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1  PCRETEST(1)                                                        PCRETEST(1)  PCRETEST(1)                 General Commands Manual                PCRETEST(1)
2    
3    
4    
5  NAME  NAME
6         pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.         pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.
7    
   
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [options] [source] [destination]         pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]
11    
12         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
14         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;
15         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern
16         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17         options, see the pcreapi documentation.         options, see the pcreapi , pcre16 and pcre32 documentation.
   
18    
19  OPTIONS         The input for pcretest is a sequence of regular expression patterns and
20           strings  to be matched, as described below. The output shows the result
21           of each match. Options on the command line  and  the  patterns  control
22           PCRE options and exactly what is output.
23    
24           As  PCRE has evolved, it has acquired many different features, and as a
25           result, pcretest now has rather a lot of obscure  options  for  testing
26           every possible feature. Some of these options are specifically designed
27           for use in conjunction with the test script and  data  files  that  are
28           distributed  as  part of PCRE, and are unlikely to be of use otherwise.
29           They are all documented here, but without much justification.
30    
31    
32    PCRE's 8-BIT, 16-BIT AND 32-BIT LIBRARIES
33    
34           From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The origi-
35           nal  one  supports  8-bit  character  strings, whereas the newer 16-bit
36           library supports  character  strings  encoded  in  16-bit  units.  From
37           release  8.32,  a  third  library  can  be  built, supporting character
38           strings encoded in 32-bit units.  The pcretest program can be  used  to
39           test all three libraries. However, it is itself still an 8-bit program,
40           reading 8-bit input and writing 8-bit output. When testing  the  16-bit
41           or  32-bit  library, the patterns and data strings are converted to 16-
42           or 32-bit format before being passed to  the  PCRE  library  functions.
43           Results are converted to 8-bit for output.
44    
45           References to functions and structures of the form pcre[16|32]_xx below
46           mean "pcre_xx when using the 8-bit library or pcre16_xx when using  the
47           16-bit library".
48    
49    
50    COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
51    
52           -8        If  both the 8-bit library has been built, this option causes
53                     the 8-bit library to be used (which is the default);  if  the
54                     8-bit  library  has  not  been  built,  this option causes an
55                     error.
56    
57           -16       If both the 8-bit or the 32-bit,  and  the  16-bit  libraries
58                     have  been built, this option causes the 16-bit library to be
59                     used. If only the 16-bit library has been built, this is  the
60                     default  (so  has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 32-bit
61                     library has been built, this option causes an error.
62    
63           -32       If both the 8-bit or the 16-bit,  and  the  32-bit  libraries
64                     have  been built, this option causes the 32-bit library to be
65                     used. If only the 32-bit library has been built, this is  the
66                     default  (so  has no effect). If only the 8-bit or the 16-bit
67                     library has been built, this option causes an error.
68    
69         -b        Behave as if each regex has the /B (show bytecode)  modifier;         -b        Behave as if each pattern has the /B (show byte  code)  modi-
70                   the internal form is output after compilation.                   fier; the internal form is output after compilation.
71    
72         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
73                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are
74                   included, and then exit.                   included,  and  then  exit  with  zero  exit  code. All other
75                     options are ignored.
76    
77           -C option Output information about a specific build-time  option,  then
78                     exit.  This functionality is intended for use in scripts such
79                     as RunTest. The following options output the  value  and  set
80                     the exit code as indicated:
81    
82                       ebcdic-nl  the code for LF (= NL) in an EBCDIC environment:
83                                    0x15 or 0x25
84                                    0 if used in an ASCII environment
85                                    exit code is always 0
86                       linksize   the configured internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
87                                    exit code is set to the link size
88                       newline    the default newline setting:
89                                    CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
90                                    exit code is always 0
91    
92                     The  following  options output 1 for true or 0 for false, and
93                     set the exit code to the same value:
94    
95                       ebcdic     compiled for an EBCDIC environment
96                       jit        just-in-time support is available
97                       pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
98                       pcre32     the 32-bit library was built
99                       pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
100                       ucp        Unicode property support is available
101                       utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 and/or UTF-32 support
102                                    is available
103    
104                     If an unknown option is given, an error  message  is  output;
105                     the exit code is 0.
106    
107         -d        Behave  as  if  each  regex  has the /D (debug) modifier; the         -d        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /D (debug) modifier; the
108                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is
109                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
110    
111         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;
112                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,
113                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard                   pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec(),  to  be  used instead of the standard
114                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).                   pcre[16|32]_exec() function (more detail is given below).
