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revision 71 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:40:24 2007 UTC revision 626 by ph10, Wed Jul 20 17:51:54 2011 UTC
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2  .SH NAME  .SH NAME
3  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.
4  .SH SYNOPSIS  .SH SYNOPSIS
5  .B pcretest "[-d] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source] [destination]"  .rs
6    .sp
7  \fBpcretest\fR was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  .B pcretest "[options] [input file [output file]]"
8    .sp
9    \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
10  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
11  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
12  details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  details of the regular expressions themselves, see the
13  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
14  \fBpcrepattern\fR  \fBpcrepattern\fP
15  .\"  .\"
16  documentation. For details of PCRE and its options, see the  documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17    options, see the
18  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
19  \fBpcreapi\fR  \fBpcreapi\fP
20  .\"  .\"
21  documentation.  documentation. The input for \fBpcretest\fP is a sequence of regular expression
22    patterns and strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the
23  .SH OPTIONS  result of each match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE
24    options and exactly what is output.
25    .
26    .
27    .SH COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
28  .rs  .rs
 .sp  
29  .TP 10  .TP 10
30  \fB-C\fR  \fB-b\fP
31    Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/B\fP (show byte code) modifier; the
32    internal form is output after compilation.
33    .TP 10
34    \fB-C\fP
35  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
36  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
37  .TP 10  .TP 10
38  \fB-d\fR  \fB-d\fP
39  Behave as if each regex had the \fB/D\fR modifier (see below); the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal
40  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
41    \fB-d\fP is equivalent to \fB-b -i\fP.
42    .TP 10
43    \fB-dfa\fP
44    Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the
45    alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead of the
46    standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).
47  .TP 10  .TP 10
48  \fB-i\fR  \fB-help\fP
49  Behave as if each regex had the \fB/I\fR modifier; information about the  Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
50    .TP 10
51    \fB-i\fP
52    Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the
53  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
54  .TP 10  .TP 10
55  \fB-m\fR  \fB-M\fP
56    Behave as if each data line contains the \eM escape sequence; this causes
57    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
58    calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP repeatedly with different limits.
59    .TP 10
60    \fB-m\fP
61  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
62  equivalent to adding /M to each regular expression. For compatibility with  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression.
63  earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s\fR is a synonym for \fB-m\fR.  .TP 10
64    \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP
65    Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
66    \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The default value
67    is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
68    22 different matches for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. The vector size can be
69    changed for individual matching calls by including \eO in the data line (see
70    below).
71    .TP 10
72    \fB-p\fP
73    Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
74    used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is
75    set.
76  .TP 10  .TP 10
77  \fB-o\fR \fIosize\fR  \fB-q\fP
78  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling PCRE  Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.
 to be \fIosize\fR. The default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  
 subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual matching calls by  
 including \\O in the data line (see below).  
 .TP 10  
 \fB-p\fR  
 Behave as if each regex has \fB/P\fR modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is used  
 to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fR is set.  
79  .TP 10  .TP 10
80  \fB-t\fR  \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP
81    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to \fIsize\fP
82    megabytes.
83    .TP 10
84    \fB-s\fP
85    Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/S\fP modifier; in other words, force each
86    pattern to be studied. If the \fB/I\fP or \fB/D\fP option is present on a
87    pattern (requesting output about the compiled pattern), information about the
88    result of studying is not included when studying is caused only by \fB-s\fP and
89    neither \fB-i\fP nor \fB-d\fP is present on the command line. This behaviour
90    means that the output from tests that are run with and without \fB-s\fP should
91    be identical, except when options that output information about the actual
92    running of a match are set. The \fB-M\fP, \fB-t\fP, and \fB-tm\fP options,
93    which give information about resources used, are likely to produce different
94    output with and without \fB-s\fP. Output may also differ if the \fB/C\fP option
95    is present on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the
96    matching process, and this may be different between studied and non-studied
97    patterns. If the pattern contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences,
98    for the same reason. The \fB-s\fP command line option can be overridden for
99    specific patterns that should never be studied (see the /S option below).
100    .TP 10
101    \fB-t\fP
102  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
103  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-t\fR with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with
104  \fB-m\fR, because you will then get the size output 20000 times and the timing  \fB-t\fP, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
105  will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
106    used for timing by following \fB-t\fP with a number (as a separate item on the
107    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
108    to iterate 500000 times.
