fP to start searching at a new point within the entire string  \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP to start searching at a new point within the entire
398  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a shortened  string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a
399  substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the pattern  shortened substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the
400  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).  pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).
401  .P  .P
402  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an  If any call to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches
403  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  an empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
404  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
405  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
406  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
407  \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function.  using the \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function. Normally, the start
408    offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
409    CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
410    of two is used.
411  .  .
412  .  .
413  .SS "Other modifiers"  .SS "Other modifiers"
# Line 211  There are yet more modifiers for control Line 417  There are yet more modifiers for control
417  operates.  operates.
418  .P  .P
419  The \fB/+\fP modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that  The \fB/+\fP modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
420  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of  matched the entire pattern, \fBpcretest\fP should in addition output the
421  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
422  multiple copies of the same substring.  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the \fB+\fP modifier appears
423    twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
424    remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
425    capture number. Note that this modifier must not immediately follow the /S
426    modifier because /S+ and /S++ have other meanings.
427    .P
428    The \fB/=\fP modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
429    parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up to the highest
430    one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the return code
431    from \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP). Values in the offsets vector corresponding to
432    higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as "<unset>". This
433    modifier gives a way of checking that this is happening.
434  .P  .P
435  The \fB/B\fP modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that \fBpcretest\fP  The \fB/B\fP modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that \fBpcretest\fP
436  output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally  output a representation of the compiled code after compilation. Normally this
437  this information contains length and offset values; however, if \fB/Z\fP is  information contains length and offset values; however, if \fB/Z\fP is also
438  also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for  present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for use in
439  use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated  the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated for
440  for different internal link sizes.  different internal link sizes.
441  .P  .P
442  The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
443  example,  \fB/BI\fP, that is, both the \fB/B\fP and the \fB/I\fP modifiers.
444  .sp  .P
445    /pattern/Lfr_FR  The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the
446  .sp  2-byte and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
447  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were compiled on a
448  \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the  host with a different endianness. This feature is not available when the POSIX
449  locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is
450  regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  specified. See also the section about saving and reloading compiled patterns
451  pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on which it appears.  below.
452  .P  .P
453  The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the  The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the
454  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
455  so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a  so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre[16|32]_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a
456  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
457  .P  .P
458  The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  The \fB/K\fP modifier requests \fBpcretest\fP to show names from backtracking
459  \fB/BI\fP, that is, both the \fB/B\fP and the \fB/I\fP modifiers.  control verbs that are returned from calls to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP. It causes
460    \fBpcretest\fP to create a \fBpcre[16|32]_extra\fP block if one has not already
461    been created by a call to \fBpcre[16|32]_study()\fP, and to set the
462    PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and the \fBmark\fP field within it, every time that
463    \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP is called. If the variable that the \fBmark\fP field
464    points to is non-NULL for a match, non-match, or partial match, \fBpcretest\fP
465    prints the string to which it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by
466    itself, tagged with "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
467  .P  .P
468  The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the  The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
469  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This  example,
470  facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns  .sp
471  that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not    /pattern/Lfr_FR
472  available when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the  .sp
473  \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
474  reloading compiled patterns below.  \fBpcre[16|32]_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for
475    the locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre[16|32]_compile()\fP when compiling
476    the regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP (or \fB/T\fP) modifier, NULL is
477    passed as the tables pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression
478    on which it appears.
479    .P
480    The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to hold
481    the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the size of the
482    \fBpcre[16|32]\fP block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pattern is
483    successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size of the
484    JIT compiled code is also output.
485  .P  .P
486  The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be called after the  The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre[16|32]_study()\fP to be called after the
487  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is
488  matched.  matched. There are a number of qualifying characters that may follow \fB/S\fP.
489    They may appear in any order.
490  .P  .P
491  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  If \fBS\fP is followed by an exclamation mark, \fBpcre[16|32]_study()\fP is called
492  pattern to be output.  with the PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED option, causing it always to return a
493    \fBpcre_extra\fP block, even when studying discovers no useful information.
