/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
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revision 87 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:41:21 2007 UTC revision 289 by ph10, Sun Dec 23 12:17:20 2007 UTC
# Line 7  NAME Line 7  NAME
7    
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [-C] [-d] [-dfa] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source]         pcretest [options] [source] [destination]
             [destination]  
11    
12         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
# Line 20  SYNOPSIS Line 19  SYNOPSIS
19    
20  OPTIONS  OPTIONS
21    
22           -b        Behave as if each regex has the /B (show bytecode)  modifier;
23                     the internal form is output after compilation.
24    
25         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
26                   able   information  about  the  optional  features  that  are                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are
27                   included, and then exit.                   included, and then exit.
28    
29         -d        Behave as if each regex has  the  /D  (debug)  modifier;  the         -d        Behave  as  if  each  regex  has the /D (debug) modifier; the
30                   internal form is output after compilation.                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is
31                     output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
32    
33         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;
34                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,
35                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard
36                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).
37    
38           -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
39    
40         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information
41                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
42    
# Line 41  OPTIONS Line 46  OPTIONS
46                   pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.                   pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.
47    
48         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used
49                   when  calling  pcre_exec()  to be osize. The default value is                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The
50                   45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vec-                   default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  subex-
51                   tor  size  can  be  changed  for individual matching calls by                   pressions   for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches  for
52                   including \O in the data line (see below).                   pcre_dfa_exec(). The vector size can be changed for  individ-
53                     ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see
54                     below).
55    
56         -p        Behave as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX  wrap-         -p        Behave as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX  wrap-
57                   per  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options has                   per  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options has
# Line 53  OPTIONS Line 60  OPTIONS
60         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
61                   execution.                   execution.
62    
63         -t        Run  each  compile, study, and match many times with a timer,         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems,  set the size of the runtime stack to
64                   and output resulting time per compile or match (in  millisec-                   size megabytes.
65                   onds).  Do  not set -m with -t, because you will then get the  
66                   size output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be  dis-         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,
67                   torted.                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-
68                     onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the
69                     size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-
70                     torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are
71                     used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate
72                     item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
73                     ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
74    
75           -tm       This is like -t except that it times only the matching phase,
76                     not the compile or study phases.
77    
78    
79  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
80    
81         If  pcretest  is  given two filename arguments, it reads from the first         If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first
82         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
83         reads  from  that  file  and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from         reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from
84         stdin and writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of  input,  using         stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using
85         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
86         lines.         lines.
87    
88           When  pcretest  is  built,  a  configuration option can specify that it
89           should be linked with the libreadline library. When this  is  done,  if
90           the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
91           This provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from  the
92           -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
93    
94         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
95         Each  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any num-         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-
96         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
97    
98         Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want  to         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to
99         do  multiple-line  matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence in a         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
100         single line of input to encode  the  newline  characters.  The  maximum         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
101         length of data line is 30,000 characters.         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of
102           data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too
103         An  empty  line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new         small.
104         regular expression is read. The regular expressions are given  enclosed  
105         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new
106           regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed
107           in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
108    
109           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
110    
111         White  space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expres-         White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-
112         sion may be continued over several input lines, in which case the  new-         sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-
113         line  characters  are included within it. It is possible to include the         line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the
114         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
115    
116           /abc\/def/           /abc\/def/
117    
118         If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part  of  the  pattern,         If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,
119         but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect         but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect
120         its interpretation.  If the terminating delimiter is  immediately  fol-         its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-
121         lowed by a backslash, for example,         lowed by a backslash, for example,
122    
123           /abc/\           /abc/\
124    
125         then  a  backslash  is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to         then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to
126         provide a way of testing the error condition that arises if  a  pattern         provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern
127         finishes with a backslash, because         finishes with a backslash, because
128    
129           /abc\/           /abc\/
130    
131         is  interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/",         is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",
132         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
133         expression.         expression.
