/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
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revision 211 by ph10, Thu Aug 9 09:52:43 2007 UTC revision 930 by ph10, Fri Feb 24 12:05:54 2012 UTC
# Line 7  NAME Line 7  NAME
7    
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [options] [source] [destination]         pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]
11    
12         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
14         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;
15         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern
16         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17         options, see the pcreapi documentation.         options, see the  pcreapi  and  pcre16  documentation.  The  input  for
18           pcretest is a sequence of regular expression patterns and strings to be
19           matched, as described below. The output shows the result of each match.
20           Options  on  the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and
21           exactly what is output.
22    
23    
24    PCRE's 8-BIT and 16-BIT LIBRARIES
25    
26           From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The origi-
27           nal  one  supports  8-bit  character  strings, whereas the newer 16-bit
28           library  supports  character  strings  encoded  in  16-bit  units.  The
29           pcretest  program  can  be  used to test both libraries. However, it is
30           itself still an 8-bit program, reading 8-bit input  and  writing  8-bit
31           output.  When testing the 16-bit library, the patterns and data strings
32           are converted to 16-bit format before being passed to the PCRE  library
33           functions. Results are converted to 8-bit for output.
34    
35           References  to  functions  and structures of the form pcre[16]_xx below
36           mean "pcre_xx when using the 8-bit library or pcre16_xx when using  the
37           16-bit library".
38    
39    
40    COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
41    
42           -16       If  both  the 8-bit and the 16-bit libraries have been built,
43                     this option causes the 16-bit library to be used. If only the
44                     16-bit library has been built, this is the default (so has no
45                     effect). If only the  8-bit  library  has  been  built,  this
46                     option causes an error.
47    
48           -b        Behave  as  if each pattern has the /B (show byte code) modi-
49  OPTIONS                   fier; the internal form is output after compilation.
   
        -b        Behave as if each regex has the /B (show bytecode)  modifier;  
                  the internal form is output after compilation.  
50    
51         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
52                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are                   able   information  about  the  optional  features  that  are
53                   included, and then exit.                   included, and then exit. All other options are ignored.
54    
55           -C option Output information about a specific build-time  option,  then
56                     exit.  This functionality is intended for use in scripts such
57                     as RunTest. The following options output the value indicated:
58    
59                       linksize   the internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
60                       newline    the default newline setting:
61                                    CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
62    
63                     The following options output 1 for true or zero for false:
64    
65                       jit        just-in-time support is available
66                       pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
67                       pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
68                       ucp        Unicode property support is available
69                       utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 support is available
70    
71         -d        Behave  as  if  each  regex  has the /D (debug) modifier; the         -d        Behave as if each pattern has the /D  (debug)  modifier;  the
72                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is                   internal  form  and information about the compiled pattern is
73                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
74    
75         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;         -dfa      Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape  sequence;
76                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,
77                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard                   pcre[16]_dfa_exec(), to  be  used  instead  of  the  standard
78                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).                   pcre[16]_exec() function (more detail is given below).
79    
80         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
81    
82         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /I modifier; information
83                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
84    
85           -M        Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape  sequence;
86                     this  causes  PCRE  to  discover  the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
87                     MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION  settings  by  calling  pcre[16]_exec()
88                     repeatedly with different limits.
89    
90         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been
91                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular
92                   expression.   For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions  of                   expression. The size is given in bytes for both libraries.
                  pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.  
93    
94         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used
95                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The                   when calling pcre[16]_exec()  or  pcre[16]_dfa_exec()  to  be
96                   default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  subex-                   osize.  The  default value is 45, which is enough for 14 cap-
97                   pressions   for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches  for                   turing subexpressions for  pcre[16]_exec()  or  22  different
98                   pcre_dfa_exec(). The vector size can be changed for  individ-                   matches  for  pcre[16]_dfa_exec().   The  vector  size can be
99                   ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see                   changed for individual matching calls by including \O in  the
100                   below).                   data line (see below).
