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revision 77 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:40:45 2007 UTC revision 598 by ph10, Sat May 7 15:37:31 2011 UTC
# Line 4  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-co Line 4  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-co
4  .SH SYNOPSIS  .SH SYNOPSIS
5  .rs  .rs
6  .sp  .sp
7  .B pcretest "[-C] [-d] [-dfa] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source]"  .B pcretest "[options] [source] [destination]"
8  .ti +5n  .sp
 .B "[destination]"  
 .P  
9  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
10  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
11  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
# Line 26  documentation. Line 24  documentation.
24  .SH OPTIONS  .SH OPTIONS
25  .rs  .rs
26  .TP 10  .TP 10
27    \fB-b\fP
28    Behave as if each regex has the \fB/B\fP (show bytecode) modifier; the internal
29    form is output after compilation.
30    .TP 10
31  \fB-C\fP  \fB-C\fP
32  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
33  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
34  .TP 10  .TP 10
35  \fB-d\fP  \fB-d\fP
36  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal
37  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
38    \fB-d\fP is equivalent to \fB-b -i\fP.
39  .TP 10  .TP 10
40  \fB-dfa\fP  \fB-dfa\fP
41  Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the  Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the
42  alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead of the  alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead of the
43  standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).  standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).
44  .TP 10  .TP 10
45    \fB-help\fP
46    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
47    .TP 10
48  \fB-i\fP  \fB-i\fP
49  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the
50  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
51  .TP 10  .TP 10
52    \fB-M\fP
53    Behave as if each data line contains the \eM escape sequence; this causes
54    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
55    calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP repeatedly with different limits.
56    .TP 10
57  \fB-m\fP  \fB-m\fP
58  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
59  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. For compatibility
# Line 50  with earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s Line 61  with earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s
61  .TP 10  .TP 10
62  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP
63  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
64  \fBpcre_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The default value is 45, which is enough  \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The default value
65  for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
66  matching calls by including \eO in the data line (see below).  22 different matches for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. The vector size can be
67    changed for individual matching calls by including \eO in the data line (see
68    below).
69  .TP 10  .TP 10
70  \fB-p\fP  \fB-p\fP
71  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
72  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is
73  set.  set.
74  .TP 10  .TP 10
75    \fB-q\fP
76    Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.
77    .TP 10
78    \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP
79    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to \fIsize\fP
80    megabytes.
81    .TP 10
82  \fB-t\fP  \fB-t\fP
83  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
84  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with
85  \fB-t\fP, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the  \fB-t\fP, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
86  timing will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
87    used for timing by following \fB-t\fP with a number (as a separate item on the
88    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
89    to iterate 500000 times.
90    .TP 10
91    \fB-tm\fP
92    This is like \fB-t\fP except that it times only the matching phase, not the
93    compile or study phases.
94  .  .
95  .  .
96  .SH DESCRIPTION  .SH DESCRIPTION
# Line 75  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis Line 102  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis
102  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular
103  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.
104  .P  .P
105    When \fBpcretest\fP is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
106    be linked with the \fBlibreadline\fP library. When this is done, if the input
107    is from a terminal, it is read using the \fBreadline()\fP function. This
108    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the \fB-help\fP
109    option states whether or not \fBreadline()\fP will be used.
110    .P
111  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
112  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
113  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
114  .P  .P
115  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
116  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \en escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \en escape sequence (or \er or \er\en,
117  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
118  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
119    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
120  .P  .P
121  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
122  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
123  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
124  .sp  .sp
125    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
126  .sp  .sp
# Line 131  effect as they do in Perl. For example: Line 165  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
165  .sp  .sp
166    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
167  .sp  .sp
168  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
169  not correspond to anything in Perl:  options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
170  .sp  .sp
171    \fB/A\fP    PCRE_ANCHORED    \fB/8\fP              PCRE_UTF8
172    \fB/C\fP    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT    \fB/?\fP              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
173    \fB/E\fP    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY    \fB/A\fP              PCRE_ANCHORED
174    \fB/f\fP    PCRE_FIRSTLINE    \fB/C\fP              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
175    \fB/N\fP    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE    \fB/E\fP              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
176    \fB/U\fP    PCRE_UNGREEDY    \fB/f\fP              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
177    \fB/X\fP    PCRE_EXTRA    \fB/J\fP              PCRE_DUPNAMES
178      \fB/N\fP              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
179      \fB/U\fP              PCRE_UNGREEDY
180      \fB/W\fP              PCRE_UCP
181      \fB/X\fP              PCRE_EXTRA
182      \fB/Y\fP              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
183      \fB/<JS>\fP           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
184      \fB/<cr>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
185      \fB/<lf>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
186      \fB/<crlf>\fP         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
187      \fB/<anycrlf>\fP      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
188      \fB/<any>\fP          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
189      \fB/<bsr_anycrlf>\fP  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
190      \fB/<bsr_unicode>\fP  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
191    .sp
192    The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
193    including the angle brackets, but the letters can be in either case. This
194    example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
195    .sp
196      /^abc/m<crlf>
197    .sp
198    As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the \fB/8\fP modifier also causes
199    any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
200    \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full details of the PCRE
201    options are given in the
202    .\" HREF
203    \fBpcreapi\fP
204    .\"
205    documentation.