115    
116         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
117    
118         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave as if each pattern has the  /I  modifier;  information
119                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
120    
121         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;
122                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular                   this causes PCRE to  discover  the  minimum  MATCH_LIMIT  and
123                   expression.   For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions  of                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION  settings by calling pcre[16|32]_exec()
124                   pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.                   repeatedly with different limits.
125    
126           -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been
127                     compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular
128                     expression. The size is given in bytes for both libraries.
129    
130         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used
131                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The                   when  calling pcre[16|32]_exec() or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec() to
132                   default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  subex-                   be osize. The default value is 45, which  is  enough  for  14
133                   pressions   for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches  for                   capturing subexpressions for pcre[16|32]_exec() or 22 differ-
134                   pcre_dfa_exec(). The vector size can be changed for  individ-                   ent matches for pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec().  The vector size  can
135                   ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see                   be  changed  for individual matching calls by including \O in
136                   below).                   the data line (see below).
137    
138         -p        Behave as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX  wrap-         -p        Behave as if each pattern has  the  /P  modifier;  the  POSIX
139                   per  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options has                   wrapper  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options
140                   any effect when -p is set.                   has any effect when -p is set. This option can be  used  only
141                     with the 8-bit library.
142    
143         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of         -q        Do  not output the version number of pcretest at the start of
144                   execution.                   execution.
145    
146         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems,  set the size of the runtime stack to         -S size   On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time  stack  to
147                   size megabytes.                   size megabytes.
148    
149         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,         -s or -s+ Behave  as  if  each  pattern  has  the /S modifier; in other
150                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-                   words, force each pattern to be studied. If -s+ is used,  all
151                   onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the                   the  JIT  compile  options are passed to pcre[16|32]_study(),
152                   size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-                   causing just-in-time optimization to  be  set  up  if  it  is
153                   torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are                   available,  for  both full and partial matching. Specific JIT
154                   used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate                   compile options can be selected by following -s+ with a digit
155                     in  the  range 1 to 7, which selects the JIT compile modes as
156                     follows:
157    
158                       1  normal match only
159                       2  soft partial match only
160                       3  normal match and soft partial match
161                       4  hard partial match only
162                       6  soft and hard partial match
163                       7  all three modes (default)
164    
165                     If -s++ is used instead of -s+ (with or without  a  following
166                     digit),  the  text  "(JIT)" is added to the first output line
167                     after a match or no match when JIT-compiled code was actually
168                     used.
169    
170                     Note  that  there  are  pattern options that can override -s,
171                     either specifying no studying at all, or suppressing JIT com-
172                     pilation.
173    
174                     If  the  /I  or /D option is present on a pattern (requesting
175                     output about the compiled  pattern),  information  about  the
176                     result  of  studying  is not included when studying is caused
177                     only by -s and neither -i nor -d is present  on  the  command
178                     line.  This  behaviour  means that the output from tests that
179                     are run with and without -s should be identical, except  when
180                     options that output information about the actual running of a
181                     match are set.
182    
183                     The -M, -t, and -tm options,  which  give  information  about
184                     resources  used,  are likely to produce different output with
185                     and without -s. Output may also differ if the  /C  option  is
186                     present on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace
187                     the the matching process, and this may be  different  between
188                     studied  and  non-studied  patterns.  If the pattern contains
189                     (*MARK) items there may also be  differences,  for  the  same
190                     reason. The -s command line option can be overridden for spe-
191                     cific patterns that should never be studied (see the /S  pat-
192                     tern modifier below).
193    
194           -t        Run  each  compile, study, and match many times with a timer,
195                     and output resulting time per compile or match (in  millisec-
196                     onds).  Do  not set -m with -t, because you will then get the
197                     size output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be  dis-
198                     torted.  You  can  control  the number of iterations that are
199                     used for timing by following -t with a number (as a  separate
200                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
201                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
202    
# Line 78  OPTIONS Line 206  OPTIONS
206    
207  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
208    
209         If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first         If  pcretest  is  given two filename arguments, it reads from the first
210         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
211         reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from         reads  from  that  file  and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from
212         stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using         stdin and writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of  input,  using
213         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
214         lines.         lines.