494    .P
495    If \fB/S\fP is followed by a second S character, it suppresses studying, even
496    if it was requested externally by the \fB-s\fP command line option. This makes
497    it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
498    never studied, independently of \fB-s\fP. This feature is used in the test
499    files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
500    .P
501    If the \fB/S\fP modifier is followed by a + character, the call to
502    \fBpcre[16|32]_study()\fP is made with all the JIT study options, requesting
503    just-in-time optimization support if it is available, for both normal and
504    partial matching. If you want to restrict the JIT compiling modes, you can
505    follow \fB/S+\fP with a digit in the range 1 to 7:
506    .sp
507      1  normal match only
508      2  soft partial match only
509      3  normal match and soft partial match
510      4  hard partial match only
511      6  soft and hard partial match
512      7  all three modes (default)
513    .sp
514    If \fB/S++\fP is used instead of \fB/S+\fP (with or without a following digit),
515    the text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line after a match or no match
516    when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
517    .P
518    Note that there is also an independent \fB/+\fP modifier; it must not be given
519    immediately after \fB/S\fP or \fB/S+\fP because this will be misinterpreted.
520    .P
521    If JIT studying is successful, the compiled JIT code will automatically be used
522    when \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP is run, except when incompatible run-time options
523    are specified. For more details, see the
524    .\" HREF
525    \fBpcrejit\fP
526    .\"
527    documentation. See also the \fB\eJ\fP escape sequence below for a way of
528    setting the size of the JIT stack.
529  .P  .P
530    Finally, if \fB/S\fP is followed by a minus character, JIT compilation is
531    suppressed, even if it was requested externally by the \fB-s\fP command line
532    option. This makes it possible to specify that JIT is never to be used for
533    certain patterns.
534    .P
535    The \fB/T\fP modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
536    set of built-in character tables to be passed to \fBpcre[16|32]_compile()\fP. It
537    is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
538    tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
539    .sp
540      0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
541            pcre_chartables.c.dist
542      1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
543    .sp
544    In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
545    letters, digits, spaces, etc.
546    .
547    .
548    .SS "Using the POSIX wrapper API"
549    .rs
550    .sp
551  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
552  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  API rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library. When
553  \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, and \fB/+\fP are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if \fB/i\fP is  \fB/P\fP is set, the following modifiers set options for the \fBregcomp()\fP
554  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if \fB/m\fP is present. The wrapper functions  function:
555  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  .sp
556  .P    /i    REG_ICASE
557  The \fB/8\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8    /m    REG_NEWLINE
558  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,    /N    REG_NOSUB
559  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also    /s    REG_DOTALL     )
560  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the    /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
561  \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.    /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
562  .P    /8    REG_UTF8       )
563  If the \fB/?\fP modifier is used with \fB/8\fP, it causes \fBpcretest\fP to  .sp
564  call \fBpcre_compile()\fP with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  The \fB/+\fP modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
565  checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  ignored.
566  .  .
567  .  .
568  .SH "DATA LINES"  .SH "DATA LINES"
569  .rs  .rs
570  .sp  .sp
571  Before each data line is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP, leading and trailing  Before each data line is passed to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP, leading and trailing
572  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \e escapes. Some of these are  white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \e escapes. Some of these
573  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
574  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
575  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
576  recognized:  recognized:
# Line 286  recognized: Line 578  recognized:
578    \ea         alarm (BEL, \ex07)    \ea         alarm (BEL, \ex07)
579    \eb         backspace (\ex08)    \eb         backspace (\ex08)
580    \ee         escape (\ex27)    \ee         escape (\ex27)
581    \ef         formfeed (\ex0c)    \ef         form feed (\ex0c)
582    \en         newline (\ex0a)    \en         newline (\ex0a)
583  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
584    \eqdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd    \eqdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
# Line 294  recognized: Line 586  recognized:
586    \er         carriage return (\ex0d)    \er         carriage return (\ex0d)
587    \et         tab (\ex09)    \et         tab (\ex09)
588    \ev         vertical tab (\ex0b)    \ev         vertical tab (\ex0b)
589    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
590    \exhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                 a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit or 32-bit mode
591  .\" JOIN    \exhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
592    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
                in UTF-8 mode  
593  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
594    \eA         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eA         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
595                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
596  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
597    \eB         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eB         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
598                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
599  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
600    \eCdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd    \eCdd       call pcre[16|32]_copy_substring() for substring dd
601                 after a successful match (number less than 32)                 after a successful match (number less than 32)
602  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
603    \eCname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring    \eCname     call pcre[16|32]_copy_named_substring() for substring
604                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-
605                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
606  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
# Line 325  recognized: Line 616  recognized:
616  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
617    \eC*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout    \eC*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
618                 data; this is used as the callout return value                 data; this is used as the callout return value
619    \eD         use the \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP match function    \eD         use the \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP match function
620    \eF         only shortest match for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP    \eF         only shortest match for \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
621  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
622    \eGdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd    \eGdd       call pcre[16|32]_get_substring() for substring dd
623                 after a successful match (number less than 32)                 after a successful match (number less than 32)
624  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
625    \eGname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring    \eGname     call pcre[16|32]_get_named_substring() for substring
626                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-
627                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
628  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
629    \eL         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a    \eJdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
630                   number of digits)
631    .\" JOIN
632      \eL         call pcre[16|32]_get_substringlist() after a
633                 successful match                 successful match
634  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
635    \eM         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and    \eM         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
