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revision 227 by ph10, Tue Aug 21 15:00:15 2007 UTC revision 780 by ph10, Fri Dec 2 11:39:21 2011 UTC
# Line 4  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-co Line 4  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-co
4  .SH SYNOPSIS  .SH SYNOPSIS
5  .rs  .rs
6  .sp  .sp
7  .B pcretest "[options] [source] [destination]"  .B pcretest "[options] [input file [output file]]"
8  .sp  .sp
9  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
10  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
# Line 18  options, see the Line 18  options, see the
18  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
19  \fBpcreapi\fP  \fBpcreapi\fP
20  .\"  .\"
21  documentation.  documentation. The input for \fBpcretest\fP is a sequence of regular expression
22    patterns and strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the
23    result of each match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE
24    options and exactly what is output.
25  .  .
26  .  .
27  .SH OPTIONS  .SH COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
28  .rs  .rs
29  .TP 10  .TP 10
30  \fB-b\fP  \fB-b\fP
31  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/B\fP (show bytecode) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/B\fP (show byte code) modifier; the
32  form is output after compilation.  internal form is output after compilation.
33  .TP 10  .TP 10
34  \fB-C\fP  \fB-C\fP
35  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
36  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
37  .TP 10  .TP 10
38  \fB-d\fP  \fB-d\fP
39  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal
40  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
41  \fB-d\fP is equivalent to \fB-b -i\fP.  \fB-d\fP is equivalent to \fB-b -i\fP.
42  .TP 10  .TP 10
# Line 46  standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (mor Line 49  standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (mor
49  Output a brief summary these options and then exit.  Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
50  .TP 10  .TP 10
51  \fB-i\fP  \fB-i\fP
52  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the
53  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
54  .TP 10  .TP 10
55    \fB-M\fP
56    Behave as if each data line contains the \eM escape sequence; this causes
57    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
58    calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP repeatedly with different limits.
59    .TP 10
60  \fB-m\fP  \fB-m\fP
61  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
62  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression.
 with earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s\fP is a synonym for \fB-m\fP.  
63  .TP 10  .TP 10
64  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP
65  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
# Line 63  changed for individual matching calls by Line 70  changed for individual matching calls by
70  below).  below).
71  .TP 10  .TP 10
72  \fB-p\fP  \fB-p\fP
73  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
74  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is
75  set.  set.
76  .TP 10  .TP 10
# Line 71  set. Line 78  set.
78  Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.  Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.
79  .TP 10  .TP 10
80  \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP  \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP
81  On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to \fIsize\fP  On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to \fIsize\fP
82  megabytes.  megabytes.
83  .TP 10  .TP 10
84    \fB-s\fP or \fB-s+\fP
85    Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/S\fP modifier; in other words, force each
86    pattern to be studied. If \fB-s+\fP is used, the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE flag is
87    passed to \fBpcre_study()\fP, causing just-in-time optimization to be set up if
88    it is available. If the \fB/I\fP or \fB/D\fP option is present on a pattern
89    (requesting output about the compiled pattern), information about the result of
90    studying is not included when studying is caused only by \fB-s\fP and neither
91    \fB-i\fP nor \fB-d\fP is present on the command line. This behaviour means that
92    the output from tests that are run with and without \fB-s\fP should be
93    identical, except when options that output information about the actual running
94    of a match are set. The \fB-M\fP, \fB-t\fP, and \fB-tm\fP options, which give
95    information about resources used, are likely to produce different output with
96    and without \fB-s\fP. Output may also differ if the \fB/C\fP option is present
97    on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the matching process,
98    and this may be different between studied and non-studied patterns. If the
99    pattern contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences, for the same
100    reason. The \fB-s\fP command line option can be overridden for specific
101    patterns that should never be studied (see the \fB/S\fP pattern modifier
102    below).
103    .TP 10
104  \fB-t\fP  \fB-t\fP
105  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
106  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with
# Line 97  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis Line 124  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis
124  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular
125  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.
126  .P  .P
127    When \fBpcretest\fP is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
128    be linked with the \fBlibreadline\fP library. When this is done, if the input
129    is from a terminal, it is read using the \fBreadline()\fP function. This
130    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the \fB-help\fP
131    option states whether or not \fBreadline()\fP will be used.
132    .P
133  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
134  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
135  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
# Line 143  pcretest to read the next line as a cont Line 176  pcretest to read the next line as a cont
176  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
177  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,
178  "the \fB/i\fP modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not  "the \fB/i\fP modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not
179  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may
180  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between
181  the modifiers themselves.  the modifiers themselves.