215    
216         When  pcretest  is  built,  a  configuration option can specify that it         When pcretest is built, a configuration  option  can  specify  that  it
217         should be linked with the libreadline library. When this  is  done,  if         should  be  linked  with the libreadline library. When this is done, if
218         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
219         This provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from  the         This  provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the
220         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
221    
222         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
223         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-         Each  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any num-
224         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
225    
226         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to         Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want  to
227         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
228         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
229         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of         to  encode  the  newline  sequences. There is no limit on the length of
230         data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too         data lines; the input buffer is automatically extended  if  it  is  too
231         small.         small.
232    
233         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new         An  empty  line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new
234         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed         regular expression is read. The regular expressions are given  enclosed
235         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
236    
237           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
238    
239         White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-         White  space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expres-
240         sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-         sion may be continued over several input lines, in which case the  new-
241         line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the         line  characters  are included within it. It is possible to include the
242         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
243    
244           /abc\/def/           /abc\/def/
245    
246         If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,         If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part  of  the  pattern,
247         but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect         but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect
248         its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-         its interpretation.  If the terminating delimiter is  immediately  fol-
249         lowed by a backslash, for example,         lowed by a backslash, for example,
250    
251           /abc/\           /abc/\
252    
253         then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to         then  a  backslash  is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to
254         provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern         provide a way of testing the error condition that arises if  a  pattern
255         finishes with a backslash, because         finishes with a backslash, because
256    
257           /abc\/           /abc\/
258    
259         is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",         is  interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/",
260         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
261         expression.         expression.
262    
263    
264  PATTERN MODIFIERS  PATTERN MODIFIERS
265    
266         A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly         A  pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly
267         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below         single characters, though some of these can  be  qualified  by  further
268         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the         characters.   Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for
269         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing         example, "the /i modifier", even though the delimiter  of  the  pattern
270         modifiers. Whitespace may appear between the  final  pattern  delimiter         need  not  always  be  a slash, and no slash is used when writing modi-
271         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         fiers. White space may appear between the final pattern  delimiter  and
272           the  first  modifier,  and between the modifiers themselves. For refer-
273           ence, here is a complete list of  modifiers.  They  fall  into  several
274           groups that are described in detail in the following sections.
275    
276             /8              set UTF mode
277             /?              disable UTF validity check
278             /+              show remainder of subject after match
279             /=              show all captures (not just those that are set)
280    
281             /A              set PCRE_ANCHORED
282             /B              show compiled code
283             /C              set PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
284             /D              same as /B plus /I
285             /E              set PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
286             /F              flip byte order in compiled pattern
287             /f              set PCRE_FIRSTLINE
288             /G              find all matches (shorten string)
289             /g              find all matches (use startoffset)
290             /I              show information about pattern
291             /i              set PCRE_CASELESS
292             /J              set PCRE_DUPNAMES
293             /K              show backtracking control names
294             /L              set locale
295             /M              show compiled memory size
296             /m              set PCRE_MULTILINE
297             /N              set PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
298             /P              use the POSIX wrapper
299             /S              study the pattern after compilation
300             /s              set PCRE_DOTALL
301             /T              select character tables
302             /U              set PCRE_UNGREEDY
303             /W              set PCRE_UCP
304             /X              set PCRE_EXTRA
305             /x              set PCRE_EXTENDED
306             /Y              set PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
307             /Z              don't show lengths in /B output
308    
309             /<any>          set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
310             /<anycrlf>      set PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
311             /<cr>           set PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
312             /<crlf>         set PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
313             /<lf>           set PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
314             /<bsr_anycrlf>  set PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
315             /<bsr_unicode>  set PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
316             /<JS>           set PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
317    
318    
319       Perl-compatible modifiers
320    
321         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
322         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively,  when  pcre_com-         PCRE_DOTALL,   or    PCRE_EXTENDED    options,    respectively,    when
323         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as         pcre[16|32]_compile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the
324         they do in Perl. For example:         same effect as they do in Perl. For example:
325    
326           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
327    
328         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options  
329         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:     Modifiers for other PCRE options
330    
331           The following table shows additional modifiers for  setting  PCRE  com-
332           pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
333    
334             /8              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
335             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
336    
337             /8              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
338             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
339    
340             /8              PCRE_UTF32          ) when using the 32-bit
341             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF32_CHECK )   library
342    
343           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
344           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
# Line 159  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 347  PATTERN MODIFIERS
347           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
348           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
349           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
350             /W              PCRE_UCP
351           /X              PCRE_EXTRA           /X              PCRE_EXTRA
352             /Y              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
353             /<any>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
354             /<anycrlf>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
355           /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR           /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
          /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF  
356           /<crlf>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF           /<crlf>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
357           /<anycrlf>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF           /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
          /<any>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY  
358           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
359           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
360             /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
361    
362         Those  specifying  line  ending sequences are literal strings as shown,         The  modifiers  that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings
363         but the letters can be in either  case.  This  example  sets  multiline         as shown, including the angle brackets, but the letters within  can  be
364         matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:         in  either case.  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the
365           line ending sequence:
366    
367             /^abc/m<CRLF>
368    
369           As well as turning on  the  PCRE_UTF8/16/32  option,  the  /8  modifier
370           causes  all  non-printing  characters  in  output strings to be printed
371           using the \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are out-
372           put in hex without the curly brackets.