109    .TP 10
110    \fB-tm\fP
111    This is like \fB-t\fP except that it times only the matching phase, not the
112    compile or study phases.
113    .
114    .
115  .SH DESCRIPTION  .SH DESCRIPTION
116  .rs  .rs
117  .sp  .sp
118  If \fBpcretest\fR is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and  If \fBpcretest\fP is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and
119  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from  writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from
120  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to
121  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular
122  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.
123    .P
124    When \fBpcretest\fP is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
125    be linked with the \fBlibreadline\fP library. When this is done, if the input
126    is from a terminal, it is read using the \fBreadline()\fP function. This
127    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the \fB-help\fP
128    option states whether or not \fBreadline()\fP will be used.
129    .P
130  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
131  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
132  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
133    .P
134  Each line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
135  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \\n escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \en escape sequence (or \er or \er\en,
136  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
137  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
138    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
139    .P
140  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
141  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
142  non-alphameric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
143    .sp
144    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
145    .sp
146  White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may  White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may
147  be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are  be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are
148  included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern  included within it. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern
149  by escaping it, for example  by escaping it, for example
150    .sp
151    /abc\\/def/    /abc\e/def/
152    .sp
153  If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since  If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since
154  delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.  delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect its interpretation.
155  If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for  If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for
156  example,  example,
157    .sp
158    /abc/\\    /abc/\e
159    .sp
160  then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a  then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a
161  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a
162  backslash, because  backslash, because
163    .sp
164    /abc\\/    /abc\e/
165    .sp
166  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing
167  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.
168    .
169  .SH PATTERN MODIFIERS  .
170    .SH "PATTERN MODIFIERS"
171  .rs  .rs
172  .sp  .sp
173  The pattern may be followed by \fBi\fR, \fBm\fR, \fBs\fR, or \fBx\fR to set the  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
174  PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options,  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,
175  respectively. For example:  "the \fB/i\fP modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not
176    always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may
177    appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between
178    the modifiers themselves.
179    .P
180    The \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, \fB/s\fP, and \fB/x\fP modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS,
181    PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when
182    \fBpcre_compile()\fP is called. These four modifier letters have the same
183    effect as they do in Perl. For example:
184    .sp
185    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
186    .sp
187  These modifier letters have the same effect as they do in Perl. There are  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
188  others that set PCRE options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:  options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
189  \fB/A\fR, \fB/E\fR, \fB/N\fR, \fB/U\fR, and \fB/X\fR set PCRE_ANCHORED,  .sp
190  PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE, PCRE_UNGREEDY, and PCRE_EXTRA    \fB/8\fP              PCRE_UTF8
191  respectively.    \fB/?\fP              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
192      \fB/A\fP              PCRE_ANCHORED
193      \fB/C\fP              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
194      \fB/E\fP              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
195      \fB/f\fP              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
196      \fB/J\fP              PCRE_DUPNAMES
197      \fB/N\fP              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
198      \fB/U\fP              PCRE_UNGREEDY
199      \fB/W\fP              PCRE_UCP
200      \fB/X\fP              PCRE_EXTRA
201      \fB/Y\fP              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
202      \fB/<JS>\fP           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
203      \fB/<cr>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
204      \fB/<lf>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
205      \fB/<crlf>\fP         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
206      \fB/<anycrlf>\fP      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
207      \fB/<any>\fP          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
208      \fB/<bsr_anycrlf>\fP  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
209      \fB/<bsr_unicode>\fP  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
210    .sp
211    The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
212    including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
213    This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
214    .sp
215      /^abc/m<CRLF>
216    .sp
217    As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the \fB/8\fP modifier also causes
218    any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
219    \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full details of the PCRE
220    options are given in the
221    .\" HREF
222    \fBpcreapi\fP
223    .\"
224    documentation.
225    .
226    .