101    
102         -p        Behave as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX  wrap-         -p        Behave  as  if  each  pattern  has the /P modifier; the POSIX
103                   per  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options has                   wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  other  options
104                   any effect when -p is set.                   has  any  effect when -p is set. This option can be used only
105                     with the 8-bit library.
106    
107         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
108                   execution.                   execution.
109    
110         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems,  set the size of the runtime stack to         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems, set the size of the run-time stack to
111                   size megabytes.                   size megabytes.
112    
113         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,         -s or -s+ Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /S  modifier;  in  other
114                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-                   words,  force each pattern to be studied. If -s+ is used, all
115                   onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the                   the JIT compile options are passed to pcre[16]_study(), caus-
116                   size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-                   ing  just-in-time  optimization  to be set up if it is avail-
117                   torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are                   able, for both full and partial matching. Specific  JIT  com-
118                   used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate                   pile options can be selected by following -s+ with a digit in
119                     the range 1 to 7, which selects the JIT compile modes as fol-
120                     lows:
121    
122                       1  normal match only
123                       2  soft partial match only
124                       3  normal match and soft partial match
125                       4  hard partial match only
126                       6  soft and hard partial match
127                       7  all three modes (default)
128    
129                     If  -s++  is used instead of -s+ (with or without a following
130                     digit), the text "(JIT)" is added to the  first  output  line
131                     after a match or no match when JIT-compiled code was actually
132                     used.
133    
134           If the /I or /D option is present on a pattern (requesting output about
135           the  compiled pattern), information about the result of studying is not
136           included when studying is caused only by -s and neither -i  nor  -d  is
137           present  on the command line. This behaviour means that the output from
138           tests that are run with and without -s should be identical, except when
139           options that output information about the actual running of a match are
140           set.
141    
142           The -M, -t, and -tm options, which  give  information  about  resources
143           used,  are likely to produce different output with and without -s. Out-
144           put may also differ if the /C option is present on an  individual  pat-
145           tern.  This  uses  callouts to trace the the matching process, and this
146           may be different between studied and non-studied patterns. If the  pat-
147           tern contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences, for the same
148           reason. The -s command line option can be overridden for specific  pat-
149           terns that should never be studied (see the /S pattern modifier below).
150    
151           -t        Run  each  compile, study, and match many times with a timer,
152                     and output resulting time per compile or match (in  millisec-
153                     onds).  Do  not set -m with -t, because you will then get the
154                     size output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be  dis-
155                     torted.  You  can  control  the number of iterations that are
156                     used for timing by following -t with a number (as a  separate
157                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
158                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
159    
# Line 78  OPTIONS Line 163  OPTIONS
163    
164  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
165    
166         If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first         If  pcretest  is  given two filename arguments, it reads from the first
167         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
168         reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from         reads  from  that  file  and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from
169         stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using         stdin and writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of  input,  using
170         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
171         lines.         lines.
172    
173           When pcretest is built, a configuration  option  can  specify  that  it
174           should  be  linked  with the libreadline library. When this is done, if
175           the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
176           This  provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the
177           -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
178    
179         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
180         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-         Each  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any num-
181         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
182    
183         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to         Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want  to
184         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
185         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
186         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of         to  encode  the  newline  sequences. There is no limit on the length of
187         data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too         data lines; the input buffer is automatically extended  if  it  is  too
188         small.         small.
189    
190         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new         An  empty  line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new
191         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed         regular expression is read. The regular expressions are given  enclosed
192         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
193    
194           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
195    
196         White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-         White  space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expres-
197         sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-         sion may be continued over several input lines, in which case the  new-
198         line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the         line  characters  are included within it. It is possible to include the
199         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
200    
201           /abc\/def/           /abc\/def/
202    
203         If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,         If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part  of  the  pattern,
204         but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect         but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect
205         its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-         its interpretation.  If the terminating delimiter is  immediately  fol-
206         lowed by a backslash, for example,         lowed by a backslash, for example,
207    
208           /abc/\           /abc/\
209    
210         then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to         then  a  backslash  is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to
211         provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern         provide a way of testing the error condition that arises if  a  pattern
212         finishes with a backslash, because         finishes with a backslash, because
213    
214           /abc\/           /abc\/
215    
216         is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",         is  interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/",
217         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
218         expression.         expression.
