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revision 91 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:41:34 2007 UTC revision 626 by ph10, Wed Jul 20 17:51:54 2011 UTC
# Line 4  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-co Line 4  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-co
4  .SH SYNOPSIS  .SH SYNOPSIS
5  .rs  .rs
6  .sp  .sp
7  .B pcretest "[options] [source] [destination]"  .B pcretest "[options] [input file [output file]]"
8  .sp  .sp
9  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
10  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
# Line 18  options, see the Line 18  options, see the
18  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
19  \fBpcreapi\fP  \fBpcreapi\fP
20  .\"  .\"
21  documentation.  documentation. The input for \fBpcretest\fP is a sequence of regular expression
22    patterns and strings to be matched, as described below. The output shows the
23    result of each match. Options on the command line and the patterns control PCRE
24    options and exactly what is output.
25  .  .
26  .  .
27  .SH OPTIONS  .SH COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
28  .rs  .rs
29  .TP 10  .TP 10
30    \fB-b\fP
31    Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/B\fP (show byte code) modifier; the
32    internal form is output after compilation.
33    .TP 10
34  \fB-C\fP  \fB-C\fP
35  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
36  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
37  .TP 10  .TP 10
38  \fB-d\fP  \fB-d\fP
39  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal
40  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
41    \fB-d\fP is equivalent to \fB-b -i\fP.
42  .TP 10  .TP 10
43  \fB-dfa\fP  \fB-dfa\fP
44  Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the  Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the
45  alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead of the  alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead of the
46  standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).  standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).
47  .TP 10  .TP 10
48    \fB-help\fP
49    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
50    .TP 10
51  \fB-i\fP  \fB-i\fP
52  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the
53  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
54  .TP 10  .TP 10
55    \fB-M\fP
56    Behave as if each data line contains the \eM escape sequence; this causes
57    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
58    calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP repeatedly with different limits.
59    .TP 10
60  \fB-m\fP  \fB-m\fP
61  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
62  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression.
 with earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s\fP is a synonym for \fB-m\fP.  
63  .TP 10  .TP 10
64  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP
65  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
66  \fBpcre_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The default value is 45, which is enough  \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The default value
67  for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
68  matching calls by including \eO in the data line (see below).  22 different matches for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. The vector size can be
69    changed for individual matching calls by including \eO in the data line (see
70    below).
71  .TP 10  .TP 10
72  \fB-p\fP  \fB-p\fP
73  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is  Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
74  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is
75  set.  set.
76  .TP 10  .TP 10
# Line 61  set. Line 78  set.
78  Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.  Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.
79  .TP 10  .TP 10
80  \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP  \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP
81  On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to \fIsize\fP  On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time stack to \fIsize\fP
82  megabytes.  megabytes.
83  .TP 10  .TP 10
84    \fB-s\fP
85    Behave as if each pattern has the \fB/S\fP modifier; in other words, force each
86    pattern to be studied. If the \fB/I\fP or \fB/D\fP option is present on a
87    pattern (requesting output about the compiled pattern), information about the
88    result of studying is not included when studying is caused only by \fB-s\fP and
89    neither \fB-i\fP nor \fB-d\fP is present on the command line. This behaviour
90    means that the output from tests that are run with and without \fB-s\fP should
91    be identical, except when options that output information about the actual
92    running of a match are set. The \fB-M\fP, \fB-t\fP, and \fB-tm\fP options,
93    which give information about resources used, are likely to produce different
94    output with and without \fB-s\fP. Output may also differ if the \fB/C\fP option
95    is present on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace the the
96    matching process, and this may be different between studied and non-studied
97    patterns. If the pattern contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences,
98    for the same reason. The \fB-s\fP command line option can be overridden for
99    specific patterns that should never be studied (see the /S option below).
100    .TP 10
101  \fB-t\fP  \fB-t\fP
102  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
103  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with
104  \fB-t\fP, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the  \fB-t\fP, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
105  timing will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
106    used for timing by following \fB-t\fP with a number (as a separate item on the
107    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
108    to iterate 500000 times.
109    .TP 10
110    \fB-tm\fP
111    This is like \fB-t\fP except that it times only the matching phase, not the
112    compile or study phases.
113  .  .
114  .  .
115  .SH DESCRIPTION  .SH DESCRIPTION
# Line 80  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis Line 121  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis
121  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular
122  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.