227    .SS "Finding all matches in a string"
228    .rs
229    .sp
230  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
231  by the \fB/g\fR or \fB/G\fR modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
232  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between  again to search the remainder of the subject string. The difference between
233  \fB/g\fR and \fB/G\fR is that the former uses the \fIstartoffset\fR argument to  \fB/g\fP and \fB/G\fP is that the former uses the \fIstartoffset\fP argument to
234  \fBpcre_exec()\fR to start searching at a new point within the entire string  \fBpcre_exec()\fP to start searching at a new point within the entire string
235  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a shortened  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes over a shortened
236  substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the pattern  substring. This makes a difference to the matching process if the pattern
237  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \\b or \\B).  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).
238    .P
239  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fR in a \fB/g\fR or \fB/G\fR sequence matches an  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an
240  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
241  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
242  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
243  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
244  \fB/g\fR modifier or the \fBsplit()\fR function.  using the \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function. Normally, the start
245    offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
246  There are a number of other modifiers for controlling the way \fBpcretest\fR  CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
247    of two is used.
248    .
249    .
250    .SS "Other modifiers"
251    .rs
252    .sp
253    There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way \fBpcretest\fP
254  operates.  operates.
255    .P
256  The \fB/+\fR modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that  The \fB/+\fP modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
257  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of  matched the entire pattern, \fBpcretest\fP should in addition output the
258  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
259  multiple copies of the same substring.  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the \fB+\fP modifier appears
260    twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
261  The \fB/L\fR modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
262    capture number.
263    .P
264    The \fB/=\fP modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
265    parentheses be output after a match by \fBpcre_exec()\fP. By default, only
266    those up to the highest one actually used in the match are output
267    (corresponding to the return code from \fBpcre_exec()\fP). Values in the
268    offsets vector corresponding to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these
269    are output as "<unset>". This modifier gives a way of checking that this is
270    happening.
271    .P
272    The \fB/B\fP modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that \fBpcretest\fP
273    output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally
274    this information contains length and offset values; however, if \fB/Z\fP is
275    also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for
276    use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated
277    for different internal link sizes.
278    .P
279    The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
280    \fB/BI\fP, that is, both the \fB/B\fP and the \fB/I\fP modifiers.
281    .P
282    The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the
283    fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This
284    facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns
285    that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not
286    available when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the
287    \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
288    reloading compiled patterns below.
289    .P
290    The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the
291    compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
292    so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a
293    pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
294    .P
295    The \fB/K\fP modifier requests \fBpcretest\fP to show names from backtracking
296    control verbs that are returned from calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP. It causes
297    \fBpcretest\fP to create a \fBpcre_extra\fP block if one has not already been
298    created by a call to \fBpcre_study()\fP, and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag
299    and the \fBmark\fP field within it, every time that \fBpcre_exec()\fP is
300    called. If the variable that the \fBmark\fP field points to is non-NULL for a
301    match, non-match, or partial match, \fBpcretest\fP prints the string to which
302    it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".
303    For a non-match it is added to the message.
304    .P
305    The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
306  example,  example,
307    .sp
308    /pattern/Lfr    /pattern/Lfr_FR
309    .sp
310  For this reason, it must be the last modifier letter. The given locale is set,  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
311  \fBpcre_maketables()\fR is called to build a set of character tables for the  \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the
312  locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fR when compiling the  locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the
313  regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fR modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP (or \fB/T\fP) modifier, NULL is passed
314  pointer; that is, \fB/L\fR applies only to the expression on which it appears.  as the tables pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on
315    which it appears.
316  The \fB/I\fR modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fR output information about the  .P
317  compiled expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled
 so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fR after compiling an  
 expression, and outputting the information it gets back. If the pattern is  
 studied, the results of that are also output.  
   
 The \fB/D\fR modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes \fB/I\fR.  
 It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  
 compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  
 output.  
   
 The \fB/S\fR modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fR to be called after the  
 expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  
 matched.  
   
 The \fB/M\fR modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  
318  pattern to be output.  pattern to be output.