219    
220    
221  PATTERN MODIFIERS  PATTERN MODIFIERS
222    
223         A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly         A  pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly
224         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below         single characters. Following Perl usage, these are  referred  to  below
225         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the         as,  for  example,  "the /i modifier", even though the delimiter of the
226         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing         pattern need not always be a slash, and no slash is used  when  writing
227         modifiers. Whitespace may appear between the  final  pattern  delimiter         modifiers.  White  space may appear between the final pattern delimiter
228         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
229    
230         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
231         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively,  when  pcre_com-         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when pcre[16]_com-
232         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as         pile() is called. These four modifier letters have the same  effect  as
233         they do in Perl. For example:         they do in Perl. For example:
234    
235           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
236    
237         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options         The  following  table  shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE com-
238         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
239    
240           /A          PCRE_ANCHORED           /8              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
241           /C          PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
          /E          PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY  
          /f          PCRE_FIRSTLINE  
          /J          PCRE_DUPNAMES  
          /N          PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE  
          /U          PCRE_UNGREEDY  
          /X          PCRE_EXTRA  
          /<cr>       PCRE_NEWLINE_CR  
          /<lf>       PCRE_NEWLINE_LF  
          /<crlf>     PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF  
          /<anycrlf>  PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF  
          /<any>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY  
   
        Those  specifying  line ending sequencess are literal strings as shown.  
        This example sets multiline matching  with  CRLF  as  the  line  ending  
        sequence:  
242    
243           /^abc/m<crlf>           /8              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
244             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
245    
246         Details  of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the pcreapi           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
247         documentation.           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
248             /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
249             /f              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
250             /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
251             /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
252             /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
253             /W              PCRE_UCP
254             /X              PCRE_EXTRA
255             /Y              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
256             /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
257             /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
258             /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
259             /<crlf>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
260             /<anycrlf>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
261             /<any>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
262             /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
263             /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
264    
265           The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are  literal  strings
266           as  shown,  including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be
267           in either case.  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as  the
268           line ending sequence:
269    
270             /^abc/m<CRLF>
271    
272           As  well  as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16 option, the /8 modifier causes
273           all non-printing characters in output strings to be printed  using  the
274           \x{hh...}  notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in hex
275           without the curly brackets.
276    
277           Full details of the PCRE options are given in  the  pcreapi  documenta-
278           tion.
279    
280     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
281    
282         Searching for all possible matches within each subject  string  can  be         Searching  for  all  possible matches within each subject string can be
283         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is         requested by the /g or /G modifier. After  finding  a  match,  PCRE  is
284         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-
285         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument
286         to pcre_exec() to start searching at a  new  point  within  the  entire         to  pcre[16]_exec() to start searching at a new point within the entire
287         string  (which  is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes         string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the  latter  passes
288         over a shortened substring. This makes a  difference  to  the  matching         over  a  shortened  substring.  This makes a difference to the matching
289         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b
290         or \B).         or \B).
291    
292         If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an  empty         If  any call to pcre[16]_exec() in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty
293         string,  the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED         string, the next  call  is  done  with  the  PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART  and
294         flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the  same         PCRE_ANCHORED  flags  set  in  order  to search for another, non-empty,
295         point.   If  this  second  match fails, the start offset is advanced by         match at the same point. If this second match fails, the  start  offset
296         one, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way  Perl  han-         is  advanced,  and  the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way
297         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-
298           tion.  Normally,  the start offset is advanced by one character, but if
299           the newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline,  and  the  current
300           character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.
301    
302     Other modifiers     Other modifiers
303    
304         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.