182  .P  .P
# Line 154  effect as they do in Perl. For example: Line 187  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
187  .sp  .sp
188    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
189  .sp  .sp
190  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
191  not correspond to anything in Perl:  options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
 .sp  
   \fB/A\fP          PCRE_ANCHORED  
   \fB/C\fP          PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT  
   \fB/E\fP          PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY  
   \fB/f\fP          PCRE_FIRSTLINE  
   \fB/J\fP          PCRE_DUPNAMES  
   \fB/N\fP          PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE  
   \fB/U\fP          PCRE_UNGREEDY  
   \fB/X\fP          PCRE_EXTRA  
   \fB/<cr>\fP       PCRE_NEWLINE_CR  
   \fB/<lf>\fP       PCRE_NEWLINE_LF  
   \fB/<crlf>\fP     PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF  
   \fB/<anycrlf>\fP  PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF  
   \fB/<any>\fP      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY  
 .sp  
 Those specifying line ending sequences are literal strings as shown, but the  
 letters can be in either case. This example sets multiline matching with CRLF  
 as the line ending sequence:  
 .sp  
   /^abc/m<crlf>  
192  .sp  .sp
193  Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the    \fB/8\fP              PCRE_UTF8
194      \fB/?\fP              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
195      \fB/A\fP              PCRE_ANCHORED
196      \fB/C\fP              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
197      \fB/E\fP              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
198      \fB/f\fP              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
199      \fB/J\fP              PCRE_DUPNAMES
200      \fB/N\fP              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
201      \fB/U\fP              PCRE_UNGREEDY
202      \fB/W\fP              PCRE_UCP
203      \fB/X\fP              PCRE_EXTRA
204      \fB/Y\fP              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
205      \fB/<JS>\fP           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
206      \fB/<cr>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
207      \fB/<lf>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
208      \fB/<crlf>\fP         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
209      \fB/<anycrlf>\fP      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
210      \fB/<any>\fP          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
211      \fB/<bsr_anycrlf>\fP  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
212      \fB/<bsr_unicode>\fP  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
213    .sp
214    The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
215    including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
216    This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
217    .sp
218      /^abc/m<CRLF>
219    .sp
220    As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the \fB/8\fP modifier also causes
221    any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
222    \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full details of the PCRE
223    options are given in the
224  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
225  \fBpcreapi\fP  \fBpcreapi\fP
226  .\"  .\"
# Line 197  substring. This makes a difference to th Line 240  substring. This makes a difference to th
240  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).
241  .P  .P
242  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an
243  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
244  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
245  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
246  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
247  \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function.  using the \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function. Normally, the start
248    offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
249    CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
250    of two is used.
251  .  .
252  .  .
253  .SS "Other modifiers"  .SS "Other modifiers"
# Line 211  There are yet more modifiers for control Line 257  There are yet more modifiers for control
257  operates.  operates.
258  .P  .P
259  The \fB/+\fP modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that  The \fB/+\fP modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
260  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of  matched the entire pattern, \fBpcretest\fP should in addition output the
261  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
262  multiple copies of the same substring.  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the \fB+\fP modifier appears
263    twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
264    remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
265    capture number. Note that this modifier must not immediately follow the /S
266    modifier because /S+ has another meaning.
267    .P
268    The \fB/=\fP modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
269    parentheses be output after a match by \fBpcre_exec()\fP. By default, only
270    those up to the highest one actually used in the match are output
271    (corresponding to the return code from \fBpcre_exec()\fP). Values in the
272    offsets vector corresponding to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these
273    are output as "<unset>". This modifier gives a way of checking that this is
274    happening.
275  .P  .P
276  The \fB/B\fP modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that \fBpcretest\fP  The \fB/B\fP modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that \fBpcretest\fP
277  output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally  output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally
# Line 222  also present, this data is replaced by s Line 280  also present, this data is replaced by s
280  use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated  use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated
281  for different internal link sizes.  for different internal link sizes.
282  .P  .P
 The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  
 example,  
 .sp  
   /pattern/Lfr_FR  
 .sp  
 For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  
 \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the  
 locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the  
 regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  
 pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
 .P  
 The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the  
 compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  
 so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a  
 pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 .P  
283  The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
284  \fB/BI\fP, that is, both the \fB/B\fP and the \fB/I\fP modifiers.  \fB/BI\fP, that is, both the \fB/B\fP and the \fB/I\fP modifiers.