319    .P
320  The \fB/P\fR modifier causes \fBpcretest\fR to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  If the \fB/S\fP modifier appears once, it causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be
321  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  called after the expression has been compiled, and the results used when the
322  \fB/i\fR, \fB/m\fR, and \fB/+\fR are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if \fB/i\fR is  expression is matched. If \fB/S\fP appears twice, it suppresses studying, even
323  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if \fB/m\fR is present. The wrapper functions  if it was requested externally by the \fB-s\fP command line option. This makes
324  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
325    never studied, independently of \fB-s\fP. This feature is used in the test
326  The \fB/8\fR modifier causes \fBpcretest\fR to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8  files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
327  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,  .P
328  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also  The \fB/T\fP modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
329  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the  set of built-in character tables to be passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP. It is
330  \\x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.  used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
331    tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
332  If the \fB/?\fR modifier is used with \fB/8\fR, it causes \fBpcretest\fR to  .sp
333  call \fBpcre_compile()\fR with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the    0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
334  checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.          pcre_chartables.c.dist
335      1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
336  .SH CALLOUTS  .sp
337    In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
338    letters, digits, spaces, etc.
339    .
340    .
341    .SS "Using the POSIX wrapper API"
342  .rs  .rs
343  .sp  .sp
344  If the pattern contains any callout requests, \fBpcretest\fR's callout function  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
345  will be called. By default, it displays the callout number, and the start and  API rather than its native API. When \fB/P\fP is set, the following modifiers
346  current positions in the text at the callout time. For example, the output  set options for the \fBregcomp()\fP function:
347    .sp
348    --->pqrabcdef    /i    REG_ICASE
349      0    ^  ^    /m    REG_NEWLINE
350      /N    REG_NOSUB
351  indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the    /s    REG_DOTALL     )
352  fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh    /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
353  character. The callout function returns zero (carry on matching) by default.    /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
354      /8    REG_UTF8       )
355  Inserting callouts may be helpful when using \fBpcretest\fR to check  .sp
356  complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see  The \fB/+\fP modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
357  the  ignored.
358  .\" HREF  .
359  \fBpcrecallout\fR  .
360  .\"  .SH "DATA LINES"
 documentation.  
   
 For testing the PCRE library, additional control of callout behaviour is  
 available via escape sequences in the data, as described in the following  
 section. In particular, it is possible to pass in a number as callout data (the  
 default is zero). If the callout function receives a non-zero number, it  
 returns that value instead of zero.  
   
 .SH DATA LINES  
361  .rs  .rs
362  .sp  .sp
363  Before each data line is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fR, leading and trailing  Before each data line is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP, leading and trailing
364  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \\ escapes. Some of these are  white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \e escapes. Some of these
365  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
366  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
367  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
368  recognized:  recognized:
369    .sp
370    \\a         alarm (= BEL)    \ea         alarm (BEL, \ex07)
371    \\b         backspace    \eb         backspace (\ex08)
372    \\e         escape    \ee         escape (\ex27)
373    \\f         formfeed    \ef         form feed (\ex0c)
374    \\n         newline    \en         newline (\ex0a)
375    \\r         carriage return  .\" JOIN
376    \\t         tab    \eqdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
377    \\v         vertical tab                 (any number of digits)
378    \\nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \er         carriage return (\ex0d)
379    \\xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)    \et         tab (\ex09)
380    \\x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits    \ev         vertical tab (\ex0b)
381      \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
382                   always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode
383      \exhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
384    .\" JOIN
385      \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
386                 in UTF-8 mode                 in UTF-8 mode
387    \\A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre_exec()\fR  .\" JOIN
388    \\B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fR    \eA         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
389    \\Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
390                 after a successful match (any decimal number  .\" JOIN
391                 less than 32)    \eB         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
392    \\Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
393    .\" JOIN
394      \eCdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd
395                   after a successful match (number less than 32)
396    .\" JOIN
397      \eCname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring
398                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-
399                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non alphanumeric character)
400    \\C+        show the current captured substrings at callout  .\" JOIN
401      \eC+        show the current captured substrings at callout
402                 time                 time
403    \\C-        do not supply a callout function    \eC-        do not supply a callout function
404    \\C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is  .\" JOIN
405      \eC!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is
406                 reached                 reached
407    \\C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is  .\" JOIN
408      \eC!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is
409                 reached for the nth time                 reached for the nth time
410    \\C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout  .\" JOIN
411                 data    \eC*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
412    \\Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd                 data; this is used as the callout return value
413                 after a successful match (any decimal number    \eD         use the \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP match function
414                 less than 32)    \eF         only shortest match for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
415    \\Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring  .\" JOIN
416      \eGdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd
417                   after a successful match (number less than 32)
418    .\" JOIN
419      \eGname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring
420                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-                 "name" after a successful match (name termin-
421                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                 ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