373    
374           /^abc/m<crlf>         Full  details  of  the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documenta-
375           tion.
        Details  of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the pcreapi  
        documentation.  
376    
377     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
378    
# Line 183  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 380  PATTERN MODIFIERS
380         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is
381         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-
382         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument
383         to pcre_exec() to start searching at a  new  point  within  the  entire         to pcre[16|32]_exec() to start searching at  a  new  point  within  the
384         string  (which  is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes         entire  string  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter
385         over a shortened substring. This makes a  difference  to  the  matching         passes over a shortened substring.  This  makes  a  difference  to  the
386         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b         matching  process  if  the  pattern  begins with a lookbehind assertion
387         or \B).         (including \b or \B).
388    
389         If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an  empty         If any call to pcre[16|32]_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an
390         string,  the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED         empty  string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
391         flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the  same         PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order  to  search  for  another,  non-empty,
392         point.   If  this  second  match fails, the start offset is advanced by         match  at  the same point. If this second match fails, the start offset
393         one, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way  Perl  han-         is advanced, and the normal match is retried.  This  imitates  the  way
394         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-
395           tion. Normally, the start offset is advanced by one character,  but  if
396           the  newline  convention  recognizes CRLF as a newline, and the current
397           character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.
398    
399     Other modifiers     Other modifiers
400    
# Line 203  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 403  PATTERN MODIFIERS
403         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that
404         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the
405         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the
406         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the + modi-
407           fier appears twice, the same action is taken for  captured  substrings.
408         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-         In  each case the remainder is output on the following line with a plus
409         put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.  Nor-         character following the capture number. Note that  this  modifier  must
410         mally  this  information contains length and offset values; however, if         not  immediately follow the /S modifier because /S+ and /S++ have other
411         /Z is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special         meanings.
412         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same  
413           The /= modifier requests that the  values  of  all  potential  captured
414           parentheses  be  output after a match. By default, only those up to the
415           highest one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the
416           return code from pcre[16|32]_exec()). Values in the offsets vector cor-
417           responding to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are  output
418           as  "<unset>".  This modifier gives a way of checking that this is hap-
419           pening.
420    
421           The /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest  out-
422           put  a  representation of the compiled code after compilation. Normally
423           this information contains length and offset values; however, if  /Z  is
424           also  present,  this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special fea-
425           ture for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures  that  the  same
426         output is generated for different internal link sizes.         output is generated for different internal link sizes.
427    
428         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for         The  /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to /BI,
429         example,         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
   
          /pattern/Lfr_FR  
430    
431         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order  of  the  2-byte
432         pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the         and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
433         locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the         the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that  were  com-
434         regular expression. Without an /L  modifier,  NULL  is  passed  as  the         piled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not avail-
435         tables  pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which it         able when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when  the
436         appears.         /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
437           reloading compiled patterns below.
438    
439         The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the         The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the
440         compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,         compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,
441         and so on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after  compiling  a         and so on). It does this by calling pcre[16|32]_fullinfo()  after  com-
442         pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-         piling  a  pattern.  If the pattern is studied, the results of that are
443         put.         also output.
444    
445           The /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking  con-
446           trol  verbs  that  are  returned  from  calls to pcre[16|32]_exec(). It
447           causes pcretest to create a pcre[16|32]_extra  block  if  one  has  not
448           already  been  created by a call to pcre[16|32]_study(), and to set the
449           PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and the mark field  within  it,  every  time  that
450           pcre[16|32]_exec()  is  called.  If  the  variable  that the mark field
451           points to is  non-NULL  for  a  match,  non-match,  or  partial  match,
452           pcretest  prints  the  string  to which it points. For a match, this is
453           shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:". For  a  non-match  it  is
454           added to the message.