285  .P  .P
# Line 249  available when the POSIX interface to PC Line 291  available when the POSIX interface to PC
291  \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and  \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
292  reloading compiled patterns below.  reloading compiled patterns below.
293  .P  .P
294  The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be called after the  The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the
295  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
296  matched.  so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a
297    pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
298    .P
299    The \fB/K\fP modifier requests \fBpcretest\fP to show names from backtracking
300    control verbs that are returned from calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP. It causes
301    \fBpcretest\fP to create a \fBpcre_extra\fP block if one has not already been
302    created by a call to \fBpcre_study()\fP, and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag
303    and the \fBmark\fP field within it, every time that \fBpcre_exec()\fP is
304    called. If the variable that the \fBmark\fP field points to is non-NULL for a
305    match, non-match, or partial match, \fBpcretest\fP prints the string to which
306    it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".
307    For a non-match it is added to the message.
308    .P
309    The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
310    example,
311    .sp
312      /pattern/Lfr_FR
313    .sp
314    For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
315    \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the
316    locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the
317    regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP (or \fB/T\fP) modifier, NULL is passed
318    as the tables pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on
319    which it appears.
320  .P  .P
321  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled
322  pattern to be output.  pattern to be output. This does not include the size of the \fBpcre\fP block;
323    it is just the actual compiled data. If the pattern is successfully studied
324    with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size of the JIT compiled code is
325    also output.
326    .P
327    If the \fB/S\fP modifier appears once, it causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be
328    called after the expression has been compiled, and the results used when the
329    expression is matched. If \fB/S\fP appears twice, it suppresses studying, even
330    if it was requested externally by the \fB-s\fP command line option. This makes
331    it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
332    never studied, independently of \fB-s\fP. This feature is used in the test
333    files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
334    .P
335    If the \fB/S\fP modifier is immediately followed by a + character, the call to
336    \fBpcre_study()\fP is made with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, requesting
337    just-in-time optimization support if it is available. Note that there is also a
338    \fB/+\fP modifier; it must not be given immediately after \fB/S\fP because this
339    will be misinterpreted. If JIT studying is successful, it will automatically be
340    used when \fBpcre_exec()\fP is run, except when incompatible run-time options
341    are specified. These include the partial matching options; a complete list is
342    given in the
343    .\" HREF
344    \fBpcrejit\fP
345    .\"
346    documentation. See also the \fB\eJ\fP escape sequence below for a way of
347    setting the size of the JIT stack.
348  .P  .P
349    The \fB/T\fP modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
350    set of built-in character tables to be passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP. It is
351    used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
352    tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
353    .sp
354      0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
355            pcre_chartables.c.dist
356      1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
357    .sp
358    In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
359    letters, digits, spaces, etc.
360    .
361    .
362    .SS "Using the POSIX wrapper API"
363    .rs
364    .sp
365  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
366  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  API rather than its native API. When \fB/P\fP is set, the following modifiers
367  \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, and \fB/+\fP are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if \fB/i\fP is  set options for the \fBregcomp()\fP function:
368  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if \fB/m\fP is present. The wrapper functions  .sp
369  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.    /i    REG_ICASE
370  .P    /m    REG_NEWLINE
371  The \fB/8\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8    /N    REG_NOSUB
372  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,    /s    REG_DOTALL     )
373  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also    /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
374  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the    /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
375  \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.    /8    REG_UTF8       )
376  .P  .sp
377  If the \fB/?\fP modifier is used with \fB/8\fP, it causes \fBpcretest\fP to  The \fB/+\fP modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
378  call \fBpcre_compile()\fP with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  ignored.
 checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  
379  .  .
380  .  .