422    \\L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a  .\" JOIN
423      \eL         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a
424                 successful match                 successful match
425    \\M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting  .\" JOIN
426    \\N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fR    \eM         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
427    \\Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to                 MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
428                 \fBpcre_exec()\fR to dd (any number of decimal  .\" JOIN
429                 digits)    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
430    \\Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fR                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
431    \\?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to                 PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
432                 \fBpcre_exec()\fR  .\" JOIN
433      \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to
434  If \\M is present, \fBpcretest\fR calls \fBpcre_exec()\fR several times, with                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)
435  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fR field of the \fBpcre_extra\fR data  .\" JOIN
436  structure, until it finds the minimum number that is needed for    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
437  \fBpcre_exec()\fR to complete. This number is a measure of the amount of                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
438  recursion and backtracking that takes place, and checking it out can be                 PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
439  instructive. For most simple matches, the number is quite small, but for  .\" JOIN
440  patterns with very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large    \eQdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
441  very quickly with increasing length of subject string.                 (any number of digits)
442      \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
443  When \\O is used, it may be higher or lower than the size set by the \fB-O\fR    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
444  option (or defaulted to 45); \\O applies only to the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fR  .\" JOIN
445  for the line in which it appears.    \eY         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
446                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
447  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  .\" JOIN
448  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
449  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
450    .\" JOIN
451  If \fB/P\fR was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used,    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
452  only \fB\B\fR, and \fB\Z\fR have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
453  to be passed to \fBregexec()\fR respectively.  .\" JOIN
454      \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
455  The use of \\x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use                 any number of digits); this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP
456  of the \fB/8\fR modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be                 argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
457    .\" JOIN
458      \e<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
459                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
460    .\" JOIN
461      \e<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
462                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
463    .\" JOIN
464      \e<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
465                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
466    .\" JOIN
467      \e<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
468                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
469    .\" JOIN
470      \e<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
471                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
472    .sp
473    Note that \exhh always specifies one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this makes it
474    possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing purposes. On the
475    other hand, \ex{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in UTF-8 mode,
476    generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127. When not in
477    UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error
478    for greater values.
479    .P
480    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
481    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
482    .P
483    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
484    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
485    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
486    input.
487    .P
488    If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with
489    different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP
490    fields of the \fBpcre_extra\fP data structure, until it finds the minimum
491    numbers for each parameter that allow \fBpcre_exec()\fP to complete. The
492    \fImatch_limit\fP number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that takes
493    place, and checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the
494    number is quite small, but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
495    possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing length of
496    subject string. The \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP number is a measure of how much
497    stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory is needed
498    to complete the match attempt.
499    .P
500    When \eO is used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the size set
501    by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or defaulted to 45); \eO applies only to
502    the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.
503    .P
504    If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
505    API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB,
506    \eN, and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
507    to be passed to \fBregexec()\fP.
508    .P
509    The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
510    of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be
511  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to
512  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  six bytes, encoded according to the original UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This
513    allows for values in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are
514  .SH OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  valid Unicode code points, or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the
515    later rules in RFC 3629.
516    .
517    .
518    .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
519  .rs  .rs
520  .sp  .sp
521  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  By default, \fBpcretest\fP uses the standard PCRE matching function,
522  \fBpcre_exec()\fR returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  \fBpcre_exec()\fP to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
523  the whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_test()\fP, which operates in a
524    different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
525    functions are described in the
526    .\" HREF
527    \fBpcrematching\fP
528    .\"
529    documentation.
530    .P
531    If a data line contains the \eD escape sequence, or if the command line
532    contains the \fB-dfa\fP option, the alternative matching function is called.
533    This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however, the \eF
534    escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the first match is
535    found. This is always the shortest possible match.
536    .
537    .
538    .SH "DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST"
539    .rs
540    .sp
541    This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
542    \fBpcre_exec()\fP, is being used.