305    
306         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that         The  /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
307         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the         matched the entire pattern, pcretest  should  in  addition  output  the
308         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the         remainder  of  the  subject  string. This is useful for tests where the
309         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the +  modi-
310           fier  appears  twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings.
311           In each case the remainder is output on the following line with a  plus
312           character  following  the  capture number. Note that this modifier must
313           not immediately follow the /S modifier because /S+ and /S++ have  other
314           meanings.
315    
316           The  /=  modifier  requests  that  the values of all potential captured
317           parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up  to  the
318           highest one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the
319           return code from pcre[16]_exec()). Values in the offsets vector  corre-
320           sponding to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as
321           "<unset>". This modifier gives a way of checking that this  is  happen-
322           ing.
323    
324         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-
325         put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.  Nor-         put a representation of the compiled code after  compilation.  Normally
326         mally  this  information contains length and offset values; however, if         this  information  contains length and offset values; however, if /Z is
327         /Z is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special         also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special  fea-
328         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same         ture  for  use  in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
329         output is generated for different internal link sizes.         output is generated for different internal link sizes.
330    
331         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
332           that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
333    
334           The  /F  modifier  causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the 2-byte
335           and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
336           the  feature  in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were com-
337           piled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not avail-
338           able  when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the
339           /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
340           reloading compiled patterns below.
341    
342           The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the
343           compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,
344           and so on). It does this by calling pcre[16]_fullinfo() after compiling
345           a pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-
346           put.
347    
348           The  /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking con-
349           trol verbs that are returned from calls to pcre[16]_exec().  It  causes
350           pcretest  to  create a pcre[16]_extra block if one has not already been
351           created by a call to pcre[16]_study(), and to set  the  PCRE_EXTRA_MARK
352           flag  and  the mark field within it, every time that pcre[16]_exec() is
353           called. If the variable that the mark field points to is non-NULL for a
354           match, non-match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which
355           it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged  with
356           "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
357    
358           The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
359         example,         example,
360    
361           /pattern/Lfr_FR           /pattern/Lfr_FR
362    
363         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
364         pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the         pcre[16]_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for
365         locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the         the locale, and this is then passed to pcre[16]_compile() when  compil-
366         regular expression. Without an /L  modifier,  NULL  is  passed  as  the         ing  the  regular  expression.  Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is
367         tables  pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which it         passed as the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to  the  expres-
368         appears.         sion on which it appears.
369    
370         The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the         The  /M  modifier  causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to
371         compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,         hold the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the  size
372         and so on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after  compiling  a         of the pcre[16] block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pat-
373         pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-         tern is successfully studied with  the  PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE  option,
374         put.         the size of the JIT compiled code is also output.
375    
376         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,         If  the  /S  modifier  appears  once,  it causes pcre[16]_study() to be
377         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         called after the expression has been compiled,  and  the  results  used
378           when  the  expression  is  matched.  If /S appears twice, it suppresses
379           studying, even if it was requested externally by the  -s  command  line
380           option.  This  makes  it  possible to specify that certain patterns are
381           always studied, and others are never studied, independently of -s. This
382           feature  is  used  in the test files in a few cases where the output is
383           different when the pattern is studied.
384    
385           If the /S modifier is immediately followed by a + character,  the  call
386           to  pcre[16]_study() is made with all the JIT study options, requesting
387           just-in-time optimization support if it is available, for  both  normal
388           and  partial matching. If you want to restrict the JIT compiling modes,
389           you can follow /S+ with a digit in the range 1 to 7:
390    
391             1  normal match only
392             2  soft partial match only
393             3  normal match and soft partial match
394             4  hard partial match only
395             6  soft and hard partial match
396             7  all three modes (default)
397    
398           If /S++ is used instead of /S+ (with or without a following digit), the
399           text  "(JIT)"  is  added  to  the first output line after a match or no
400           match when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
401    
402           Note that there is also an independent /+  modifier;  it  must  not  be
403           given immediately after /S or /S+ because this will be misinterpreted.
