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revision 87 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:41:21 2007 UTC revision 570 by ph10, Sun Nov 7 16:25:12 2010 UTC
# Line 4  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-co Line 4  pcretest - a program for testing Perl-co
4  .SH SYNOPSIS  .SH SYNOPSIS
5  .rs  .rs
6  .sp  .sp
7  .B pcretest "[-C] [-d] [-dfa] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source]"  .B pcretest "[options] [source] [destination]"
8  .ti +5n  .sp
 .B "[destination]"  
 .P  
9  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression  \fBpcretest\fP was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
10  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular  library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with regular
11  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for  expressions. This document describes the features of the test program; for
# Line 26  documentation. Line 24  documentation.
24  .SH OPTIONS  .SH OPTIONS
25  .rs  .rs
26  .TP 10  .TP 10
27    \fB-b\fP
28    Behave as if each regex has the \fB/B\fP (show bytecode) modifier; the internal
29    form is output after compilation.
30    .TP 10
31  \fB-C\fP  \fB-C\fP
32  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information  Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all available information
33  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.  about the optional features that are included, and then exit.
34  .TP 10  .TP 10
35  \fB-d\fP  \fB-d\fP
36  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/D\fP (debug) modifier; the internal
37  form is output after compilation.  form and information about the compiled pattern is output after compilation;
38    \fB-d\fP is equivalent to \fB-b -i\fP.
39  .TP 10  .TP 10
40  \fB-dfa\fP  \fB-dfa\fP
41  Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the  Behave as if each data line contains the \eD escape sequence; this causes the
42  alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead of the  alternative matching function, \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP, to be used instead of the
43  standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).  standard \fBpcre_exec()\fP function (more detail is given below).
44  .TP 10  .TP 10
45    \fB-help\fP
46    Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
47    .TP 10
48  \fB-i\fP  \fB-i\fP
49  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/I\fP modifier; information about the
50  compiled pattern is given after compilation.  compiled pattern is given after compilation.
51  .TP 10  .TP 10
52    \fB-M\fP
53    Behave as if each data line contains the \eM escape sequence; this causes
54    PCRE to discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by
55    calling \fBpcre_exec()\fP repeatedly with different limits.
56    .TP 10
57  \fB-m\fP  \fB-m\fP
58  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is  Output the size of each compiled pattern after it has been compiled. This is
59  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. For compatibility  equivalent to adding \fB/M\fP to each regular expression. For compatibility
# Line 50  with earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s Line 61  with earlier versions of pcretest, \fB-s
61  .TP 10  .TP 10
62  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP  \fB-o\fP \fIosize\fP
63  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is used when calling
64  \fBpcre_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The default value is 45, which is enough  \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP to be \fIosize\fP. The default value
65  for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vector size can be changed for individual  is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or
66  matching calls by including \eO in the data line (see below).  22 different matches for \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP. The vector size can be
67    changed for individual matching calls by including \eO in the data line (see
68    below).
69  .TP 10  .TP 10
70  \fB-p\fP  \fB-p\fP
71  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is  Behave as if each regex has the \fB/P\fP modifier; the POSIX wrapper API is
72  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is  used to call PCRE. None of the other options has any effect when \fB-p\fP is
73  set.  set.
74  .TP 10  .TP 10
75  \fP-q\fP  \fB-q\fP
76  Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.  Do not output the version number of \fBpcretest\fP at the start of execution.
77  .TP 10  .TP 10
78    \fB-S\fP \fIsize\fP
79    On Unix-like systems, set the size of the runtime stack to \fIsize\fP
80    megabytes.
81    .TP 10
82  \fB-t\fP  \fB-t\fP
83  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output  Run each compile, study, and match many times with a timer, and output
84  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with  resulting time per compile or match (in milliseconds). Do not set \fB-m\fP with
85  \fB-t\fP, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the  \fB-t\fP, because you will then get the size output a zillion times, and the
86  timing will be distorted.  timing will be distorted. You can control the number of iterations that are
87    used for timing by following \fB-t\fP with a number (as a separate item on the
88    command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iterate 1000 times. The default is
89    to iterate 500000 times.
90    .TP 10
91    \fB-tm\fP
92    This is like \fB-t\fP except that it times only the matching phase, not the
93    compile or study phases.
94  .  .
95  .  .