381  .SH "DATA LINES"  .SH "DATA LINES"
382  .rs  .rs
383  .sp  .sp
384  Before each data line is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP, leading and trailing  Before each data line is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP, leading and trailing
385  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \e escapes. Some of these are  white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \e escapes. Some of these
386  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
387  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
388  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
389  recognized:  recognized:
# Line 286  recognized: Line 391  recognized:
391    \ea         alarm (BEL, \ex07)    \ea         alarm (BEL, \ex07)
392    \eb         backspace (\ex08)    \eb         backspace (\ex08)
393    \ee         escape (\ex27)    \ee         escape (\ex27)
394    \ef         formfeed (\ex0c)    \ef         form feed (\ex0c)
395    \en         newline (\ex0a)    \en         newline (\ex0a)
396  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
397    \eqdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd    \eqdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
# Line 295  recognized: Line 400  recognized:
400    \et         tab (\ex09)    \et         tab (\ex09)
401    \ev         vertical tab (\ex0b)    \ev         vertical tab (\ex0b)
402    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
403    \exhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                 always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode
404      \exhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
405  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
406    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
407                 in UTF-8 mode                 in UTF-8 mode
# Line 335  recognized: Line 441  recognized:
441                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-
442                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
443  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
444      \eJdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
445                   number of digits)
446    .\" JOIN
447    \eL         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a    \eL         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a
448                 successful match                 successful match
449  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
# Line 342  recognized: Line 451  recognized:
451                 MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                 MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
452  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
453    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
454                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
455                   PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
456  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
457    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to
458                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)
459  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
460    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
461                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
462                   PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
463  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
464    \eQdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd    \eQdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
465                 (any number of digits)                 (any number of digits)
466    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
467    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
468  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
469      \eY         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
470                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
471    .\" JOIN
472    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
473                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
474  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
475    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
476                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
   \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);  
477  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
478                 this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
479                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 any number of digits); this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP
480                   argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
481  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
482    \e<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
483                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
# Line 380  recognized: Line 494  recognized:
494    \e<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
495                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
496  .sp  .sp
497    Note that \exhh always specifies one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this makes it
498    possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing purposes. On the
499    other hand, \ex{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in UTF-8 mode,
500    generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127. When not in
501    UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error
502    for greater values.
503    .P
504  The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as  The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
505  shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.  shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
506  .P  .P
# Line 388  the very last character is a backslash, Line 509  the very last character is a backslash,
509  passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data  passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
510  input.  input.
511  .P  .P
512    The \fB\eJ\fP escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
513    used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT optimization
514    is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the default 32K is
515    necessary only for very complicated patterns.
516    .P
517  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with
518  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP
519  fields of the \fBpcre_extra\fP data structure, until it finds the minimum  fields of the \fBpcre_extra\fP data structure, until it finds the minimum
520  numbers for each parameter that allow \fBpcre_exec()\fP to complete. The  numbers for each parameter that allow \fBpcre_exec()\fP to complete without
521  \fImatch_limit\fP number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes  error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal interpretive
522  place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the  \fBpcre_exec()\fP execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might have
523  number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching  been set up by the \fB/S+\fP qualifier of \fB-s+\fP option is disabled.
524  possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of  .P
525  subject string. The \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP number is a measure of how much  The \fImatch_limit\fP number is a measure of the amount of backtracking
526  stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed  that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
527  to complete the match attempt.  matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of
528    matching possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length
529    of subject string. The \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP number is a measure of how
530    much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is
531    needed to complete the match attempt.
532  .P  .P
533  When \eO is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set  When \eO is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
534  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or defaulted to 45); \eO applies only to  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or defaulted to 45); \eO applies only to
535  the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.  the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.
536  .P  .P
537  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
538  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB,
539  and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to  \eN, and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
540  \fBregexec()\fP.  to be passed to \fBregexec()\fP.
541  .P  .P
542  The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
543  of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be
# Line 444  found. This is always the shortest possi Line 574  found. This is always the shortest possi
574  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
575  \fBpcre_exec()\fP, is being used.  \fBpcre_exec()\fP, is being used.
576  .P  .P
577  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, \fBpcretest\fP outputs the list of captured substrings
578  \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  that \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
579  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"  matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
580  when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
581  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example  substring when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is
582  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.  the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it may
583    include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
584    \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.) For any other return, \fBpcretest\fP outputs
585    the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
586    a failed UTF-8 string check, the byte offset of the start of the failing
587    character and the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the
588    output vector is at least two. Here is an example of an interactive
589    \fBpcretest\fP run.
590  .sp  .sp
591    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
592    PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006    PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
593  .sp  .sp
594      re> /^abc(\ed+)/      re> /^abc(\ed+)/
595    data> abc123    data> abc123
# Line 461  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run. Line 598  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.
598    data> xyz    data> xyz
599    No match    No match
600  .sp  .sp
601    Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
602    returned by \fBpcre_exec()\fP, and are not shown by \fBpcretest\fP. In the
603    following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
604    line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
605    substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second data line.