543    .P
544    When a match succeeds, \fBpcretest\fP outputs the list of captured substrings
545    that \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
546    matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
547    PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
548    substring when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is
549    the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it may
550    include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
551    \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.) For any other return, \fBpcretest\fP outputs
552    the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
553    a failed UTF-8 string check, the byte offset of the start of the failing
554    character and the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the
555    output vector is at least two. Here is an example of an interactive
556    \fBpcretest\fP run.
557    .sp
558    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
559    PCRE version 4.00 08-Jan-2003    PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
560    .sp
561      re> /^abc(\\d+)/      re> /^abc(\ed+)/
562    data> abc123    data> abc123
563     0: abc123     0: abc123
564     1: 123     1: 123
565    data> xyz    data> xyz
566    No match    No match
567    .sp
568  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \\0x  Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
569  escapes, or as \\x{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fR modifier was present on the  returned by \fBpcre_exec()\fP, and are not shown by \fBpcretest\fP. In the
570  pattern. If the pattern has the \fB/+\fR modifier, then the output for  following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
571  substring 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
572  "0+" like this:  substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second data line.
573    .sp
574        re> /(a)|(b)/
575      data> a
576       0: a
577       1: a
578      data> b
579       0: b
580       1: <unset>
581       2: b
582    .sp
583    If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x
584    escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the
585    pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
586    pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by
587    the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
588    .sp
589      re> /cat/+      re> /cat/+
590    data> cataract    data> cataract
591     0: cat     0: cat
592     0+ aract     0+ aract
593    .sp
594  If the pattern has the \fB/g\fR or \fB/G\fR modifier, the results of successive  If the pattern has the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier, the results of successive
595  matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:  matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
596    .sp
597      re> /\\Bi(\\w\\w)/g      re> /\eBi(\ew\ew)/g
598    data> Mississippi    data> Mississippi
599     0: iss     0: iss
600     1: ss     1: ss
# Line 334  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 602  matching attempts are output in sequence
602     1: ss     1: ss
603     0: ipp     0: ipp
604     1: pp     1: pp
605    .sp
606  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
607    of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \e>4 is past the end of
608  If any of the sequences \fB\\C\fR, \fB\\G\fR, or \fB\\L\fR are present in a  the subject string):
609    .sp
610        re> /xyz/
611      data> xyz\>4
612      Error -24 (bad offset value)
613    .P
614    If any of the sequences \fB\eC\fP, \fB\eG\fP, or \fB\eL\fP are present in a
615  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the
616  convenience functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number  convenience functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number
617  instead of a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string  instead of a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string
618  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in
619  parentheses after each string for \fB\\C\fR and \fB\\G\fR.  parentheses after each string for \fB\eC\fP and \fB\eG\fP.
620    .P
621  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"
622  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
623  included in data by means of the \\n escape.  included in data by means of the \en escape (or \er, \er\en, etc., depending on
624    the newline sequence setting).
625    .
626    .
627    .
628    .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
629    .rs
630    .sp
631    When the alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, is used (by
632    means of the \eD escape sequence or the \fB-dfa\fP command line option), the
633    output consists of a list of all the matches that start at the first point in
634    the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
635    .sp
636        re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
637      data> yellow tangerine\eD
638       0: tangerine
639       1: tang
640       2: tan
641    .sp
642    (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
643    longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
644    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
645    partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
646    inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
647    match start if a lookbehind assertion, \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.)
648    .P
649    If \fB/g\fP is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
650    at the end of the longest match. For example:
651    .sp
652        re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
653      data> yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\eD
654       0: tangerine
655       1: tang
656       2: tan
657       0: tang
658       1: tan
659       0: tan
660    .sp
661    Since the matching function does not support substring capture, the escape
662    sequences that are concerned with captured substrings are not relevant.
663    .
664    .
665    .SH "RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH"
666    .rs
667    .sp
668    When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return,
669    indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you can restart the
670    match with additional subject data by means of the \eR escape sequence. For
671    example:
672    .sp
673        re> /^\ed?\ed(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\ed\ed$/
674      data> 23ja\eP\eD
675      Partial match: 23ja
676      data> n05\eR\eD
677       0: n05
678    .sp
679    For further information about partial matching, see the
680    .\" HREF
681    \fBpcrepartial\fP
682    .\"
683    documentation.
684    .
685    .