96  .SH DESCRIPTION  .SH DESCRIPTION
# Line 78  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis Line 102  that file and writes to stdout. Otherwis
102  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular  stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular
103  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.  expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data lines.
104  .P  .P
105    When \fBpcretest\fP is built, a configuration option can specify that it should
106    be linked with the \fBlibreadline\fP library. When this is done, if the input
107    is from a terminal, it is read using the \fBreadline()\fP function. This
108    provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the \fB-help\fP
109    option states whether or not \fBreadline()\fP will be used.
110    .P
111  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each
112  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data
113  lines to be matched against the pattern.  lines to be matched against the pattern.
114  .P  .P
115  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do  Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to do
116  multiple-line matches, you have to use the \en escape sequence in a single line  multi-line matches, you have to use the \en escape sequence (or \er or \er\en,
117  of input to encode the newline characters. The maximum length of data line is  etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input to encode the
118  30,000 characters.  newline sequences. There is no limit on the length of data lines; the input
119    buffer is automatically extended if it is too small.
120  .P  .P
121  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular  An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new regular
122  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed in any
123  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example  non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
124  .sp  .sp
125    /(a|bc)x+yz/    /(a|bc)x+yz/
126  .sp  .sp
# Line 134  effect as they do in Perl. For example: Line 165  effect as they do in Perl. For example:
165  .sp  .sp
166    /caseless/i    /caseless/i
167  .sp  .sp
168  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options that do  The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE compile-time
169  not correspond to anything in Perl:  options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
170  .sp  .sp
171    \fB/A\fP    PCRE_ANCHORED    \fB/8\fP              PCRE_UTF8
172    \fB/C\fP    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT    \fB/?\fP              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
173    \fB/E\fP    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY    \fB/A\fP              PCRE_ANCHORED
174    \fB/f\fP    PCRE_FIRSTLINE    \fB/C\fP              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
175    \fB/N\fP    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE    \fB/E\fP              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
176    \fB/U\fP    PCRE_UNGREEDY    \fB/f\fP              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
177    \fB/X\fP    PCRE_EXTRA    \fB/J\fP              PCRE_DUPNAMES
178      \fB/N\fP              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
179      \fB/U\fP              PCRE_UNGREEDY
180      \fB/W\fP              PCRE_UCP
181      \fB/X\fP              PCRE_EXTRA
182      \fB/<JS>\fP           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
183      \fB/<cr>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
184      \fB/<lf>\fP           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
185      \fB/<crlf>\fP         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
186      \fB/<anycrlf>\fP      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
187      \fB/<any>\fP          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
188      \fB/<bsr_anycrlf>\fP  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
189      \fB/<bsr_unicode>\fP  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
190    .sp
191    The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings as shown,
192    including the angle brackets, but the letters can be in either case. This
193    example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
194    .sp
195      /^abc/m<crlf>
196    .sp
197    As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the \fB/8\fP modifier also causes
198    any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the
199    \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full details of the PCRE
200    options are given in the
201    .\" HREF
202    \fBpcreapi\fP
203    .\"
204    documentation.
205    .
206    .
207    .SS "Finding all matches in a string"
208    .rs
209  .sp  .sp
210  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested
211  by the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called  by the \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called
# Line 155  substring. This makes a difference to th Line 217  substring. This makes a difference to th
217  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).  begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \eb or \eB).
218  .P  .P
219  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an  If any call to \fBpcre_exec()\fP in a \fB/g\fP or \fB/G\fP sequence matches an
220  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED  empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
221  flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point.  PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the
222  If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal  same point. If this second match fails, the start offset is advanced, and the
223  match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when
224  \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function.  using the \fB/g\fP modifier or the \fBsplit()\fP function. Normally, the start
225  .P  offset is advanced by one character, but if the newline convention recognizes
226    CRLF as a newline, and the current character is CR followed by LF, an advance
227    of two is used.
228    .
229    .
230    .SS "Other modifiers"
231    .rs
232    .sp
233  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way \fBpcretest\fP  There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way \fBpcretest\fP
234  operates.  operates.
235  .P  .P
# Line 169  matched the entire pattern, pcretest sho Line 238  matched the entire pattern, pcretest sho
238  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains  the subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains
239  multiple copies of the same substring.  multiple copies of the same substring.