123  .P  .P
124    When \fBpcretest\fP is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
125    be linked with the \fBlibreadline\fP library. When this is done, if the input
126    is from a terminal, it is read using the \fBreadline()\fP function. This
127    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the \fB-help\fP
128    option states whether or not \fBreadline()\fP will be used.
129    .P
130  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
131  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
132  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
133  .P  .P
134  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
135  multi-line matches, you have to use the \en escape sequence (or \er or \er\en,  multi-line matches, you have to use the \en escape sequence (or \er or \er\en,
136  depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
137  newline characters. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
138  buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.  buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
139  .P  .P
140  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
# Line 126  pcretest to read the next line as a cont Line 173  pcretest to read the next line as a cont
173  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single  A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly single
174  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,  characters. Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for example,
175  "the \fB/i\fP modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not  "the \fB/i\fP modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern need not
176  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. Whitespace may  always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing modifiers. White space may
177  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between  appear between the final pattern delimiter and the first modifier, and between
178  the modifiers themselves.  the modifiers themselves.
179  .P  .P
# Line 137  effect as they do in Perl. For example: Line 184  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
184  .sp  .sp
185    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
186  .sp  .sp
187  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
188  not correspond to anything in Perl:  options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
189  .sp  .sp
190    \fB/A\fP       PCRE_ANCHORED    \fB/8\fP              PCRE_UTF8
191    \fB/C\fP       PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT    \fB/?\fP              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
192    \fB/E\fP       PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY    \fB/A\fP              PCRE_ANCHORED
193    \fB/f\fP       PCRE_FIRSTLINE    \fB/C\fP              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
194    \fB/J\fP       PCRE_DUPNAMES    \fB/E\fP              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
195    \fB/N\fP       PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE    \fB/f\fP              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
196    \fB/U\fP       PCRE_UNGREEDY    \fB/J\fP              PCRE_DUPNAMES
197    \fB/X\fP       PCRE_EXTRA    \fB/N\fP              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
198    \fB/<cr>\fP    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR    \fB/U\fP              PCRE_UNGREEDY
199    \fB/<lf>\fP    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF    \fB/W\fP              PCRE_UCP
200    \fB/<crlf>\fP  PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF    \fB/X\fP              PCRE_EXTRA
201  .sp    \fB/Y\fP              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
202  Those specifying line endings are literal strings as shown. Details of the    \fB/<JS>\fP           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
203  meanings of these PCRE options are given in the    \fB/<cr>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
204      \fB/<lf>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
205      \fB/<crlf>\fP         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
206      \fB/<anycrlf>\fP      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
207      \fB/<any>\fP          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
208      \fB/<bsr_anycrlf>\fP  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
209      \fB/<bsr_unicode>\fP  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
210    .sp
211    The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
212    including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be in either case.
213    This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
214    .sp
215      /^abc/m<CRLF>
216    .sp
217    As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the \fB/8\fP modifier also causes
218    any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
219    \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full details of the PCRE
220    options are given in the
221  .\" HREF  .\" HREF
222  \fBpcreapi\fP  \fBpcreapi\fP
223  .\"  .\"
# Line 173  substring. This makes a difference to th Line 237  substring. This makes a difference to th
237  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).
238  .P  .P
239  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an
240  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
241  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
242  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
243  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
244  \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function.  using the \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function. Normally, the start
245    offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
246    CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
247    of two is used.
248  .  .
249  .  .
250  .SS "Other modifiers"  .SS "Other modifiers"
# Line 187  There are yet more modifiers for control Line 254  There are yet more modifiers for control
254  operates.  operates.
255  .P  .P
256  The \fB/+\fP modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that  The \fB/+\fP modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
257  matched the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of  matched the entire pattern, \fBpcretest\fP should in addition output the
258  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  remainder of the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject
259  multiple copies of the same substring.  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the \fB+\fP modifier appears
260    twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings. In each case the
261    remainder is output on the following line with a plus character following the
262    capture number.
263    .P
264    The \fB/=\fP modifier requests that the values of all potential captured
265    parentheses be output after a match by \fBpcre_exec()\fP. By default, only
266    those up to the highest one actually used in the match are output
267    (corresponding to the return code from \fBpcre_exec()\fP). Values in the
268    offsets vector corresponding to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these
269    are output as "<unset>". This modifier gives a way of checking that this is
270    happening.