206    .
207    .
208    .SS "Finding all matches in a string"
209    .rs
210  .sp  .sp
211  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
212  by the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
# Line 152  substring. This makes a difference to th Line 218  substring. This makes a difference to th
218  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).
219  .P  .P
220  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an
221  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
222  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
223  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
224  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
225  \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function.  using the \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function. Normally, the start
226  .P  offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
227    CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
228    of two is used.
229    .
230    .
231    .SS "Other modifiers"
232    .rs
233    .sp
234  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way \fBpcretest\fP  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way \fBpcretest\fP
235  operates.  operates.
236  .P  .P
# Line 166  matched the entire pattern, pcretest sho Line 239  matched the entire pattern, pcretest sho
239  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains
240  multiple copies of the same substring.  multiple copies of the same substring.
241  .P  .P
242  The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The \fB/B\fP modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that \fBpcretest\fP
243  example,  output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally
244  .sp  this information contains length and offset values; however, if \fB/Z\fP is
245    /pattern/Lfr_FR  also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for
246  .sp  use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated
247  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  for different internal link sizes.
 \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the  
 locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the  
 regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  
 pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
248  .P  .P
249  The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the  The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
250  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  \fB/BI\fP, that is, both the \fB/B\fP and the \fB/I\fP modifiers.
 so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a  
 pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 .P  
 The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes \fB/I\fP.  
 It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  
 compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  
 output.  
251  .P  .P
252  The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the  The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the
253  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This
# Line 195  available when the POSIX interface to PC Line 257  available when the POSIX interface to PC
257  \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and  \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
258  reloading compiled patterns below.  reloading compiled patterns below.
259  .P  .P
260  The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be called after the  The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the
261  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
262  matched.  so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a
263    pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
264    .P
265    The \fB/K\fP modifier requests \fBpcretest\fP to show names from backtracking
266    control verbs that are returned from calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP. It causes
267    \fBpcretest\fP to create a \fBpcre_extra\fP block if one has not already been
268    created by a call to \fBpcre_study()\fP, and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag
269    and the \fBmark\fP field within it, every time that \fBpcre_exec()\fP is
270    called. If the variable that the \fBmark\fP field points to is non-NULL for a
271    match, non-match, or partial match, \fBpcretest\fP prints the string to which
272    it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".
273    For a non-match it is added to the message.
274    .P
275    The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
276    example,
277    .sp
278      /pattern/Lfr_FR
279    .sp
280    For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
281    \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the
282    locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the
283    regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP (or \fB/T\fP) modifier, NULL is passed
284    as the tables pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on
285    which it appears.
286  .P  .P
287  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled
288  pattern to be output.  pattern to be output.
289  .P  .P
290    The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be called after the
291    expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is
292    matched.
293    .P
294    The \fB/T\fP modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
295    set of built-in character tables to be passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP. It is
296    used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
297    tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
298    .sp
299      0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
300            pcre_chartables.c.dist
301      1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
302    .sp
303    In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
304    letters, digits, spaces, etc.
305    .
306    .
307    .SS "Using the POSIX wrapper API"
308    .rs
309    .sp
310  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
311  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  API rather than its native API. When \fB/P\fP is set, the following modifiers
312  \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, and \fB/+\fP are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if \fB/i\fP is  set options for the \fBregcomp()\fP function:
313  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if \fB/m\fP is present. The wrapper functions  .sp
314  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.    /i    REG_ICASE
315  .P    /m    REG_NEWLINE
316  The \fB/8\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8    /N    REG_NOSUB
317  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,    /s    REG_DOTALL     )
318  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also    /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
319  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the    /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
320  \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.    /8    REG_UTF8       )
321  .P  .sp
322  If the \fB/?\fP modifier is used with \fB/8\fP, it causes \fBpcretest\fP to  The \fB/+\fP modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
323  call \fBpcre_compile()\fP with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  ignored.
 checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  
324  .  .