455    
456         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,         The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
457         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         example,
458    
459         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in           /pattern/Lfr_FR
460         the compiled pattern that  contain  2-byte  and  4-byte  numbers.  This  
461         facility  is  for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
462         patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This         pcre[16|32]_maketables()  is  called to build a set of character tables
463         feature  is  not  available  when  the POSIX interface to PCRE is being         for the locale, and this is then passed to  pcre[16|32]_compile()  when
464         used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the         compiling  the regular expression. Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL
465         section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.         is passed as the tables pointer;  that  is,  /L  applies  only  to  the
466           expression on which it appears.
467         The  /S  modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression  
468         has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.         The  /M  modifier  causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to
469           hold the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the  size
470         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-         of  the  pcre[16|32] block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the
471         piled pattern to be output.         pattern is successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
472           the size of the JIT compiled code is also output.
473         The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API  
474         rather  than  its  native  API.  When this is done, all other modifiers         The  /S  modifier  causes  pcre[16|32]_study()  to  be called after the
475         except /i, /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i  is  present,         expression has been compiled, and the results used when the  expression
476         and  REG_NEWLINE  is  set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force         is matched. There are a number of qualifying characters that may follow
477         PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is  set.         /S.  They may appear in any order.
478    
479         The  /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8 option         If S is followed by an exclamation mark, pcre[16|32]_study() is  called
480         set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in  PCRE,  pro-         with  the PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED option, causing it always to return a
481         vided  that  it  was  compiled with this support enabled. This modifier         pcre_extra block, even when studying discovers no useful information.
482         also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed  
483         using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.         If /S is followed by a second S character, it suppresses studying, even
484           if  it  was  requested  externally  by the -s command line option. This
485         If  the  /?  modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes pcretest to call         makes it possible to specify that certain patterns are always  studied,
486         pcre_compile() with the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to  suppress  the         and others are never studied, independently of -s. This feature is used
487         checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.         in the test files in a few cases where the output is different when the
488           pattern is studied.
489    
490           If  the  /S  modifier  is  followed  by  a  +  character,  the  call to
491           pcre[16|32]_study() is made with all the JIT study options,  requesting
492           just-in-time  optimization  support if it is available, for both normal
493           and partial matching. If you want to restrict the JIT compiling  modes,
494           you can follow /S+ with a digit in the range 1 to 7:
495    
496             1  normal match only
497             2  soft partial match only
498             3  normal match and soft partial match
499             4  hard partial match only
500             6  soft and hard partial match
501             7  all three modes (default)
502    
503           If /S++ is used instead of /S+ (with or without a following digit), the
504           text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line  after  a  match  or  no
505           match when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
506    
507           Note  that  there  is  also  an independent /+ modifier; it must not be
508           given immediately after /S or /S+ because this will be misinterpreted.
509    
510           If JIT studying is successful, the compiled JIT code will automatically
511           be  used  when pcre[16|32]_exec() is run, except when incompatible run-
512           time options are specified. For more details, see the pcrejit  documen-
513           tation.  See also the \J escape sequence below for a way of setting the
514           size of the JIT stack.
515    
516           Finally, if /S is followed by a minus  character,  JIT  compilation  is
517           suppressed,  even if it was requested externally by the -s command line
518           option. This makes it possible to specify that JIT is never to be  used
519           for certain patterns.
520    
521           The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
522           cific set of built-in character tables to be passed to pcre[16|32]_com-
523           pile().  It  is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with
524           different character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
525    
526             0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
527                   pcre_chartables.c.dist
528             1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
529    
530           In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
531           tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
532    
533       Using the POSIX wrapper API
534    
535           The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
536           rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library.  When
537           /P  is set, the following modifiers set options for the regcomp() func-
538           tion:
539    
540             /i    REG_ICASE
541             /m    REG_NEWLINE
542             /N    REG_NOSUB
543             /s    REG_DOTALL     )
544             /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
545             /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
546             /8    REG_UTF8       )
547    
548           The /+ modifier works as  described  above.  All  other  modifiers  are
549           ignored.
550    
551    
552  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
553    
554         Before  each  data  line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing         Before  each  data  line  is  passed to pcre[16|32]_exec(), leading and
555         whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.  Some  of         trailing white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.
