/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
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revision 392 by ph10, Tue Mar 17 21:30:30 2009 UTC revision 869 by ph10, Sat Jan 14 11:16:23 2012 UTC
# Line 7  NAME Line 7  NAME
7    
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [options] [source] [destination]         pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]
11    
12         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
14         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;
15         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern
16         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17         options, see the pcreapi documentation.         options, see the  pcreapi  and  pcre16  documentation.  The  input  for
18           pcretest is a sequence of regular expression patterns and strings to be
19           matched, as described below. The output shows the result of each match.
20           Options  on  the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and
21           exactly what is output.
22    
23    
24    PCRE's 8-BIT and 16-BIT LIBRARIES
25    
26           From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The origi-
27           nal  one  supports  8-bit  character  strings, whereas the newer 16-bit
28           library  supports  character  strings  encoded  in  16-bit  units.  The
29           pcretest  program  can  be  used to test both libraries. However, it is
30           itself still an 8-bit program, reading 8-bit input  and  writing  8-bit
31           output.  When testing the 16-bit library, the patterns and data strings
32           are converted to 16-bit format before being passed to the PCRE  library
33           functions. Results are converted to 8-bit for output.
34    
35           References  to  functions  and structures of the form pcre[16]_xx below
36           mean "pcre_xx when using the 8-bit library or pcre16_xx when using  the
37           16-bit library".
38    
39    
40    COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
41    
42           -16       If  both  the 8-bit and the 16-bit libraries have been built,
43                     this option causes the 16-bit library to be used. If only the
44                     16-bit library has been built, this is the default (so has no
45                     effect). If only the  8-bit  library  has  been  built,  this
46                     option causes an error.
47    
48           -b        Behave  as  if each pattern has the /B (show byte code) modi-
49  OPTIONS                   fier; the internal form is output after compilation.
   
        -b        Behave as if each regex has the /B (show bytecode)  modifier;  
                  the internal form is output after compilation.  
50    
51         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
52                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are                   able   information  about  the  optional  features  that  are
53                   included, and then exit.                   included, and then exit. All other options are ignored.
54    
55           -C option Output information about a specific build-time  option,  then
56                     exit.  This functionality is intended for use in scripts such
57                     as RunTest. The following options output the value indicated:
58    
59                       linksize   the internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
60                       newline    the default newline setting:
61                                    CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
62    
63                     The following options output 1 for true or zero for false:
64    
65                       jit        just-in-time support is available
66                       pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
67                       pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
68                       ucp        Unicode property support is available
69                       utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 support is available
70    
71         -d        Behave  as  if  each  regex  has the /D (debug) modifier; the         -d        Behave as if each pattern has the /D  (debug)  modifier;  the
72                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is                   internal  form  and information about the compiled pattern is
73                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
74    
75         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;         -dfa      Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape  sequence;
76                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,
77                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard                   pcre[16]_dfa_exec(), to  be  used  instead  of  the  standard
78                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).                   pcre[16]_exec() function (more detail is given below).
79    
80         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
81    
82         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /I modifier; information
83                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
84    
85         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;         -M        Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape  sequence;
86                   this causes PCRE to  discover  the  minimum  MATCH_LIMIT  and                   this  causes  PCRE  to  discover  the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
87                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by calling pcre_exec() repeat-                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION  settings  by  calling  pcre[16]_exec()
88                   edly with different limits.                   repeatedly with different limits.
89    
90         -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been
91                   compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular
92                   expression.  For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions   of                   expression. The size is given in bytes for both libraries.
                  pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.  
93    
94         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used
95                   when calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize.  The                   when calling pcre[16]_exec()  or  pcre[16]_dfa_exec()  to  be
96                   default  value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subex-                   osize.  The  default value is 45, which is enough for 14 cap-
97                   pressions  for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches   for                   turing subexpressions for  pcre[16]_exec()  or  22  different
98                   pcre_dfa_exec().  The vector size can be changed for individ-                   matches  for  pcre[16]_dfa_exec().   The  vector  size can be
99                   ual matching calls by including \O  in  the  data  line  (see                   changed for individual matching calls by including \O in  the
100                   below).                   data line (see below).