686    .SH CALLOUTS
687    .rs
688    .sp
689    If the pattern contains any callout requests, \fBpcretest\fP's callout function
690    is called during matching. This works with both matching functions. By default,
691    the called function displays the callout number, the start and current
692    positions in the text at the callout time, and the next pattern item to be
693    tested. For example, the output
694    .sp
695      --->pqrabcdef
696        0    ^  ^     \ed
697    .sp
698    indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting at the
699    fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at the seventh
700    character of the data, and when the next pattern item was \ed. Just one
701    circumflex is output if the start and current positions are the same.
702    .P
703    Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as a
704    result of the \fB/C\fP pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing the
705    callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is output. For
706    example:
707    .sp
708        re> /\ed?[A-E]\e*/C
709      data> E*
710      --->E*
711       +0 ^      \ed?
712       +3 ^      [A-E]
713       +8 ^^     \e*
714      +10 ^ ^
715       0: E*
716    .sp
717    The callout function in \fBpcretest\fP returns zero (carry on matching) by
718    default, but you can use a \eC item in a data line (as described above) to
719    change this.
720    .P
721    Inserting callouts can be helpful when using \fBpcretest\fP to check
722    complicated regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
723    the
724    .\" HREF
725    \fBpcrecallout\fP
726    .\"
727    documentation.
728    .
729    .
730    .
731    .SH "NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS"
732    .rs
733    .sp
734    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
735    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
736    therefore shown as hex escapes.
737    .P
738    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
739    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
740    the pattern (using the \fB/L\fP modifier). In this case, the \fBisprint()\fP
741    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
742    .
743    .
744    .
745    .SH "SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS"
746    .rs
747    .sp
748    The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
749    interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is
750    specified.
751    .P
752    When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause \fBpcretest\fP to write a
753    compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a file name.
754    For example:
755    .sp
756      /pattern/im >/some/file
757    .sp
758    See the
759    .\" HREF
760    \fBpcreprecompile\fP
761    .\"
762    documentation for a discussion about saving and re-using compiled patterns.
763    .P
764    The data that is written is binary. The first eight bytes are the length of the
765    compiled pattern data followed by the length of the optional study data, each
766    written as four bytes in big-endian order (most significant byte first). If
767    there is no study data (either the pattern was not studied, or studying did not
768    return any data), the second length is zero. The lengths are followed by an
769    exact copy of the compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this
770    follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,
771    \fBpcretest\fP expects to read a new pattern.
772    .P
773    A saved pattern can be reloaded into \fBpcretest\fP by specifying < and a file
774    name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a < character,
775    as otherwise \fBpcretest\fP will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by <
776    characters.
777    For example:
778    .sp
779       re> </some/file
780      Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
781      No study data
782    .sp
783    When the pattern has been loaded, \fBpcretest\fP proceeds to read data lines in
784    the usual way.
785    .P
786    You can copy a file written by \fBpcretest\fP to a different host and reload it
787    there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on which the
788    pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86 machine and run on
789    a SPARC machine.
790    .P
791    File names for saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but note that
792    the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with a tilde (~) is not
793    available.
794    .P
795    The ability to save and reload files in \fBpcretest\fP is intended for testing
796    and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because only a
797    single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is no facility for
798    supplying custom character tables for use with a reloaded pattern. If the
799    original pattern was compiled with custom tables, an attempt to match a subject
800    string using a reloaded pattern is likely to cause \fBpcretest\fP to crash.
801    Finally, if you attempt to load a file that is not in the correct format, the
802    result is undefined.
803    .
804    .
805    .SH "SEE ALSO"
806    .rs
807    .sp
808    \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcreapi\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrematching\fP(3),
809    \fBpcrepartial\fP(d), \fBpcrepattern\fP(3), \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3).
810    .
811    .
812  .SH AUTHOR  .SH AUTHOR
813  .rs  .rs
814  .sp  .sp
815  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  .nf
816  .br  Philip Hazel
817  University Computing Service,  University Computing Service
818  .br  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
819  Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  .fi
820    .
821  .in 0  .
822  Last updated: 20 August 2003  .SH REVISION
823  .br  .rs
824  Copyright (c) 1997-2003 University of Cambridge.  .sp
825    .nf
826    Last updated: 20 July 2011
827    Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
828    .fi

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