636                 MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                 MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
637  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
638    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
639                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
640                   PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
641  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
642    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to
643                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)                 \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)
644  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
645    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
646                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
647                   PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
648  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
649    \eQdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd    \eQdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
650                 (any number of digits)                 (any number of digits)
651    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
652    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
653  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
654    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eY         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
655                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
656    .\" JOIN
657      \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
658                   or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
659  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
660    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16|32]_CHECK option to
661                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
   \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);  
662  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
663                 this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
664                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 any number of digits); this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP
665                   argument for \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
666  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
667    \e<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
668                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
669  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
670    \e<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
671                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
672  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
673    \e<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
674                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
675  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
676    \e<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
677                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
678  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
679    \e<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP
680                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP
681  .sp  .sp
682    The use of \ex{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the \fB/8\fP modifier on
683    the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexadecimal
684    digits inside the braces; invalid values provoke error messages.
685    .P
686    Note that \exhh specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8 mode;
687    this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing
688    purposes. On the other hand, \ex{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
689    UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127.
690    When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode, \ex{hh} generates one byte
691    for values less than 256, and causes an error for greater values.
692    .P
693    In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \ex{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
694    possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
695    .P
696    In UTF-32 mode, all 4- to 8-digit \ex{...} values are accepted. This makes it
697    possible to construct invalid UTF-32 sequences for testing purposes.
698    .P
699  The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as  The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
700  shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.  shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
701  .P  .P
# Line 388  the very last character is a backslash, Line 704  the very last character is a backslash,
704  passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data  passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
705  input.  input.
706  .P  .P
707  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with  The \fB\eJ\fP escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
708  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP  used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT optimization
709  fields of the \fBpcre_extra\fP data structure, until it finds the minimum  is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the default 32K is
710  numbers for each parameter that allow \fBpcre_exec()\fP to complete. The  necessary only for very complicated patterns.
711  \fImatch_limit\fP number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes  .P
712  place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP several times,
713  number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching  with different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP
714  possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of  fields of the \fBpcre[16|32]_extra\fP data structure, until it finds the minimum
715  subject string. The \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP number is a measure of how much  numbers for each parameter that allow \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP to complete without
716  stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed  error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal interpretive
717  to complete the match attempt.  \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might
718    have been set up by the \fB/S+\fP qualifier of \fB-s+\fP option is disabled.
719    .P
720    The \fImatch_limit\fP number is a measure of the amount of backtracking
721    that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
722    matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of
723    matching possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length
724    of subject string. The \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP number is a measure of how
725    much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is
726    needed to complete the match attempt.
727  .P  .P
728  When \eO is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set  When \eO is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
729  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or defaulted to 45); \eO applies only to  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or defaulted to 45); \eO applies only to
730  the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.  the call of \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.
731  .P  .P
732  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
733  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB,
734  and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to  \eN, and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
735  \fBregexec()\fP.  to be passed to \fBregexec()\fP.
 .P  
 The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  
 of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  
 any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  
 six bytes, encoded according to the original UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This  
 allows for values in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are  
 valid Unicode code points, or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the  
 later rules in RFC 3629.  
736  .  .
737  .  .
738  .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"  .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
739  .rs  .rs
740  .sp  .sp
741  By default, \fBpcretest\fP uses the standard PCRE matching function,  By default, \fBpcretest\fP uses the standard PCRE matching function,
742  \fBpcre_exec()\fP to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an  \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP to match each data line. PCRE also supports an
743  alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_test()\fP, which operates in a  alternative matching function, \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_test()\fP, which operates in a
744  different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two  different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
745  functions are described in the  functions are described in the
746  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
# Line 432  functions are described in the Line 749  functions are described in the
749  documentation.  documentation.