325  .  .
326  .SH "DATA LINES"  .SH "DATA LINES"
# Line 229  complicated features of PCRE. If you are Line 333  complicated features of PCRE. If you are
333  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
334  recognized:  recognized:
335  .sp  .sp
336    \ea         alarm (= BEL)    \ea         alarm (BEL, \ex07)
337    \eb         backspace    \eb         backspace (\ex08)
338    \ee         escape    \ee         escape (\ex27)
339    \ef         formfeed    \ef         formfeed (\ex0c)
340    \en         newline    \en         newline (\ex0a)
341    \er         carriage return  .\" JOIN
342    \et         tab    \eqdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
343    \ev         vertical tab                 (any number of digits)
344      \er         carriage return (\ex0d)
345      \et         tab (\ex09)
346      \ev         vertical tab (\ex0b)
347    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
348    \exhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                 always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode
349      \exhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
350  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
351    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
352                 in UTF-8 mode                 in UTF-8 mode
353    .\" JOIN
354    \eA         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eA         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
355                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
356    .\" JOIN
357    \eB         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eB         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
358                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
359  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
360    \eCdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd    \eCdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd
361                 after a successful match (number less than 32)                 after a successful match (number less than 32)
# Line 276  recognized: Line 388  recognized:
388  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
389    \eL         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a    \eL         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a
390                 successful match                 successful match
391    \eM         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting  .\" JOIN
392      \eM         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
393                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
394    .\" JOIN
395    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
396                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
397                   PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
398  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
399    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to
400                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)
401  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
402    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
403                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
404                   PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
405    .\" JOIN
406      \eQdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
407                   (any number of digits)
408    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
409    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
410    .\" JOIN
411      \eY         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
412                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
413    .\" JOIN
414    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
415                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
416  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
417    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
418                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
419    \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);  .\" JOIN
420                 this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
421  .sp                 any number of digits); this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP
422  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the                 argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
423  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  .\" JOIN
424  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.    \e<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
425                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
426    .\" JOIN
427      \e<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
428                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
429    .\" JOIN
430      \e<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
431                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
432    .\" JOIN
433      \e<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
434                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
435    .\" JOIN
436      \e<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
437                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
438    .sp
439    Note that \exhh always specifies one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this makes it
440    possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing purposes. On the
441    other hand, \ex{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in UTF-8 mode,
442    generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127. When not in
443    UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error
444    for greater values.
445    .P
446    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
447    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
448    .P
449    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
450    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
451    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
452    input.
453  .P  .P
454  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with
455  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP field of the \fBpcre_extra\fP data  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP
456  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for  fields of the \fBpcre_extra\fP data structure, until it finds the minimum
457  \fBpcre_exec()\fP to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of  numbers for each parameter that allow \fBpcre_exec()\fP to complete. The
458  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be  \fImatch_limit\fP number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes
459  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for  place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the
460  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large  number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
461  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.  possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of
462    subject string. The \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP number is a measure of how much
463    stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed
464    to complete the match attempt.
465  .P  .P
466  When \eO is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set  When \eO is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
467  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or defaulted to 45); \eO applies only to  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or defaulted to 45); \eO applies only to
468  the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.  the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.
469  .P  .P
470  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
471  API to be used, only \eB and \eZ have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB,
472  REG_NOTEOL to be passed to \fBregexec()\fP respectively.  \eN, and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
473    to be passed to \fBregexec()\fP.
474  .P  .P
475  The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
476  of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be
477  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to
478  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  six bytes, encoded according to the original UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This
479    allows for values in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are
480    valid Unicode code points, or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the
481    later rules in RFC 3629.
482  .  .
483  .  .
484  .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"  .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
# Line 346  found. This is always the shortest possi Line 507  found. This is always the shortest possi
507  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
508  \fBpcre_exec()\fP, is being used.  \fBpcre_exec()\fP, is being used.
509  .P  .P
510  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, \fBpcretest\fP outputs the list of captured substrings
511  \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  that \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
512  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"  matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
513  when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
514  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example  substring when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is
515  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.  the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it may
516    include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
517    \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.) For any other return, \fBpcretest\fP outputs
518    the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
519    a failed UTF-8 string check, the byte offset of the start of the failing
520    character and the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the
521    output vector is at least two. Here is an example of an interactive
522    \fBpcretest\fP run.