271    .P
272    The \fB/B\fP modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that \fBpcretest\fP
273    output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally
274    this information contains length and offset values; however, if \fB/Z\fP is
275    also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for
276    use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated
277    for different internal link sizes.
278  .P  .P
279  The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
280  example,  \fB/BI\fP, that is, both the \fB/B\fP and the \fB/I\fP modifiers.
 .sp  
   /pattern/Lfr_FR  
 .sp  
 For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  
 \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the  
 locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the  
 regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  
 pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
 .P  
 The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the  
 compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  
 so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a  
 pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 .P  
 The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes \fB/I\fP.  
 It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  
 compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  
 output.  
281  .P  .P
282  The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the  The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the
283  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This
# Line 220  available when the POSIX interface to PC Line 287  available when the POSIX interface to PC
287  \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and  \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
288  reloading compiled patterns below.  reloading compiled patterns below.
289  .P  .P
290  The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be called after the  The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the
291  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
292  matched.  so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a
293    pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
294    .P
295    The \fB/K\fP modifier requests \fBpcretest\fP to show names from backtracking
296    control verbs that are returned from calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP. It causes
297    \fBpcretest\fP to create a \fBpcre_extra\fP block if one has not already been
298    created by a call to \fBpcre_study()\fP, and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag
299    and the \fBmark\fP field within it, every time that \fBpcre_exec()\fP is
300    called. If the variable that the \fBmark\fP field points to is non-NULL for a
301    match, non-match, or partial match, \fBpcretest\fP prints the string to which
302    it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".
303    For a non-match it is added to the message.
304    .P
305    The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
306    example,
307    .sp
308      /pattern/Lfr_FR
309    .sp
310    For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
311    \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the
312    locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the
313    regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP (or \fB/T\fP) modifier, NULL is passed
314    as the tables pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on
315    which it appears.
316  .P  .P
317  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled
318  pattern to be output.  pattern to be output.
319  .P  .P
320    If the \fB/S\fP modifier appears once, it causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be
321    called after the expression has been compiled, and the results used when the
322    expression is matched. If \fB/S\fP appears twice, it suppresses studying, even
323    if it was requested externally by the \fB-s\fP command line option. This makes
324    it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied, and others are
325    never studied, independently of \fB-s\fP. This feature is used in the test
326    files in a few cases where the output is different when the pattern is studied.
327    .P
328    The \fB/T\fP modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
329    set of built-in character tables to be passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP. It is
330    used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
331    tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
332    .sp
333      0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
334            pcre_chartables.c.dist
335      1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
336    .sp
337    In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
338    letters, digits, spaces, etc.
339    .
340    .
341    .SS "Using the POSIX wrapper API"
342    .rs
343    .sp
344  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
345  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  API rather than its native API. When \fB/P\fP is set, the following modifiers
346  \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, and \fB/+\fP are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if \fB/i\fP is  set options for the \fBregcomp()\fP function:
347  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if \fB/m\fP is present. The wrapper functions  .sp
348  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.    /i    REG_ICASE
349  .P    /m    REG_NEWLINE
350  The \fB/8\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8    /N    REG_NOSUB
351  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,    /s    REG_DOTALL     )
352  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also    /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
353  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the    /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
354  \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.    /8    REG_UTF8       )
355  .P  .sp
356  If the \fB/?\fP modifier is used with \fB/8\fP, it causes \fBpcretest\fP to  The \fB/+\fP modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
357  call \fBpcre_compile()\fP with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  ignored.
 checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  
358  .  .
359  .  .