404    
405           If JIT studying is successful, the compiled JIT code will automatically
406           be used when pcre[16]_exec() is run, except when incompatible  run-time
407           options are specified. For more details, see the pcrejit documentation.
408           See also the \J escape sequence below for a way of setting the size  of
409           the JIT stack.
410    
411           The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
412           cific set of built-in character tables to be  passed  to  pcre[16]_com-
413           pile().  It  is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with
414           different character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
415    
416             0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
417                   pcre_chartables.c.dist
418             1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
419    
420           In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
421           tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
422    
423       Using the POSIX wrapper API
424    
425           The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
426           rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library.  When
427           /P  is set, the following modifiers set options for the regcomp() func-
428           tion:
429    
430             /i    REG_ICASE
431             /m    REG_NEWLINE
432             /N    REG_NOSUB
433             /s    REG_DOTALL     )
434             /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
435             /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
436             /8    REG_UTF8       )
437    
438         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in         The /+ modifier works as  described  above.  All  other  modifiers  are
439         the compiled pattern that  contain  2-byte  and  4-byte  numbers.  This         ignored.
        facility  is  for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute  
        patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This  
        feature  is  not  available  when  the POSIX interface to PCRE is being  
        used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the  
        section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.  
   
        The  /S  modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression  
        has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
   
        The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-  
        piled pattern to be output.  
   
        The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API  
        rather  than  its  native  API.  When this is done, all other modifiers  
        except /i, /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i  is  present,  
        and  REG_NEWLINE  is  set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force  
        PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is  set.  
   
        The  /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8 option  
        set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in  PCRE,  pro-  
        vided  that  it  was  compiled with this support enabled. This modifier  
        also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed  
        using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.  
   
        If  the  /?  modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes pcretest to call  
        pcre_compile() with the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to  suppress  the  
        checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  
440    
441    
442  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
443    
444         Before  each  data  line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing         Before  each data line is passed to pcre[16]_exec(), leading and trail-
445         whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.  Some  of         ing white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes.  Some
446         these  are  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of         of  these  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some
447         the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordi-         of the more complicated features of  PCRE.  If  you  are  just  testing
448         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The         "ordinary"  regular  expressions, you probably don't need any of these.
449         following escapes are recognized:         The following escapes are recognized:
450    
451           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
452           \b         backspace (\x08)           \b         backspace (\x08)
453           \e         escape (\x27)           \e         escape (\x27)
454           \f         formfeed (\x0c)           \f         form feed (\x0c)
455           \n         newline (\x0a)           \n         newline (\x0a)
456           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
457                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
458           \r         carriage return (\x0d)           \r         carriage return (\x0d)
459           \t         tab (\x09)           \t         tab (\x09)
460           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
461           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
462           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                        a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit mode
463           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
464                        in UTF-8 mode           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
465           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre[16]_exec()
466                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
467           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre[16]_exec()
468                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
469           \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd           \Cdd       call pcre[16]_copy_substring() for substring dd
470                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
471           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring           \Cname     call pcre[16]_copy_named_substring() for substring
472                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
473                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)
474           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout
# Line 297  DATA LINES Line 480  DATA LINES
480                        reached for the nth time                        reached for the nth time
481           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
482                        data; this is used as the callout return value                        data; this is used as the callout return value
483           \D         use the pcre_dfa_exec() match function           \D         use the pcre[16]_dfa_exec() match function
484           \F         only shortest match for pcre_dfa_exec()           \F         only shortest match for pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
485           \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd           \Gdd       call pcre[16]_get_substring() for substring dd
486                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
487           \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring           \Gname     call pcre[16]_get_named_substring() for substring
488                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
489                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
490           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a           \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
491                          number of digits)
492             \L         call pcre[16]_get_substringlist() after a
493                        successful match                        successful match
494           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
495                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
496           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre[16]_exec()
497                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
498                          PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
499           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
500                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre[16]_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
501           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre[16]_exec()
502                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
503                          PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
504           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
505                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
506           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
507           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
508           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre[16]_exec()
509                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
510           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre[16]_exec()
511                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
512           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16]_CHECK option to
513                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()                        pcre[16]_exec() or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
514                        or pcre_dfa_exec()           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
515           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
516                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        argument for pcre[16]_exec() or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
517           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre[16]_exec()
518                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
519           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre[16]_exec()
520                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
521           \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre[16]_exec()
522                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
523           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()           \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre[16]_exec()
524                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
525             \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre[16]_exec()
526                          or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
527    
528           The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the /8 modifier  on
529           the  pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexa-
530           decimal digits inside the braces; invalid  values  provoke  error  mes-
531           sages.