556         these  are  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of         Some  of  these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out
557         the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordi-         some of the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing
558         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The         "ordinary"  regular  expressions, you probably don't need any of these.
559         following escapes are recognized:         The following escapes are recognized:
560    
561           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
562           \b         backspace (\x08)           \b         backspace (\x08)
563           \e         escape (\x27)           \e         escape (\x27)
564           \f         formfeed (\x0c)           \f         form feed (\x0c)
565           \n         newline (\x0a)           \n         newline (\x0a)
566           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
567                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
568           \r         carriage return (\x0d)           \r         carriage return (\x0d)
569           \t         tab (\x09)           \t         tab (\x09)
570           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
571           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
572           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                        a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit or 32-bit mode
573           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
574                        in UTF-8 mode           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
575           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
576                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
577           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
578                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
579           \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd           \Cdd       call pcre[16|32]_copy_substring() for substring dd
580                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
581           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring           \Cname     call pcre[16|32]_copy_named_substring() for substring
582                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
583                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)
584           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout
# Line 305  DATA LINES Line 590  DATA LINES
590                        reached for the nth time                        reached for the nth time
591           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
592                        data; this is used as the callout return value                        data; this is used as the callout return value
593           \D         use the pcre_dfa_exec() match function           \D         use the pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec() match function
594           \F         only shortest match for pcre_dfa_exec()           \F         only shortest match for pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
595           \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd           \Gdd       call pcre[16|32]_get_substring() for substring dd
596                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
597           \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring           \Gname     call pcre[16|32]_get_named_substring() for substring
598                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
599                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
600           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a           \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
601                          number of digits)
602             \L         call pcre[16|32]_get_substringlist() after a
603                        successful match                        successful match
604           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
605                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
606           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
607                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
608                          PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
609           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
610                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre[16|32]_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
611           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
612                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
613                          PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
614           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
615                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
616           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
617           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
618           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Y            pass    the    PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE     option     to
619                        or pcre_dfa_exec()         pcre[16|32]_exec()
620           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
621                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
622           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
623                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16|32]_CHECK option to
624                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        pcre[16|32]_exec() or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
625           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
626                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
627           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()                        argument         for        pcre[16|32]_exec()        or
628                        or pcre_dfa_exec()         pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
629           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
630                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
631           \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
632                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
633           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
634                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
635             \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
636                          or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
637             \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
638                          or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
639    
640           The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the /8 modifier  on
641           the  pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexa-
642           decimal digits inside the braces; invalid  values  provoke  error  mes-
643           sages.
644    
645           Note  that  \xhh  specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8
646           mode; this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8  sequences  for
647           testing  purposes.  On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8
648           character in UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value  is
649           greater  than  127.   When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode,
650           \x{hh} generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error
651           for greater values.
652    
653           In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
654           possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
655    
656           In UTF-32 mode, all 4- to 8-digit \x{...}  values  are  accepted.  This
657           makes  it  possible  to  construct invalid UTF-32 sequences for testing
658           purposes.
659    
660         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
661         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
# Line 353  DATA LINES Line 666  DATA LINES
666         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-
667         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
668    
669         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-         The  \J escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
670         ferent values in the match_limit and  match_limit_recursion  fields  of         used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT  opti-
671         the  pcre_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers for         mization  is  not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the
672         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-         default 32K is necessary only for very complicated patterns.
673         ber  is  a  measure of the amount of backtracking that takes place, and  
674         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre[16|32]_exec() several times, with
675         is  quite  small,  but for patterns with very large numbers of matching         different values in the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of
676         possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing  length         the pcre[16|32]_extra data structure, until it finds the  minimum  num-
677         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how         bers for each parameter that allow pcre[16|32]_exec() to complete with-
678         much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with  NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)         out error. Because this is testing a specific  feature  of  the  normal
679         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.         interpretive pcre[16|32]_exec() execution, the use of any JIT optimiza-
680           tion that might have been set up by the /S+ qualifier of -s+ option  is
681           disabled.
682    
683           The  match_limit number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that
684           takes place, and checking it out can be instructive.  For  most  simple
685           matches,  the  number  is quite small, but for patterns with very large
686           numbers of matching possibilities, it can  become  large  very  quickly
687           with  increasing  length  of  subject string. The match_limit_recursion
688           number is a measure of how much stack (or, if  PCRE  is  compiled  with
689           NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)  memory  is  needed to complete the match
690           attempt.