750  .P  .P
751  If a data line contains the \eD escape sequence, or if the command line  If a data line contains the \eD escape sequence, or if the command line
752  contains the \fB-dfa\fP option, the alternative matching function is called.  contains the \fB-dfa\fP option, the alternative matching function is used.
753  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \eF  This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \eF
754  escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is  escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
755  found. This is always the shortest possible match.  found. This is always the shortest possible match.
# Line 442  found. This is always the shortest possi Line 759  found. This is always the shortest possi
759  .rs  .rs
760  .sp  .sp
761  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
762  \fBpcre_exec()\fP, is being used.  \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP, is being used.
763  .P  .P
764  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, \fBpcretest\fP outputs the list of captured substrings
765  \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  that \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
766  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"  matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
767  when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
768  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example  substring when \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that
769  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.  this is the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it
770    may include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
771    \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.) For any other return, \fBpcretest\fP outputs
772    the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
773    a failed UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
774    the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the output vector is
775    at least two. Here is an example of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.
776  .sp  .sp
777    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
778    PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006    PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
779  .sp  .sp
780      re> /^abc(\ed+)/      re> /^abc(\ed+)/
781    data> abc123    data> abc123
# Line 461  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run. Line 784  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.
784    data> xyz    data> xyz
785    No match    No match
786  .sp  .sp
787  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x  Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
788  escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the  returned by \fBpcre[16|32]_exec()\fP, and are not shown by \fBpcretest\fP. In the
789  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the  following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
790  pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
791  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:  substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second data line.
792    .sp
793        re> /(a)|(b)/
794      data> a
795       0: a
796       1: a
797      data> b
798       0: b
799       1: <unset>
800       2: b
801    .sp
802    If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \exhh
803    escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set. Otherwise they
804    are output as \ex{hh...} escapes. See below for the definition of non-printing
805    characters. If the pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring
806    0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
807    this:
808  .sp  .sp
809      re> /cat/+      re> /cat/+
810    data> cataract    data> cataract
# Line 484  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 823  matching attempts are output in sequence
823     0: ipp     0: ipp
824     1: pp     1: pp
825  .sp  .sp
826  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
827    of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \e>4 is past the end of
828    the subject string):
829    .sp
830        re> /xyz/
831      data> xyz\e>4
832      Error -24 (bad offset value)
833  .P  .P
834  If any of the sequences \fB\eC\fP, \fB\eG\fP, or \fB\eL\fP are present in a  If any of the sequences \fB\eC\fP, \fB\eG\fP, or \fB\eL\fP are present in a
835  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the
# Line 503  the newline sequence setting). Line 848  the newline sequence setting).
848  .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"  .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
849  .rs  .rs
850  .sp  .sp
851  When the alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, is used (by  When the alternative matching function, \fBpcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()\fP, is used (by
852  means of the \eD escape sequence or the \fB-dfa\fP command line option), the  means of the \eD escape sequence or the \fB-dfa\fP command line option), the
853  output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in  output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
854  the subject where there is at least one match. For example:  the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
# Line 515  the subject where there is at least one Line 860  the subject where there is at least one
860     2: tan     2: tan
861  .sp  .sp
862  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
863  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
864    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
865    partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
866    inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
867    match start if a lookbehind assertion, \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.)
868  .P  .P
869  If \fB/g\fP is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes  If \fB/g\fP is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
870  at the end of the longest match. For example:  at the end of the longest match. For example:
# Line 561  If the pattern contains any callout requ Line 910  If the pattern contains any callout requ
910  is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,  is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
911  the called function displays the callout number, the start and current  the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
912  positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be  positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
913  tested. For example, the output  tested. For example:
914  .sp  .sp
915    --->pqrabcdef    --->pqrabcdef
916      0    ^  ^     \ed      0    ^  ^     \ed
917  .sp  .sp
918  indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the  This output indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt
919  fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh  starting at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at
920  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \ed. Just one  the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \ed. Just
921  circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.  one circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
922  .P  .P
923  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a  Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
924  result of the \fB/C\fP pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing the  result of the \fB/C\fP pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing the
# Line 585  example: Line 934  example:
934    +10 ^ ^    +10 ^ ^
935     0: E*     0: E*
936  .sp  .sp
937    If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output whenever
938    a change of latest mark is passed to the callout function. For example:
939    .sp
940        re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
941      data> abc
942      --->abc
943       +0 ^       a
944       +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
945      +10 ^^      b
946      Latest Mark: X
947      +11 ^ ^     c
948      +12 ^  ^
949       0: abc
950    .sp
951    The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for the rest
952    of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of backtracking, the
953    mark reverts to being unset, the text "<unset>" is output.