532    
533           Note  that  \xhh  specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8
534           mode; this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8  sequences  for
535           testing  purposes.  On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8
536           character in UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value  is
537           greater  than  127.   When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode,
538           \x{hh} generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error
539           for greater values.
540    
541           In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
542           possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
543    
544         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
545         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
# Line 345  DATA LINES Line 550  DATA LINES
550         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-
551         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
552    
553         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-         The  \J escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
554         ferent values in the match_limit and  match_limit_recursion  fields  of         used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT  opti-
555         the  pcre_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers for         mization  is  not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the
556         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-         default 32K is necessary only for very complicated patterns.
557         ber  is  a  measure of the amount of backtracking that takes place, and  
558         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre[16]_exec()  several  times,  with
559         is  quite  small,  but for patterns with very large numbers of matching         different values in the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of
560         possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing  length         the pcre[16]_extra data structure, until it finds the  minimum  numbers
561         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how         for  each  parameter  that  allow  pcre[16]_exec()  to complete without
562         much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with  NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)         error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal  inter-
563         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.         pretive pcre[16]_exec() execution, the use of any JIT optimization that
564           might have been set up by the /S+ qualifier of -s+ option is disabled.
565    
566           The match_limit number is a measure of the amount of backtracking  that
567           takes  place,  and  checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
568           matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns  with  very  large
569           numbers  of  matching  possibilities,  it can become large very quickly
570           with increasing length of  subject  string.  The  match_limit_recursion
571           number  is  a  measure  of how much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with
572           NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory  is  needed  to  complete  the  match
573           attempt.
574    
575         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the
576         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
577         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.         only to the call of pcre[16]_exec() for the line in which it appears.
578    
579         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
580         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
581         effect  are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,         effect  are  \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and
582         to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
   
        The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on  
        the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.  
        There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The  
        result  is  from  one  to  six bytes, encoded according to the original  
        UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This allows for  values  in  the  range  0  to  
        0x7FFFFFFF.  Note  that not all of those are valid Unicode code points,  
        or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the later  rules  in  RFC  
        3629.  
583    
584    
585  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
586    
587         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,
588         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an         pcre[16]_exec() to match each data line. PCRE also supports an alterna-
589         alternative  matching  function,  pcre_dfa_test(),  which operates in a         tive matching function, pcre[16]_dfa_test(), which operates in  a  dif-
590         different way, and has some restrictions. The differences  between  the         ferent  way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
591         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
592    
593         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line
594         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is  called.         contains  the  -dfa  option, the alternative matching function is used.
595         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
596         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the
597         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
598    
599    
600  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
601    
602         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,
603         pcre_exec(), is being used.         pcre[16]_exec(), is being used.
604    
605         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
606         that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that         that pcre[16]_exec() returns, starting with number  0  for  the  string
607         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial         that  matched  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when
608         match"  when  pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PAR-         the return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by  the
609         TIAL, respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number.  Here         partially    matching    substring    when    pcre[16]_exec()   returns
610         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is the entire  substring  that  was
611           inspected  during  the  partial match; it may include characters before
612           the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion, \K,  \b,  or  \B  was
613           involved.)  For  any  other  return, pcretest outputs the PCRE negative
614           error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is  a  failed
615           UTF  string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
616           the reason code are also output, provided that the size of  the  output
617           vector  is  at least two. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest
618           run.