240  .P  .P
241  The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for  The \fB/B\fP modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that \fBpcretest\fP
242  example,  output a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Normally
243  .sp  this information contains length and offset values; however, if \fB/Z\fP is
244    /pattern/Lfr_FR  also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special feature for
245  .sp  use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same output is generated
246  For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  for different internal link sizes.
 \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the  
 locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the  
 regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP modifier, NULL is passed as the tables  
 pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
247  .P  .P
248  The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the  The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to
249  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and  \fB/BI\fP, that is, both the \fB/B\fP and the \fB/I\fP modifiers.
 so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a  
 pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.  
 .P  
 The \fB/D\fP modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes \fB/I\fP.  
 It causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  
 compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned is also  
 output.  
250  .P  .P
251  The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the  The \fB/F\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to flip the byte order of the
252  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This  fields in the compiled pattern that contain 2-byte and 4-byte numbers. This
# Line 198  available when the POSIX interface to PC Line 256  available when the POSIX interface to PC
256  \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and  \fB/P\fP pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
257  reloading compiled patterns below.  reloading compiled patterns below.
258  .P  .P
259  The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be called after the  The \fB/I\fP modifier requests that \fBpcretest\fP output information about the
260  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is  compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and
261  matched.  so on). It does this by calling \fBpcre_fullinfo()\fP after compiling a
262    pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also output.
263    .P
264    The \fB/K\fP modifier requests \fBpcretest\fP to show names from backtracking
265    control verbs that are returned from calls to \fBpcre_exec()\fP. It causes
266    \fBpcretest\fP to create a \fBpcre_extra\fP block if one has not already been
267    created by a call to \fBpcre_study()\fP, and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag
268    and the \fBmark\fP field within it, every time that \fBpcre_exec()\fP is
269    called. If the variable that the \fBmark\fP field points to is non-NULL for a
270    match, non-match, or partial match, \fBpcretest\fP prints the string to which
271    it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".
272    For a non-match it is added to the message.
273    .P
274    The \fB/L\fP modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
275    example,
276    .sp
277      /pattern/Lfr_FR
278    .sp
279    For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
280    \fBpcre_maketables()\fP is called to build a set of character tables for the
281    locale, and this is then passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP when compiling the
282    regular expression. Without an \fB/L\fP (or \fB/T\fP) modifier, NULL is passed
283    as the tables pointer; that is, \fB/L\fP applies only to the expression on
284    which it appears.
285  .P  .P
286  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  The \fB/M\fP modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled
287  pattern to be output.  pattern to be output.
288  .P  .P
289    The \fB/S\fP modifier causes \fBpcre_study()\fP to be called after the
290    expression has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is
291    matched.
292    .P
293    The \fB/T\fP modifier must be followed by a single digit. It causes a specific
294    set of built-in character tables to be passed to \fBpcre_compile()\fP. It is
295    used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different character
296    tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
297    .sp
298      0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
299            pcre_chartables.c.dist
300      1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
301    .sp
302    In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are identified as
303    letters, digits, spaces, etc.
304    .
305    .
306    .SS "Using the POSIX wrapper API"
307    .rs
308    .sp
309  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  The \fB/P\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper
310  API rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except  API rather than its native API. When \fB/P\fP is set, the following modifiers
311  \fB/i\fP, \fB/m\fP, and \fB/+\fP are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if \fB/i\fP is  set options for the \fBregcomp()\fP function:
312  present, and REG_NEWLINE is set if \fB/m\fP is present. The wrapper functions  .sp
313  force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.    /i    REG_ICASE
314  .P    /m    REG_NEWLINE
315  The \fB/8\fP modifier causes \fBpcretest\fP to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8    /N    REG_NOSUB
316  option set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE,    /s    REG_DOTALL     )
317  provided that it was compiled with this support enabled. This modifier also    /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
318  causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed using the    /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
319  \ex{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.    /8    REG_UTF8       )
320  .P  .sp
321  If the \fB/?\fP modifier is used with \fB/8\fP, it causes \fBpcretest\fP to  The \fB/+\fP modifier works as described above. All other modifiers are
322  call \fBpcre_compile()\fP with the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option, to suppress the  ignored.
 checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  
323  .  .
324  .  .