954    .P
955  The callout function in \fBpcretest\fP returns zero (carry on matching) by  The callout function in \fBpcretest\fP returns zero (carry on matching) by
956  default, but you can use a \eC item in a data line (as described above) to  default, but you can use a \eC item in a data line (as described above) to
957  change this.  change this and other parameters of the callout.
958  .P  .P
959  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using \fBpcretest\fP to check  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using \fBpcretest\fP to check
960  complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see  complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
# Line 617  function to distinguish printing and non Line 984  function to distinguish printing and non
984  .rs  .rs
985  .sp  .sp
986  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
987  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is
988  specified.  specified.
989  .P  .P
990  When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause \fBpcretest\fP to write a  When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause \fBpcretest\fP to write a
# Line 631  See the Line 998  See the
998  \fBpcreprecompile\fP  \fBpcreprecompile\fP
999  .\"  .\"
1000  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
1001    Note that if the pattern was successfully studied with JIT optimization, the
1002    JIT data cannot be saved.
1003  .P  .P
1004  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
1005  compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each  compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each
# Line 638  written as four bytes in big-endian orde Line 1007  written as four bytes in big-endian orde
1007  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
1008  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
1009  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
1010  follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,  (excluding any JIT data) follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After
1011  \fBpcretest\fP expects to read a new pattern.  writing the file, \fBpcretest\fP expects to read a new pattern.
1012  .P  .P
1013  A saved pattern can be reloaded into \fBpcretest\fP by specifing < and a file  A saved pattern can be reloaded into \fBpcretest\fP by specifying < and a file
1014  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a < character,  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a < character,
1015  as otherwise \fBpcretest\fP will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by <  as otherwise \fBpcretest\fP will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by <
1016  characters.  characters.
1017  For example:  For example:
1018  .sp  .sp
1019     re> </some/file     re> </some/file
1020    Compiled regex loaded from /some/file    Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
1021    No study data    No study data
1022  .sp  .sp
1023  When the pattern has been loaded, \fBpcretest\fP proceeds to read data lines in  If the pattern was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the JIT
1024  the usual way.  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the pattern has
1025    been loaded, \fBpcretest\fP proceeds to read data lines in the usual way.
1026  .P  .P
1027  You can copy a file written by \fBpcretest\fP to a different host and reload it  You can copy a file written by \fBpcretest\fP to a different host and reload it
1028  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
1029  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on  pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
1030  a SPARC machine.  a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a host with different
1031    endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
1032    .sp
1033      Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
1034    .sp
1035    The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
1036    endianness. These are reloaded using "<!" instead of just "<". This suppresses
1037    the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on all hosts. It also
1038    forces debugging output once the pattern has been reloaded.
1039  .P  .P
1040  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that  File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
1041  the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with a tilde (~) is not  the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with a tilde (~) is not
# Line 676  result is undefined. Line 1054  result is undefined.
1054  .SH "SEE ALSO"  .SH "SEE ALSO"
1055  .rs  .rs
1056  .sp  .sp
1057  \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcreapi\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrematching\fP(3),  \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcre16\fP(3), \fBpcre32\fP(3), \fBpcreapi\fP(3),
1058  \fBpcrepartial\fP(d), \fBpcrepattern\fP(3), \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3).  \fBpcrecallout\fP(3),
1059    \fBpcrejit\fP, \fBpcrematching\fP(3), \fBpcrepartial\fP(d),
1060    \fBpcrepattern\fP(3), \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3).
1061  .  .
1062  .  .
1063  .SH AUTHOR  .SH AUTHOR
# Line 694  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England. Line 1074  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
1074  .rs  .rs
1075  .sp  .sp
1076  .nf  .nf
1077  Last updated: 21 August 2007  Last updated: 10 September 2012
1078  Copyright (c) 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.  Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.
1079  .fi  .fi

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