101    
102         -p        Behave  as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX wrap-         -p        Behave  as  if  each  pattern  has the /P modifier; the POSIX
103                   per API is used to call PCRE. None of the other  options  has                   wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  other  options
104                   any effect when -p is set.                   has  any  effect when -p is set. This option can be used only
105                     with the 8-bit library.
106    
107         -q        Do  not output the version number of pcretest at the start of         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
108                   execution.                   execution.
109    
110         -S size   On Unix-like systems, set the size of the  runtime  stack  to         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems, set the size of the run-time stack to
111                   size megabytes.                   size megabytes.
112    
113         -t        Run  each  compile, study, and match many times with a timer,         -s or -s+ Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /S  modifier;  in  other
114                   and output resulting time per compile or match (in  millisec-                   words,  force each pattern to be studied. If -s+ is used, the
115                   onds).  Do  not set -m with -t, because you will then get the                   PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE flag is  passed  to  pcre[16]_study(),
116                   size output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be  dis-                   causing  just-in-time  optimization  to  be  set  up if it is
117                   torted.  You  can  control  the number of iterations that are                   available. If the /I or /D option is  present  on  a  pattern
118                   used for timing by following -t with a number (as a  separate                   (requesting  output  about the compiled pattern), information
119                     about the result of studying is not included when studying is
120                     caused  only  by  -s  and neither -i nor -d is present on the
121                     command line. This behaviour means that the output from tests
122                     that  are run with and without -s should be identical, except
123                     when options that output information about the actual running
124                     of a match are set.
125    
126                     The  -M,  -t,  and  -tm options, which give information about
127                     resources used, are likely to produce different  output  with
128                     and  without  -s.  Output may also differ if the /C option is
129                     present on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace
130                     the  the  matching process, and this may be different between
131                     studied and non-studied patterns.  If  the  pattern  contains
132                     (*MARK)  items  there  may  also be differences, for the same
133                     reason. The -s command line option can be overridden for spe-
134                     cific  patterns that should never be studied (see the /S pat-
135                     tern modifier below).
136    
137           -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,
138                     and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-
139                     onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the
140                     size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-
141                     torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are
142                     used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate
143                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
144                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
145    
# Line 83  OPTIONS Line 149  OPTIONS
149    
150  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
151    
152         If  pcretest  is  given two filename arguments, it reads from the first         If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first
153         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
154         reads  from  that  file  and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from         reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from
155         stdin and writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of  input,  using         stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using
156         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
157         lines.         lines.
158    
159         When pcretest is built, a configuration  option  can  specify  that  it         When  pcretest  is  built,  a  configuration option can specify that it
160         should  be  linked  with the libreadline library. When this is done, if         should be linked with the libreadline library. When this  is  done,  if
161         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
162         This  provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the         This provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from  the
163         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
164    
165         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
166         Each  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any num-         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-
167         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
168    
169         Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want  to         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to
170         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
171         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
172         to  encode  the  newline  sequences. There is no limit on the length of         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of
173         data lines; the input buffer is automatically extended  if  it  is  too         data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too
174         small.         small.
175    
176         An  empty  line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new
177         regular expression is read. The regular expressions are given  enclosed         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed
178         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
179    
180           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
181    
182         White  space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expres-         White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-
183         sion may be continued over several input lines, in which case the  new-         sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-
184         line  characters  are included within it. It is possible to include the         line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the
185         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
186    
187           /abc\/def/           /abc\/def/
188    
189         If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part  of  the  pattern,         If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,
190         but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect         but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect
191         its interpretation.  If the terminating delimiter is  immediately  fol-         its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-
192         lowed by a backslash, for example,         lowed by a backslash, for example,
193    
194           /abc/\           /abc/\
195    
196         then  a  backslash  is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to         then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to
197         provide a way of testing the error condition that arises if  a  pattern         provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern
198         finishes with a backslash, because         finishes with a backslash, because
199    
200           /abc\/           /abc\/
201    
202         is  interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/",         is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",
203         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
204         expression.         expression.