134    
135    
136  PATTERN MODIFIERS  PATTERN MODIFIERS
137    
138         A  pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly         A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly
139         single characters. Following Perl usage, these are  referred  to  below         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below
140         as,  for  example,  "the /i modifier", even though the delimiter of the         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the
141         pattern need not always be a slash, and no slash is used  when  writing         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing
142         modifiers.  Whitespace  may  appear between the final pattern delimiter         modifiers. Whitespace may appear between the  final  pattern  delimiter
143         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
144    
145         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
146         PCRE_DOTALL,  or  PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively, when pcre_com-         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively,  when  pcre_com-
147         pile() is called. These four modifier letters have the same  effect  as         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as
148         they do in Perl. For example:         they do in Perl. For example:
149    
150           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
# Line 128  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 152  PATTERN MODIFIERS
152         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options
153         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
154    
155           /A    PCRE_ANCHORED           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
156           /C    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
157           /E    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
158           /f    PCRE_FIRSTLINE           /f              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
159           /N    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
160           /U    PCRE_UNGREEDY           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
161           /X    PCRE_EXTRA           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
162             /X              PCRE_EXTRA
163             /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
164             /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
165             /<crlf>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
166             /<anycrlf>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
167             /<any>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
168             /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
169             /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
170    
171           Those  specifying  line  ending sequences are literal strings as shown,
172           but the letters can be in either  case.  This  example  sets  multiline
173           matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
174    
175             /^abc/m<crlf>
176    
177           Details  of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the pcreapi
178           documentation.
179    
180       Finding all matches in a string
181    
182         Searching for all possible matches within each subject  string  can  be         Searching for all possible matches within each subject  string  can  be
183         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is
# Line 153  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 196  PATTERN MODIFIERS
196         one, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way  Perl  han-         one, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way  Perl  han-
197         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.
198    
199       Other modifiers
200    
201         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.
202    
203         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that
# Line 160  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 205  PATTERN MODIFIERS
205         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the
206         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.
207    
208         The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-
209           put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.  Nor-
210           mally  this  information contains length and offset values; however, if
211           /Z is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special
212           feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
213           output is generated for different internal link sizes.
214    
215           The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for
216         example,         example,
217    
218           /pattern/Lfr_FR           /pattern/Lfr_FR
219    
220         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
221         pcre_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for the         pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the
222         locale, and this is then passed to pcre_compile()  when  compiling  the         locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the
223         regular  expression.  Without  an  /L  modifier,  NULL is passed as the         regular expression. Without an /L  modifier,  NULL  is  passed  as  the
224         tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which  it         tables  pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which it
225         appears.         appears.
226    
227         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the         The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the
228         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,         compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,
229         and  so  on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after compiling a         and so on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after  compiling  a
230         pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are  also  out-         pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-
231         put.         put.
232    
233         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I.  It         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
234         causes the internal form of compiled regular expressions to  be  output         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
        after compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned  
        is also output.  
235    
236         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in
237         the  compiled  pattern  that  contain  2-byte  and 4-byte numbers. This         the compiled pattern that  contain  2-byte  and  4-byte  numbers.  This
238         facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it  to  execute         facility  is  for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute
239         patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This         patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This
240         feature is not available when the POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is  being         feature  is  not  available  when  the POSIX interface to PCRE is being
241         used,  that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the         used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the
242         section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.         section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.
243    
244         The /S modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after  the  expression         The  /S  modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression
245         has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.         has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.
246    
247         The /M modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold  the  com-         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-
248         piled pattern to be output.         piled pattern to be output.
249    
250         The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API         The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API
251         rather than its native API. When this  is  done,  all  other  modifiers         rather  than  its  native  API.  When this is done, all other modifiers
252         except  /i,  /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present,         except /i, /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i  is  present,
253         and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m is present. The  wrapper  functions  force         and  REG_NEWLINE  is  set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force
254         PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY  always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.         PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is  set.
255    
256         The /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8  option         The  /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8 option
257         set.  This  turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE, pro-         set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in  PCRE,  pro-
258         vided that it was compiled with this  support  enabled.  This  modifier         vided  that  it  was  compiled with this support enabled. This modifier
259         also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed         also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed
260         using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.         using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.
261    
262         If the /? modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes  pcretest  to  call         If  the  /?  modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes pcretest to call
263         pcre_compile()  with  the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to suppress the         pcre_compile() with the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to  suppress  the
264         checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.         checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.