325  .SH "DATA LINES"  .SH "DATA LINES"
# Line 232  complicated features of PCRE. If you are Line 332  complicated features of PCRE. If you are
332  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are  expressions, you probably don't need any of these. The following escapes are
333  recognized:  recognized:
334  .sp  .sp
335    \ea         alarm (= BEL)    \ea         alarm (BEL, \ex07)
336    \eb         backspace    \eb         backspace (\ex08)
337    \ee         escape    \ee         escape (\ex27)
338    \ef         formfeed    \ef         formfeed (\ex0c)
339    \en         newline    \en         newline (\ex0a)
340    \er         carriage return  .\" JOIN
341    \et         tab    \eqdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
342    \ev         vertical tab                 (any number of digits)
343      \er         carriage return (\ex0d)
344      \et         tab (\ex09)
345      \ev         vertical tab (\ex0b)
346    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)    \ennn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
347    \exhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                 always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode
348      \exhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
349  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
350    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits    \ex{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
351                 in UTF-8 mode                 in UTF-8 mode
352    .\" JOIN
353    \eA         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eA         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
354                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
355    .\" JOIN
356    \eB         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eB         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
357                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
358  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
359    \eCdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd    \eCdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd
360                 after a successful match (number less than 32)                 after a successful match (number less than 32)
# Line 279  recognized: Line 387  recognized:
387  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
388    \eL         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a    \eL         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a
389                 successful match                 successful match
390    .\" JOIN
391    \eM         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and    \eM         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
392                 MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                 MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
393    .\" JOIN
394    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eN         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
395                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
396                   PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
397  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
398    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to    \eOdd       set the size of the output vector passed to
399                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP to dd (any number of digits)
400  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
401    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eP         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
402                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP                 or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP; if used twice, pass the
403                   PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
404    .\" JOIN
405      \eQdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
406                   (any number of digits)
407    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP    \eR         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
408    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching    \eS         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
409    .\" JOIN
410      \eY         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
411                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
412    .\" JOIN
413    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \eZ         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
414                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
415  .\" JOIN  .\" JOIN
416    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to    \e?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
417                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP                 \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
418    \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);  .\" JOIN
419                 this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP    \e>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
420  .sp                 any number of digits); this sets the \fIstartoffset\fP
421  A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the                 argument for \fBpcre_exec()\fP or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
422  very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  .\" JOIN
423  an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.    \e<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
424                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
425    .\" JOIN
426      \e<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
427                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
428    .\" JOIN
429      \e<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
430                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
431    .\" JOIN
432      \e<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
433                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
434    .\" JOIN
435      \e<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to \fBpcre_exec()\fP
436                   or \fBpcre_dfa_exec()\fP
437    .sp
438    Note that \exhh always specifies one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this makes it
439    possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing purposes. On the
440    other hand, \ex{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in UTF-8 mode,
441    generating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127. When not in
442    UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error
443    for greater values.
444    .P
445    The escapes that specify line ending sequences are literal strings, exactly as
446    shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in any data line.
447    .P
448    A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If
449    the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of
450    passing an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data
451    input.
452  .P  .P
453  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with  If \eM is present, \fBpcretest\fP calls \fBpcre_exec()\fP several times, with
454  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP  different values in the \fImatch_limit\fP and \fImatch_limit_recursion\fP
# Line 318  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or Line 467  by the \fB-O\fP command line option (or
467  the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.  the call of \fBpcre_exec()\fP for the line in which it appears.
468  .P  .P
469  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper  If the \fB/P\fP modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrapper
470  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB  API to be used, the only option-setting sequences that have any effect are \eB,
471  and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to  \eN, and \eZ, causing REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
472  \fBregexec()\fP.  to be passed to \fBregexec()\fP.
473  .P  .P
474  The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use  The use of \ex{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on the use
475  of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be  of the \fB/8\fP modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be
476  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The result is from one to
477  six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.  six bytes, encoded according to the original UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This
478    allows for values in the range 0 to 0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are
479    valid Unicode code points, or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the
480    later rules in RFC 3629.
481  .  .
482  .  .
483  .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"  .SH "THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
# Line 356  This section describes the output when t Line 508  This section describes the output when t
508  .P  .P
509  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that
510  \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched  \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched
511  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial match"  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the return is
512  when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the partially matching
513  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here is an example  substring when \fBpcre_exec()\fP returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is
514  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.  the entire substring that was inspected during the partial match; it may
515    include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion,
516    \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.) For any other returns, it outputs the PCRE
517    negative error number. Here is an example of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.