619    
620           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
621           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006           PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
622    
623             re> /^abc(\d+)/             re> /^abc(\d+)/
624           data> abc123           data> abc123
# Line 413  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 627  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
627           data> xyz           data> xyz
628           No match           No match
629    
630           Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are
631           not  returned by pcre[16]_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In the
632           following example, there are two capturing  substrings,  but  when  the
633           first  data  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown.
634           An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the  second
635           data line.
636    
637               re> /(a)|(b)/
638             data> a
639              0: a
640              1: a
641             data> b
642              0: b
643              1: <unset>
644              2: b
645    
646         If  the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as         If  the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as
647         \0x escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier  was  present  on         \xhh escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF  mode  is  not  set.
648         the  pattern.  See below for the definition of non-printing characters.         Otherwise they are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the defi-
649         If the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is  fol-         nition of non-printing characters. If the pattern has the /+  modifier,
650         lowed  by  the  the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like         the  output  for substring 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject
651         this:         string, identified by "0+" like this:
652    
653             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
654           data> cataract           data> cataract
# Line 437  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 667  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
667            0: ipp            0: ipp
668            1: pp            1: pp
669    
670         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.         "No  match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an
671           example of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \>4  is
672           past the end of the subject string):
673    
674               re> /xyz/
675             data> xyz\>4
676             Error -24 (bad offset value)
677    
678         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that
679         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience
# Line 454  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 690  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
690    
691  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
692    
693         When  the  alternative  matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(), is used (by         When  the  alternative  matching function, pcre[16]_dfa_exec(), is used
694         means of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line  option),  the         (by means of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command  line  option),
695         output  consists  of  a list of all the matches that start at the first         the  output  consists  of  a  list of all the matches that start at the
696         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:         first point in the subject where there is at least one match. For exam-
697           ple:
698    
699             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
700           data> yellow tangerine\D           data> yellow tangerine\D
# Line 465  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 702  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
702            1: tang            1: tang
703            2: tan            2: tan
704    
705         (Using the normal matching function on this data  finds  only  "tang".)         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)
706         The  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).
707           After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
708           lowed by the partially matching  substring.  (Note  that  this  is  the
709           entire  substring  that  was inspected during the partial match; it may
710           include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-
711           tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
712    
713         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
714         at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
# Line 480  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 722  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
722            1: tan            1: tan
723            0: tan            0: tan
724    
725         Since  the  matching  function  does not support substring capture, the         Since the matching function does not  support  substring  capture,  the
726         escape sequences that are concerned with captured  substrings  are  not         escape  sequences  that  are concerned with captured substrings are not
727         relevant.         relevant.
728    
729    
730  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
731    
732         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL
733         return, indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern,  you         return,  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you
734         can  restart  the match with additional subject data by means of the \R         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R
735         escape sequence. For example:         escape sequence. For example:
736    
737             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
# Line 498  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH Line 740  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
740           data> n05\R\D           data> n05\R\D
741            0: n05            0: n05
742    
743         For further information about partial  matching,  see  the  pcrepartial         For  further  information  about  partial matching, see the pcrepartial
744         documentation.         documentation.
745    
746    
747  CALLOUTS  CALLOUTS
748    
749         If  the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout func-         If the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout  func-
750         tion is called during matching. This works  with  both  matching  func-         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-
751         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
752         start and current positions in the text at the callout  time,  and  the         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the
753         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output         next pattern item to be tested. For example:
754    
755           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
756             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
757    
758         indicates  that  callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting         This output indicates that  callout  number  0  occurred  for  a  match
759         at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was  at         attempt  starting  at  the fourth character of the subject string, when
760         the  seventh  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was         the pointer was at the seventh character of the data, and when the next
761         \d. Just one circumflex is output if the start  and  current  positions         pattern  item  was  \d.  Just one circumflex is output if the start and
762         are the same.         current positions are the same.