265    
266    
267  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
268    
269         Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(),  leading  and  trailing         Before  each  data  line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing
270         whitespace  is  removed,  and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of         whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.  Some  of
271         these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out  some  of         these  are  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of
272         the  more  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordi-         the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordi-
273         nary" regular expressions, you probably don't need any  of  these.  The         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The
274         following escapes are recognized:         following escapes are recognized:
275    
276           \a         alarm (= BEL)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
277           \b         backspace           \b         backspace (\x08)
278           \e         escape           \e         escape (\x27)
279           \f         formfeed           \f         formfeed (\x0c)
280           \n         newline           \n         newline (\x0a)
281           \r         carriage return           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
282           \t         tab                        (any number of digits)
283           \v         vertical tab           \r         carriage return (\x0d)
284             \t         tab (\x09)
285             \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
286           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
287           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)
288           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
289                        in UTF-8 mode                        in UTF-8 mode
290           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()
291                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
292           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()
293                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
294           \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd           \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd
295                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
296           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring
# Line 263  DATA LINES Line 317  DATA LINES
317           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
318                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
319           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()
320                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
321           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
322                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
323           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()
324                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
325             \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
326                          (any number of digits)
327           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()
328           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
329           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()
330                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
331           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
332                        pcre_exec()                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
333           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);
334                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()
335                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
336             \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()
337                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
338             \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()
339                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
340             \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()
341                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
342             \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()
343                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
344             \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()
345                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
346    
347         A  backslash  followed by anything else just escapes the anything else.         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
348         If the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives  a         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
349         way  of  passing  an empty line as data, since a real empty line termi-         any data line.
350    
351           A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  anything  else.
352           If  the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a
353           way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-
354         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
355    
356         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times,  with  dif-         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-
357         ferent  values  in  the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of         ferent values in the match_limit and  match_limit_recursion  fields  of
358         the pcre_extra data structure, until it finds the minimum  numbers  for         the  pcre_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers for
359         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-
360         ber is a measure of the amount of backtracking that  takes  place,  and         ber  is  a  measure of the amount of backtracking that takes place, and
361         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number
362         is quite small, but for patterns with very large  numbers  of  matching         is  quite  small,  but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
363         possibilities,  it can become large very quickly with increasing length         possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing  length
364         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how
365         much  stack  (or,  if  PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap)         much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with  NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)
366         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.
367    
368         When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower  than  the         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the
369         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
370         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.
371    
372         If the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX  wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
373         per  API  to  be  used, the only option-setting sequences that have any         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
374         effect are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL,  respectively,         effect  are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
375         to be passed to regexec().         to be passed to regexec().
376    
377         The  use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on
378         the use of the /8 modifier on the pattern.  It  is  recognized  always.         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.
379         There  may  be  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The         There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The
380         result is from one to six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8  rules.         result  is  from  one  to  six bytes, encoded according to the original
381           UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This allows for  values  in  the  range  0  to
382           0x7FFFFFFF.  Note  that not all of those are valid Unicode code points,
383           or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the later  rules  in  RFC
384           3629.
385    
386    
387  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
# Line 335  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 412  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
412         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.
413    
414           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
415           PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
416    
417             re> /^abc(\d+)/             re> /^abc(\d+)/
418           data> abc123           data> abc123
# Line 344  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 421  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
421           data> xyz           data> xyz
422           No match           No match
423    
424         If  the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as         Note  that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that
425         \0x escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier  was  present  on         is set are not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by  pcretest.
426         the  pattern.  If  the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for sub-         In  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when
427         string 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string,  identified         the first data line is matched, the  second,  unset  substring  is  not
428         by "0+" like this:         shown.  An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the
429           second data line.
430    
431               re> /(a)|(b)/
432             data> a
433              0: a
434              1: a
435             data> b
436              0: b
437              1: <unset>
438              2: b
439    
440           If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as
441           \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on
442           the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.
443           If  the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is fol-
444           lowed by the the rest of the subject string, identified  by  "0+"  like
445           this:
446    
447             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
448           data> cataract           data> cataract
# Line 376  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 470  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
470         (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given  in  paren-         (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given  in  paren-
471         theses after each string for \C and \G.         theses after each string for \C and \G.
472    
473         Note  that  while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain
474         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-
475         lines can be included in data by means of the \n escape.         lines  can  be included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n,
476           etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).
477    
478    
479  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
480    
481         When  the  alternative  matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(), is used (by         When the alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(),  is  used  (by
482         means of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line  option),  the         means  of  the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option), the
483         output  consists  of  a list of all the matches that start at the first         output consists of a list of all the matches that start  at  the  first
484         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
485    
486             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
# Line 394  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 489  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
489            1: tang            1: tang
490            2: tan            2: tan
491    
492         (Using the normal matching function on this data  finds  only  "tang".)         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)
493         The  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).
494    
495         If /gP is present on  the  pattern,  the  search  for  further  matches         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
496         resumes at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
497    
498             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
499           data> yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D           data> yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
# Line 409  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 504  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
504            1: tan            1: tan
505            0: tan            0: tan
506    
507         Since  the  matching  function  does not support substring capture, the         Since the matching function does not  support  substring  capture,  the
508         escape sequences that are concerned with captured  substrings  are  not         escape  sequences  that  are concerned with captured substrings are not
509         relevant.         relevant.