606    .sp
607        re> /(a)|(b)/
608      data> a
609       0: a
610       1: a
611      data> b
612       0: b
613       1: <unset>
614       2: b
615    .sp
616  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x
617  escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the  escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the
618  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
# Line 484  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 636  matching attempts are output in sequence
636     0: ipp     0: ipp
637     1: pp     1: pp
638  .sp  .sp
639  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
640    of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \e>4 is past the end of
641    the subject string):
642    .sp
643        re> /xyz/
644      data> xyz\e>4
645      Error -24 (bad offset value)
646  .P  .P
647  If any of the sequences \fB\eC\fP, \fB\eG\fP, or \fB\eL\fP are present in a  If any of the sequences \fB\eC\fP, \fB\eG\fP, or \fB\eL\fP are present in a
648  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the
# Line 515  the subject where there is at least one Line 673  the subject where there is at least one
673     2: tan     2: tan
674  .sp  .sp
675  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
676  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
677    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
678    partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
679    inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
680    match start if a lookbehind assertion, \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.)
681  .P  .P
682  If \fB/g\fP is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes  If \fB/g\fP is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
683  at the end of the longest match. For example:  at the end of the longest match. For example:
# Line 585  example: Line 747  example:
747    +10 ^ ^    +10 ^ ^
748     0: E*     0: E*
749  .sp  .sp
750    If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output whenever
751    a change of latest mark is passed to the callout function. For example:
752    .sp
753        re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
754      data> abc
755      --->abc
756       +0 ^       a
757       +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
758      +10 ^^      b
759      Latest Mark: X
760      +11 ^ ^     c
761      +12 ^  ^
762       0: abc
763    .sp
764    The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for the rest
765    of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of backtracking, the
766    mark reverts to being unset, the text "<unset>" is output.
767    .P
768  The callout function in \fBpcretest\fP returns zero (carry on matching) by  The callout function in \fBpcretest\fP returns zero (carry on matching) by
769  default, but you can use a \eC item in a data line (as described above) to  default, but you can use a \eC item in a data line (as described above) to
770  change this.  change this and other parameters of the callout.
771  .P  .P
772  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using \fBpcretest\fP to check  Inserting callouts can be helpful when using \fBpcretest\fP to check
773  complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see  complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
# Line 617  function to distinguish printing and non Line 797  function to distinguish printing and non
797  .rs  .rs
798  .sp  .sp
799  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
800  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is
801  specified.  specified.
802  .P  .P
803  When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause \fBpcretest\fP to write a  When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause \fBpcretest\fP to write a
# Line 631  See the Line 811  See the
811  \fBpcreprecompile\fP  \fBpcreprecompile\fP
812  .\"  .\"
813  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.  documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
814    Note that if the pattern was successfully studied with JIT optimization, the
815    JIT data cannot be saved.
816  .P  .P
817  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the  The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
818  compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each  compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each
# Line 638  written as four bytes in big-endian orde Line 820  written as four bytes in big-endian orde
820  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not  there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
821  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an  return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
822  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
823  follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,  (excluding any JIT data) follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After
824  \fBpcretest\fP expects to read a new pattern.  writing the file, \fBpcretest\fP expects to read a new pattern.
825  .P  .P
826  A saved pattern can be reloaded into \fBpcretest\fP by specifing < and a file  A saved pattern can be reloaded into \fBpcretest\fP by specifying < and a file
827  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a < character,  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a < character,
828  as otherwise \fBpcretest\fP will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by <  as otherwise \fBpcretest\fP will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by <
829  characters.  characters.
830  For example:  For example:
831  .sp  .sp
832     re> </some/file     re> </some/file
833    Compiled regex loaded from /some/file    Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
834    No study data    No study data
835  .sp  .sp
836  When the pattern has been loaded, \fBpcretest\fP proceeds to read data lines in  If the pattern was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the JIT
837  the usual way.  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the pattern has
838    been loaded, \fBpcretest\fP proceeds to read data lines in the usual way.
839  .P  .P
840  You can copy a file written by \fBpcretest\fP to a different host and reload it  You can copy a file written by \fBpcretest\fP to a different host and reload it
841  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the  there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
# Line 676  result is undefined. Line 859  result is undefined.
859  .SH "SEE ALSO"  .SH "SEE ALSO"
860  .rs  .rs
861  .sp  .sp
862  \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcreapi\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrematching\fP(3),  \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcreapi\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrejit\fP,
863  \fBpcrepartial\fP(d), \fBpcrepattern\fP(3), \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3).  \fBpcrematching\fP(3), \fBpcrepartial\fP(d), \fBpcrepattern\fP(3),
864    \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3).
865  .  .
866  .  .
867  .SH AUTHOR  .SH AUTHOR
# Line 694  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England. Line 878  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
878  .rs  .rs
879  .sp  .sp
880  .nf  .nf
881  Last updated: 21 August 2007  Last updated: 02 December 2011
882  Copyright (c) 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.  Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
883  .fi  .fi

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