518  .sp  .sp
519    $ pcretest    $ pcretest
520    PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004    PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
521  .sp  .sp
522      re> /^abc(\ed+)/      re> /^abc(\ed+)/
523    data> abc123    data> abc123
# Line 371  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run. Line 526  of an interactive \fBpcretest\fP run.
526    data> xyz    data> xyz
527    No match    No match
528  .sp  .sp
529    Note that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set
530    are not returned by \fBpcre_exec()\fP, and are not shown by \fBpcretest\fP. In
531    the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first
532    data line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown. An "internal"
533    unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second data line.
534    .sp
535        re> /(a)|(b)/
536      data> a
537       0: a
538       1: a
539      data> b
540       0: b
541       1: <unset>
542       2: b
543    .sp
544  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x  If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \e0x
545  escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the  escapes, or as \ex{...} escapes if the \fB/8\fP modifier was present on the
546  pattern. If the pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring 0  pattern. See below for the definition of non-printing characters. If the
547  is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like  pattern has the \fB/+\fP modifier, the output for substring 0 is followed by
548  this:  the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:
549  .sp  .sp
550      re> /cat/+      re> /cat/+
551    data> cataract    data> cataract
# Line 403  instead of a colon. This is in addition Line 573  instead of a colon. This is in addition
573  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in  length (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given in
574  parentheses after each string for \fB\eC\fP and \fB\eG\fP.  parentheses after each string for \fB\eC\fP and \fB\eG\fP.
575  .P  .P
576  Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"
577  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be
578  included in data by means of the \en escape.  included in data by means of the \en escape (or \er, \er\en, etc., depending on
579    the newline sequence setting).
580    .
581  .  .
582  .  .
583  .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"  .SH "OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION"
# Line 423  the subject where there is at least one Line 595  the subject where there is at least one
595     2: tan     2: tan
596  .sp  .sp
597  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The  (Using the normal matching function on this data finds only "tang".) The
598  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero). After a
599    PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", followed by the
600    partially matching substring. (Note that this is the entire substring that was
601    inspected during the partial match; it may include characters before the actual
602    match start if a lookbehind assertion, \eK, \eb, or \eB was involved.)
603  .P  .P
604  If \fB/g\P is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes  If \fB/g\fP is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
605  at the end of the longest match. For example:  at the end of the longest match. For example:
606  .sp  .sp
607      re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g      re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
# Line 449  indicating that the subject partially ma Line 625  indicating that the subject partially ma
625  match with additional subject data by means of the \eR escape sequence. For  match with additional subject data by means of the \eR escape sequence. For
626  example:  example:
627  .sp  .sp
628      re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/      re> /^\ed?\ed(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\ed\ed$/
629    data> 23ja\eP\eD    data> 23ja\eP\eD
630    Partial match: 23ja    Partial match: 23ja
631    data> n05\eR\eD    data> n05\eR\eD
# Line 506  the Line 682  the
682  documentation.  documentation.
683  .  .
684  .  .
685    .
686    .SH "NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS"
687    .rs
688    .sp
689    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
690    bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters are are
691    therefore shown as hex escapes.
692    .P
693    When \fBpcretest\fP is outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
694    string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been set for
695    the pattern (using the \fB/L\fP modifier). In this case, the \fBisprint()\fP
696    function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
697    .
698    .
699    .
700  .SH "SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS"  .SH "SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS"
701  .rs  .rs
702  .sp  .sp
# Line 566  Finally, if you attempt to load a file t Line 757  Finally, if you attempt to load a file t
757  result is undefined.  result is undefined.
758  .  .
759  .  .
760    .SH "SEE ALSO"
761    .rs
762    .sp
763    \fBpcre\fP(3), \fBpcreapi\fP(3), \fBpcrecallout\fP(3), \fBpcrematching\fP(3),
764    \fBpcrepartial\fP(d), \fBpcrepattern\fP(3), \fBpcreprecompile\fP(3).
765    .
766    .
767  .SH AUTHOR  .SH AUTHOR
768  .rs  .rs
769  .sp  .sp
770    .nf
771  Philip Hazel  Philip Hazel
772  .br  University Computing Service
773  University Computing Service,  Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
774  .br  .fi
775  Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.  .
776  .P  .
777  .in 0  .SH REVISION
778  Last updated: 18 January 2006  .rs
779  .br  .sp
780  Copyright (c) 1997-2006 University of Cambridge.  .nf
781    Last updated: 07 November 2010
782    Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.
783    .fi

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