360  .SH "DATA LINES"  .SH "DATA LINES"
361  .rs  .rs
362  .sp  .sp
363  Before each data line is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP, leading and trailing  Before each data line is passed to \fBpcre_exec()\fP, leading and trailing
364  whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \e escapes. Some of these are  white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \e escapes. Some of these
365  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of the more
366  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordinary" regular
367  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
368  recognized:  recognized:
369  .sp  .sp
370    \ea         alarm (= BEL)    \ea         alarm (BEL, \ex07)
371    \eb         backspace    \eb         backspace (\ex08)
372    \ee         escape    \ee         escape (\ex27)
373    \ef         formfeed    \ef         form feed (\ex0c)
374    \en         newline    \en         newline (\ex0a)
375  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
376    \eqdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd    \eqdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
377                 (any number of digits)                 (any number of digits)
378    \er         carriage return    \er         carriage return (\ex0d)
379    \et         tab    \et         tab (\ex09)
380    \ev         vertical tab    \ev         vertical tab (\ex0b)
381    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
382    \exhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                 always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode
383      \exhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
384  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
385    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
386                 in UTF-8 mode                 in UTF-8 mode
# Line 313  recognized: Line 427  recognized:
427                 MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                 MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
428  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
429    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
430                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
431                   PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
432  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
433    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to
434                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)
435  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
436    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
437                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
438                   PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
439  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
440    \eQdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd    \eQdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
441                 (any number of digits)                 (any number of digits)
442    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
443    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
444  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
445      \eY         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
446                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
447    .\" JOIN
448    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
449                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
450  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
451    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
452                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
   \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);  
453  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
454                 this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
455                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 any number of digits); this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP
456                   argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
457  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
458    \e<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
459                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
# Line 344  recognized: Line 463  recognized:
463  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
464    \e<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
465                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
466    .\" JOIN
467      \e<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
468                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
469    .\" JOIN
470      \e<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
471                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
472  .sp  .sp
473  The escapes that specify line endings are literal strings, exactly as shown.  Note that \exhh always specifies one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this makes it
474  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing purposes. On the
475  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  other hand, \ex{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in UTF-8 mode,
476  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127. When not in
477    UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error
478    for greater values.
479    .P
480    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
481    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
482    .P
483    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
484    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
485    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
486    input.
487  .P  .P
488  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with
489  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP
# Line 367  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or Line 502  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or
502  the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.  the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.
503  .P  .P
504  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
505  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB,
506  and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to  \eN, and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
507  \fBregexec()\fP.  to be passed to \fBregexec()\fP.
508  .P  .P
509  The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
510  of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be
511  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to
512  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  six bytes, encoded according to the original UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This
513    allows for values in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are
514    valid Unicode code points, or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the
515    later rules in RFC 3629.
516  .  .
517  .  .
518  .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"  .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
# Line 403  found. This is always the shortest possi Line 541  found. This is always the shortest possi
541  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,  This section describes the output when the normal matching function,
542  \fBpcre_exec()\fP, is being used.  \fBpcre_exec()\fP, is being used.
543  .P  .P
544  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, \fBpcretest\fP outputs the list of captured substrings
545  \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  that \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that
546  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"  matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
547  when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
548  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example  substring when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is
549  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.  the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it may
550    include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
551    \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.) For any other return, \fBpcretest\fP outputs
552    the PCRE negative error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is
553    a failed UTF-8 string check, the byte offset of the start of the failing
554    character and the reason code are also output, provided that the size of the
555    output vector is at least two. Here is an example of an interactive
556    \fBpcretest\fP run.
557  .sp  .sp
558    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
559    PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004    PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
560  .sp  .sp
561      re> /^abc(\ed+)/      re> /^abc(\ed+)/
562    data> abc123    data> abc123
# Line 420  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run. Line 565  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.
565    data> xyz    data> xyz
566    No match    No match
567  .sp  .sp
568    Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are not
569    returned by \fBpcre_exec()\fP, and are not shown by \fBpcretest\fP. In the
570    following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first data
571    line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal" unset
572    substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second data line.
573    .sp
574        re> /(a)|(b)/
575      data> a
576       0: a
577       1: a
578      data> b
579       0: b
580       1: <unset>
581       2: b
582    .sp
583  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x
584  escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the  escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the
585  pattern. If the pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring 0  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
586  is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like  pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by
587  this:  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
588  .sp  .sp
589      re> /cat/+      re> /cat/+
590    data> cataract    data> cataract
# Line 443  matching attempts are output in sequence Line 603  matching attempts are output in sequence
603     0: ipp     0: ipp
604     1: pp     1: pp
605  .sp  .sp
606  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an example
607    of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \e>4 is past the end of
608    the subject string):
609    .sp
610        re> /xyz/
611      data> xyz\>4
612      Error -24 (bad offset value)
613  .P  .P
614  If any of the sequences \fB\eC\fP, \fB\eG\fP, or \fB\eL\fP are present in a  If any of the sequences \fB\eC\fP, \fB\eG\fP, or \fB\eL\fP are present in a
615  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the  data line that is successfully matched, the substrings extracted by the
# Line 452  instead of a colon. This is in addition Line 618  instead of a colon. This is in addition
618  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in
619  parentheses after each string for \fB\eC\fP and \fB\eG\fP.  parentheses after each string for \fB\eC\fP and \fB\eG\fP.