691    
692         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the         When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower  than  the
693         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
694         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.         only to the call  of  pcre[16|32]_exec()  for  the  line  in  which  it
695           appears.
696    
697         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
698         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
699         effect  are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,         effect  are  \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and
700         to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
   
        The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on  
        the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.  
        There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The  
        result  is  from  one  to  six bytes, encoded according to the original  
        UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This allows for  values  in  the  range  0  to  
        0x7FFFFFFF.  Note  that not all of those are valid Unicode code points,  
        or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the later  rules  in  RFC  
        3629.  
701    
702    
703  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
704    
705         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,
706         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an         pcre[16|32]_exec()  to  match  each  data  line.  PCRE also supports an
707         alternative  matching  function,  pcre_dfa_test(),  which operates in a         alternative matching function, pcre[16|32]_dfa_test(),  which  operates
708         different way, and has some restrictions. The differences  between  the         in  a different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between
709         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         the two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
710    
711         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line
712         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is  called.         contains  the  -dfa  option, the alternative matching function is used.
713         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
714         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the
715         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
716    
717    
718  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
719    
720         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,
721         pcre_exec(), is being used.         pcre[16|32]_exec(), is being used.
722    
723         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
724         that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that         that pcre[16|32]_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the  string
725         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial         that  matched  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when
726         match"  when  pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PAR-         the return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by  the
727         TIAL, respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number.  Here         partially    matching   substring   when   pcre[16|32]_exec()   returns
728         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is the entire  substring  that  was
729           inspected  during  the  partial match; it may include characters before
730           the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion, \K,  \b,  or  \B  was
731           involved.)  For  any  other  return, pcretest outputs the PCRE negative
732           error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is  a  failed
733           UTF  string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
734           the reason code are also output, provided that the size of  the  output
735           vector  is  at least two. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest
736           run.
737    
738           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
739           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006           PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
740    
741             re> /^abc(\d+)/             re> /^abc(\d+)/
742           data> abc123           data> abc123
# Line 421  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 745  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
745           data> xyz           data> xyz
746           No match           No match
747    
748         Note  that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are
749         is set are not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by  pcretest.         not  returned  by pcre[16|32]_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In
750         In  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when         the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the
751         the first data line is matched, the  second,  unset  substring  is  not         first  data  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown.
752         shown.  An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the         An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the  second
753         second data line.         data line.
754    
755             re> /(a)|(b)/             re> /(a)|(b)/
756           data> a           data> a
# Line 437  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 761  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
761            1: <unset>            1: <unset>
762            2: b            2: b
763    
764         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         If  the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as
765         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on         \xhh escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF  mode  is  not  set.
766         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.         Otherwise they are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the defi-
767         If  the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is fol-         nition of non-printing characters. If the pattern has the /+  modifier,
768         lowed by the the rest of the subject string, identified  by  "0+"  like         the  output  for substring 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject
769         this:         string, identified by "0+" like this:
770    
771             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
772           data> cataract           data> cataract
773            0: cat            0: cat
774            0+ aract            0+ aract
775    
776         If  the  pattern  has  the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive         If the pattern has the /g or /G modifier,  the  results  of  successive
777         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
778    
779             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g
# Line 461  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 785  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
785            0: ipp            0: ipp
786            1: pp            1: pp
787    
788         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.         "No  match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an
789           example of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \>4  is
790           past the end of the subject string):
791    
792               re> /xyz/
793             data> xyz\>4
794             Error -24 (bad offset value)
795    
796         If any of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data  line  that         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that
797         is  successfully  matched,  the substrings extracted by the convenience         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience
798         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of
799         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length
800         (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given  in  paren-         (that  is,  the return from the extraction function) is given in paren-
801         theses after each string for \C and \G.         theses after each string for \C and \G.
802    
803         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain
804         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-
805         lines  can  be included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n,         lines can be included in data by means of the \n escape (or  \r,  \r\n,
806         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).
807    
808    
809  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
810    
811         When the alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(),  is  used  (by         When the alternative matching function, pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec(), is used
812         means  of  the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option), the         (by means of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command  line  option),
813         output consists of a list of all the matches that start  at  the  first         the  output  consists  of  a  list of all the matches that start at the
814         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:         first point in the subject where there is at least one match. For exam-
815           ple:
816    
817             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
818           data> yellow tangerine\D           data> yellow tangerine\D
# Line 491  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 822  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
822    
823         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)
824         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).