523  .sp  .sp
524    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
525    PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004    PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
526  .sp  .sp
527      re> /^abc(\ed+)/      re> /^abc(\ed+)/
528    data> abc123    data> abc123
# Line 363  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run. Line 531  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.
531    data> xyz    data> xyz
532    No match    No match
533  .sp  .sp
534    Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
535    returned by \fBpcre_exec()\fP, and are not shown by \fBpcretest\fP. In the
536    following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
537    line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
538    substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second data line.
539    .sp
540        re> /(a)|(b)/
541      data> a
542       0: a
543       1: a
544      data> b
545       0: b
546       1: <unset>
547       2: b
548    .sp
549  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x
550  escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the  escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the
551  pattern. If the pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring 0  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
552  is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like  pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by
553  this:  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
554  .sp  .sp
555      re> /cat/+      re> /cat/+
556    data> cataract    data> cataract
# Line 386  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 569  matching attempts are output in sequence
569     0: ipp     0: ipp
570     1: pp     1: pp
571  .sp  .sp
572  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
573    of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \e>4 is past the end of
574    the subject string):
575    .sp
576        re> /xyz/
577      data> xyz\>4
578      Error -24 (bad offset value)
579  .P  .P
580  If any of the sequences \fB\eC\fP, \fB\eG\fP, or \fB\eL\fP are present in a  If any of the sequences \fB\eC\fP, \fB\eG\fP, or \fB\eL\fP are present in a
581  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the
# Line 395  instead of a colon. This is in addition Line 584  instead of a colon. This is in addition
584  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in
585  parentheses after each string for \fB\eC\fP and \fB\eG\fP.  parentheses after each string for \fB\eC\fP and \fB\eG\fP.
586  .P  .P
587  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"
588  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
589  included in data by means of the \en escape.  included in data by means of the \en escape (or \er, \er\en, etc., depending on
590    the newline sequence setting).
591    .
592  .  .
593  .  .
594  .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"  .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
# Line 415  the subject where there is at least one Line 606  the subject where there is at least one
606     2: tan     2: tan
607  .sp  .sp
608  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
609  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
610    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
611    partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
612    inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
613    match start if a lookbehind assertion, \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.)
614  .P  .P
615  If \fB/g\P is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes  If \fB/g\fP is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
616  at the end of the longest match. For example:  at the end of the longest match. For example:
617  .sp  .sp
618      re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g      re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
# Line 441  indicating that the subject partially ma Line 636  indicating that the subject partially ma
636  match with additional subject data by means of the \eR escape sequence. For  match with additional subject data by means of the \eR escape sequence. For
637  example:  example:
638  .sp  .sp
639      re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/      re> /^\ed?\ed(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\ed\ed$/
640    data> 23ja\eP\eD    data> 23ja\eP\eD
641    Partial match: 23ja    Partial match: 23ja
642    data> n05\eR\eD    data> n05\eR\eD
# Line 498  the Line 693  the
693  documentation.  documentation.
694  .  .
695  .  .
696    .
697    .SH "NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS"
698    .rs
699    .sp
700    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
701    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
702    therefore shown as hex escapes.
703    .P
704    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
705    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
706    the pattern (using the \fB/L\fP modifier). In this case, the \fBisprint()\fP
707    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
708    .
709    .
710    .
711  .SH "SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS"  .SH "SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS"
712  .rs  .rs
713  .sp  .sp
# Line 558  Finally, if you attempt to load a file t Line 768  Finally, if you attempt to load a file t
768  result is undefined.  result is undefined.
769  .  .
770  .  .
771    .SH "SEE ALSO"
772    .rs
773    .sp
774    \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcreapi\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrematching\fP(3),
775    \fBpcrepartial\fP(d), \fBpcrepattern\fP(3), \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3).
776    .
777    .
778  .SH AUTHOR  .SH AUTHOR
779  .rs  .rs
780  .sp  .sp
781    .nf
782  Philip Hazel  Philip Hazel
783  .br  University Computing Service
784  University Computing Service,  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
785  .br  .fi
786  Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  .
787  .P  .
788  .in 0  .SH REVISION
789  Last updated: 28 February 2005  .rs
790  .br  .sp
791  Copyright (c) 1997-2005 University of Cambridge.  .nf
792    Last updated: 06 May 2011
793    Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
794    .fi

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