620  .P  .P
621  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"
622  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
623  included in data by means of the \en escape (or \er or \er\en for those newline  included in data by means of the \en escape (or \er, \er\en, etc., depending on
624  settings).  the newline sequence setting).
625    .
626  .  .
627  .  .
628  .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"  .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
# Line 473  the subject where there is at least one Line 640  the subject where there is at least one
640     2: tan     2: tan
641  .sp  .sp
642  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
643  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
644    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
645    partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
646    inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
647    match start if a lookbehind assertion, \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.)
648  .P  .P
649  If \fB/g\P is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes  If \fB/g\fP is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
650  at the end of the longest match. For example:  at the end of the longest match. For example:
651  .sp  .sp
652      re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g      re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
# Line 499  indicating that the subject partially ma Line 670  indicating that the subject partially ma
670  match with additional subject data by means of the \eR escape sequence. For  match with additional subject data by means of the \eR escape sequence. For
671  example:  example:
672  .sp  .sp
673      re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/      re> /^\ed?\ed(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\ed\ed$/
674    data> 23ja\eP\eD    data> 23ja\eP\eD
675    Partial match: 23ja    Partial match: 23ja
676    data> n05\eR\eD    data> n05\eR\eD
# Line 556  the Line 727  the
727  documentation.  documentation.
728  .  .
729  .  .
730    .
731    .SH "NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS"
732    .rs
733    .sp
734    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
735    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
736    therefore shown as hex escapes.
737    .P
738    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
739    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
740    the pattern (using the \fB/L\fP modifier). In this case, the \fBisprint()\fP
741    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
742    .
743    .
744    .
745  .SH "SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS"  .SH "SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS"
746  .rs  .rs
747  .sp  .sp
748  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX  The facilities described in this section are not available when the POSIX
749  inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is  interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is
750  specified.  specified.
751  .P  .P
752  When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause \fBpcretest\fP to write a  When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause \fBpcretest\fP to write a
# Line 584  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If t Line 770  exact copy of the compiled pattern. If t
770  follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,  follows immediately after the compiled pattern. After writing the file,
771  \fBpcretest\fP expects to read a new pattern.  \fBpcretest\fP expects to read a new pattern.
772  .P  .P
773  A saved pattern can be reloaded into \fBpcretest\fP by specifing < and a file  A saved pattern can be reloaded into \fBpcretest\fP by specifying < and a file
774  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a < character,  name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a < character,
775  as otherwise \fBpcretest\fP will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by <  as otherwise \fBpcretest\fP will interpret the line as a pattern delimited by <
776  characters.  characters.
777  For example:  For example:
778  .sp  .sp
779     re> </some/file     re> </some/file
780    Compiled regex loaded from /some/file    Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
781    No study data    No study data
782  .sp  .sp
783  When the pattern has been loaded, \fBpcretest\fP proceeds to read data lines in  When the pattern has been loaded, \fBpcretest\fP proceeds to read data lines in
# Line 616  Finally, if you attempt to load a file t Line 802  Finally, if you attempt to load a file t
802  result is undefined.  result is undefined.
803  .  .
804  .  .
805    .SH "SEE ALSO"
806    .rs
807    .sp
808    \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcreapi\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrematching\fP(3),
809    \fBpcrepartial\fP(d), \fBpcrepattern\fP(3), \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3).
810    .
811    .
812  .SH AUTHOR  .SH AUTHOR
813  .rs  .rs
814  .sp  .sp
815    .nf
816  Philip Hazel  Philip Hazel
817  .br  University Computing Service
818  University Computing Service,  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
819  .br  .fi
820  Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  .
821  .P  .
822  .in 0  .SH REVISION
823  Last updated: 29 June 2006  .rs
824  .br  .sp
825  Copyright (c) 1997-2006 University of Cambridge.  .nf
826    Last updated: 20 July 2011
827    Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.
828    .fi

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