825           After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
826           lowed by the partially matching  substring.  (Note  that  this  is  the
827           entire  substring  that  was inspected during the partial match; it may
828           include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-
829           tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
830    
831         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
832         at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
# Line 532  CALLOUTS Line 868  CALLOUTS
868         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-
869         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
870         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the
871         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output         next pattern item to be tested. For example:
872    
873           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
874             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
875    
876         indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match  attempt  starting         This output indicates that  callout  number  0  occurred  for  a  match
877         at  the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at         attempt  starting  at  the fourth character of the subject string, when
878         the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern  item  was         the pointer was at the seventh character of the data, and when the next
879         \d.  Just  one  circumflex is output if the start and current positions         pattern  item  was  \d.  Just one circumflex is output if the start and
880         are the same.         current positions are the same.
881    
882         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
883         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing
# Line 557  CALLOUTS Line 893  CALLOUTS
893           +10 ^ ^           +10 ^ ^
894            0: E*            0: E*
895    
896         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by         If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-
897         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)         ever a change of latest mark is passed to  the  callout  function.  For
898         to change this.         example:
899    
900               re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
901             data> abc
902             --->abc
903              +0 ^       a
904              +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
905             +10 ^^      b
906             Latest Mark: X
907             +11 ^ ^     c
908             +12 ^  ^
909              0: abc
910    
911           The  mark  changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for
912           the rest of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as  a  result  of
913           backtracking,  the  mark  reverts to being unset, the text "<unset>" is
914           output.
915    
916           The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by
917           default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)
918           to change this and other parameters of the callout.
919    
920         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-
921         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
922         the pcrecallout documentation.         the pcrecallout documentation.
923    
924    
925  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
926    
927         When  pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,         When pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a  pattern,
928         bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as  non-printing  characters         bytes  other  than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters
929         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.
930    
931         When  pcretest  is  outputting text that is a matched part of a subject         When pcretest is outputting text that is a matched part  of  a  subject
932         string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has  been         string,  it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been
933         set  for  the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this case, the         set for the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this  case,  the
934         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
935    
936    
937  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
938    
939         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the
940         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-         POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is,  when  the  /P  pattern
941         ifier is specified.         modifier is specified.
942    
943         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
944         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a
# Line 591  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 947  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
947           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
948    
949         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and
950         re-using compiled patterns.         re-using compiled patterns.  Note that if the pattern was  successfully
951           studied with JIT optimization, the JIT data cannot be saved.
952    
953         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the
954         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the
955         optional study data, each written as four  bytes  in  big-endian  order         optional  study  data,  each  written as four bytes in big-endian order
956         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the
957         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
958         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the
959         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-         compiled  pattern.  If  there is additional study data, this (excluding
960         diately  after  the  compiled pattern. After writing the file, pcretest         any JIT data) follows immediately after  the  compiled  pattern.  After
961         expects to read a new pattern.         writing the file, pcretest expects to read a new pattern.
962    
963         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file         A  saved  pattern  can  be reloaded into pcretest by specifying < and a
964         name  instead  of  a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a <         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a
965         character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as  a  pattern         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
966         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
967    
968            re> </some/file            re> </some/file
969           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
970           No study data           No study data
971    
972         When  the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines         If the pattern was previously studied with the  JIT  optimization,  the
973         in the usual way.         JIT  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the
974           pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines  in  the
975         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload         usual way.
976         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on  
977         which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload
978         machine and run on a SPARC machine.         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on
979           which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86
980           machine and run on a SPARC machine. When a pattern  is  reloaded  on  a
981           host with different endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
982    
983             Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
984    
985           The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
986           endianness. These are reloaded using "<!" instead  of  just  "<".  This
987           suppresses the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on
988           all hosts. It also forces debugging output once the  pattern  has  been
989           reloaded.
990    
991         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but
992         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with
# Line 636  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 1004  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
1004    
1005  SEE ALSO  SEE ALSO
1006    
1007         pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3),  pcrematching(3),  pcrepartial(d),         pcre(3), pcre16(3),  pcre32(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3),  pcrejit,
1008         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).         pcrematching(3), pcrepartial(d), pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
1009    
1010    
1011  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
# Line 649  AUTHOR Line 1017  AUTHOR
1017    
1018  REVISION  REVISION
1019    
1020         Last updated: 18 December 2007         Last updated: 22 February 2013
1021         Copyright (c) 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2013 University of Cambridge.

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