763    
764         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
765         a result of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead  of  showing         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing
766         the  callout  number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is         the callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a  plus,  is
767         output. For example:         output. For example:
768    
769             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C
# Line 533  CALLOUTS Line 775  CALLOUTS
775           +10 ^ ^           +10 ^ ^
776            0: E*            0: E*
777    
778           If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-
779           ever a change of latest mark is passed to  the  callout  function.  For
780           example:
781    
782               re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
783             data> abc
784             --->abc
785              +0 ^       a
786              +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
787             +10 ^^      b
788             Latest Mark: X
789             +11 ^ ^     c
790             +12 ^  ^
791              0: abc
792    
793           The  mark  changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for
794           the rest of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as  a  result  of
795           backtracking,  the  mark  reverts to being unset, the text "<unset>" is
796           output.
797    
798         The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by         The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by
799         default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)         default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)
800         to change this.         to change this and other parameters of the callout.
801    
802         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-
803         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
# Line 556  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS Line 818  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
818    
819  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
820    
821         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the
822         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-         POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is,  when  the  /P  pattern
823         ifier is specified.         modifier is specified.
824    
825         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
826         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a
827         file name.  For example:         file name.  For example:
828    
829           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
830    
831         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and
832         re-using compiled patterns.         re-using compiled patterns.  Note that if the pattern was  successfully
833           studied with JIT optimization, the JIT data cannot be saved.
834    
835         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the
836         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the
# Line 575  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 838  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
838         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the
839         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
840         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the
841         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-         compiled  pattern.  If  there is additional study data, this (excluding
842         diately after the compiled pattern. After writing  the  file,  pcretest         any JIT data) follows immediately after  the  compiled  pattern.  After
843         expects to read a new pattern.         writing the file, pcretest expects to read a new pattern.
844    
845         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file         A  saved  pattern  can  be reloaded into pcretest by specifying < and a
846         name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not  contain  a  <         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a
847         character,  as  otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
848         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
849    
850            re> </some/file            re> </some/file
851           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
852           No study data           No study data
853    
854         When the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines         If the pattern was previously studied with the  JIT  optimization,  the
855         in the usual way.         JIT  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the
856           pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines  in  the
857           usual way.
858    
859         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload
860         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on
861         which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86         which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86
862         machine and run on a SPARC machine.         machine and run on a SPARC machine. When a pattern  is  reloaded  on  a
863           host with different endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
864    
865             Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
866    
867           The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
868           endianness. These are reloaded using "<!" instead  of  just  "<".  This
869           suppresses the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on
870           all hosts. It also forces debugging output once the  pattern  has  been
871           reloaded.
872    
873         File names for saving and reloading can be absolute  or  relative,  but         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but
874         note  that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with
875         a tilde (~) is not available.         a tilde (~) is not available.
876    
877         The ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for  test-         The  ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for test-
878         ing  and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because         ing and experimentation. It is not intended for production use  because
879         only a single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore,  there  is         only  a  single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is
880         no  facility  for  supplying  custom  character  tables  for use with a         no facility for supplying  custom  character  tables  for  use  with  a
881         reloaded pattern. If the original  pattern  was  compiled  with  custom         reloaded  pattern.  If  the  original  pattern was compiled with custom
882         tables,  an  attempt to match a subject string using a reloaded pattern         tables, an attempt to match a subject string using a  reloaded  pattern
883         is likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to  load         is  likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to load
884         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
885    
886    
887  SEE ALSO  SEE ALSO
888    
889         pcre(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3), pcrematching(3), pcrepartial(d),         pcre(3), pcre16(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3),  pcrejit,  pcrematch-
890         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).         ing(3), pcrepartial(d), pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
891    
892    
893  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
# Line 625  AUTHOR Line 899  AUTHOR
899    
900  REVISION  REVISION
901    
902         Last updated: 09 August 2007         Last updated: 21 February 2012
903         Copyright (c) 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.

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