510    
511    
512  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
513    
514         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL
515         return, indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern,  you         return,  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you
516         can  restart  the match with additional subject data by means of the \R         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R
517         escape sequence. For example:         escape sequence. For example:
518    
519             re> /^?(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)$/             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
520           data> 23ja\P\D           data> 23ja\P\D
521           Partial match: 23ja           Partial match: 23ja
522           data> n05\R\D           data> n05\R\D
523            0: n05            0: n05
524    
525         For further information about partial  matching,  see  the  pcrepartial         For  further  information  about  partial matching, see the pcrepartial
526         documentation.         documentation.
527    
528    
529  CALLOUTS  CALLOUTS
530    
531         If  the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout func-         If the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout  func-
532         tion is called during matching. This works  with  both  matching  func-         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-
533         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
534         start and current positions in the text at the callout  time,  and  the         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the
535         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output
536    
537           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
538             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
539    
540         indicates  that  callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting         indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match  attempt  starting
541         at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was  at         at  the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at
542         the  seventh  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was         the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern  item  was
543         \d. Just one circumflex is output if the start  and  current  positions         \d.  Just  one  circumflex is output if the start and current positions
544         are the same.         are the same.
545    
546         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
547         a result of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead  of  showing         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing
548         the  callout  number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is         the callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a  plus,  is
549         output. For example:         output. For example:
550    
551             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C
# Line 462  CALLOUTS Line 557  CALLOUTS
557           +10 ^ ^           +10 ^ ^
558            0: E*            0: E*
559    
560         The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by
561         default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)
562         to change this.         to change this.
563    
564         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-
565         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see
566         the pcrecallout documentation.         the pcrecallout documentation.
567    
568    
569    NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
570    
571           When  pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
572           bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as  non-printing  characters
573           are are therefore shown as hex escapes.
574    
575           When  pcretest  is  outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
576           string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has  been
577           set  for  the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this case, the
578           isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
579    
580    
581  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
582    
583         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the
584         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-
585         ifier is specified.         ifier is specified.
586    
587         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
588         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a
589         file name.  For example:         file name.  For example:
590    
591           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
592    
593         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and
594         re-using compiled patterns.         re-using compiled patterns.
595    
596         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the
597         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the
598         optional  study  data,  each  written as four bytes in big-endian order         optional study data, each written as four  bytes  in  big-endian  order
599         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the
600         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
601         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the
602         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-
603         diately after the compiled pattern. After writing  the  file,  pcretest         diately  after  the  compiled pattern. After writing the file, pcretest
604         expects to read a new pattern.         expects to read a new pattern.
605    
606         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file
607         name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not  contain  a  <         name  instead  of  a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a <
608         character,  as  otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern         character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as  a  pattern
609         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
610    
611            re> </some/file            re> </some/file
612           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file
613           No study data           No study data
614    
615         When the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines         When  the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines
616         in the usual way.         in the usual way.
617    
618         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload
619         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on
620         which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86         which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86
621         machine and run on a SPARC machine.         machine and run on a SPARC machine.
622    
623         File names for saving and reloading can be absolute  or  relative,  but         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but
624         note  that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with
625         a tilde (~) is not available.         a tilde (~) is not available.
626    
627         The ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for  test-         The  ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for test-
628         ing  and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because         ing and experimentation. It is not intended for production use  because
629         only a single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore,  there  is         only  a  single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is
630         no  facility  for  supplying  custom  character  tables  for use with a         no facility for supplying  custom  character  tables  for  use  with  a
631         reloaded pattern. If the original  pattern  was  compiled  with  custom         reloaded  pattern.  If  the  original  pattern was compiled with custom
632         tables,  an  attempt to match a subject string using a reloaded pattern         tables, an attempt to match a subject string using a  reloaded  pattern
633         is likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to  load         is  likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to load
634         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
635    
636    
637    SEE ALSO
638    
639           pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3),  pcrematching(3),  pcrepartial(d),
640           pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
641    
642    
643  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
644    
645         Philip Hazel         Philip Hazel
646         University Computing Service,         University Computing Service
647         Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.         Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
648    
649    
650    REVISION
651    
652  Last updated: 18 January 2006         Last updated: 18 December 2007
653  Copyright (c) 1997-2006 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.

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