205    
206    
207  PATTERN MODIFIERS  PATTERN MODIFIERS
208    
209         A  pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly         A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly
210         single characters. Following Perl usage, these are  referred  to  below         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below
211         as,  for  example,  "the /i modifier", even though the delimiter of the         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the
212         pattern need not always be a slash, and no slash is used  when  writing         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing
213         modifiers.  Whitespace  may  appear between the final pattern delimiter         modifiers. White space may appear between the final  pattern  delimiter
214         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
215    
216         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
217         PCRE_DOTALL,  or  PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively, when pcre_com-         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when pcre[16]_com-
218         pile() is called. These four modifier letters have the same  effect  as         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as
219         they do in Perl. For example:         they do in Perl. For example:
220    
221           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
222    
223         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options         The following table shows additional modifiers for  setting  PCRE  com-
224         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
225    
226             /8              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
227             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
228    
229             /8              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
230             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
231    
232           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
233           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
# Line 164  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 236  PATTERN MODIFIERS
236           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
237           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
238           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
239             /W              PCRE_UCP
240           /X              PCRE_EXTRA           /X              PCRE_EXTRA
241             /Y              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
242           /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT           /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
243           /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR           /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
244           /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF           /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
# Line 174  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 248  PATTERN MODIFIERS
248           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
249           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
250    
251         Those specifying line ending sequences are literal  strings  as  shown,         The  modifiers  that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings
252         but  the  letters  can  be  in either case. This example sets multiline         as shown, including the angle brackets, but the letters within  can  be
253         matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:         in  either case.  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the
254           line ending sequence:
255    
256             /^abc/m<CRLF>
257    
258           As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16 option, the /8  modifier  causes
259           all  non-printing  characters in output strings to be printed using the
260           \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in  hex
261           without the curly brackets.
262    
263           /^abc/m<crlf>         Full  details  of  the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documenta-
264           tion.
        Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the  pcreapi  
        documentation.  
265    
266     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
267    
268         Searching  for  all  possible matches within each subject string can be         Searching for all possible matches within each subject  string  can  be
269         requested by the /g or /G modifier. After  finding  a  match,  PCRE  is         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is
270         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-
271         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument
272         to  pcre_exec()  to  start  searching  at a new point within the entire         to pcre[16]_exec() to start searching at a new point within the  entire
273         string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the  latter  passes         string  (which  is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes
274         over  a  shortened  substring.  This makes a difference to the matching         over a shortened substring. This makes a  difference  to  the  matching
275         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b
276         or \B).         or \B).
277    
278         If  any  call  to  pcre_exec()  in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty         If any call to pcre[16]_exec() in a /g or /G sequence matches an  empty
279         string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and  PCRE_ANCHORED         string,  the  next  call  is  done  with  the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
280         flags  set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same         PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order  to  search  for  another,  non-empty,
281         point.  If this second match fails, the start  offset  is  advanced  by         match  at  the same point. If this second match fails, the start offset
282         one,  and  the normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl han-         is advanced, and the normal match is retried.  This  imitates  the  way
283         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-
284           tion. Normally, the start offset is advanced by one character,  but  if
285           the  newline  convention  recognizes CRLF as a newline, and the current
286           character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.
287    
288     Other modifiers     Other modifiers
289    
# Line 209  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 292  PATTERN MODIFIERS
292         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that
293         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the
294         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the
295         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the + modi-
296           fier appears twice, the same action is taken for  captured  substrings.
297           In  each case the remainder is output on the following line with a plus
298           character following the capture number. Note that  this  modifier  must
299           not immediately follow the /S modifier because /S+ has another meaning.
300    
301           The  /=  modifier  requests  that  the values of all potential captured
302           parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up  to  the
303           highest one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the
304           return code from pcre[16]_exec()). Values in the offsets vector  corre-
305           sponding to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as
306           "<unset>". This modifier gives a way of checking that this  is  happen-
307           ing.
308    
309         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-
310         put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.  Nor-         put a representation of the compiled code after  compilation.  Normally
311         mally  this  information contains length and offset values; however, if         this  information  contains length and offset values; however, if /Z is
312         /Z is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special         also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special  fea-
313         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same         ture  for  use  in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
314         output is generated for different internal link sizes.         output is generated for different internal link sizes.
315    
316         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
317           that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
318    
319           The  /F  modifier  causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the 2-byte
320           and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
321           the  feature  in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were com-
322           piled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not avail-
323           able  when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the
324           /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
325           reloading compiled patterns below.
326    
327           The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the
328           compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,
329           and so on). It does this by calling pcre[16]_fullinfo() after compiling
330           a pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-
331           put.
332    
333           The  /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking con-
334           trol verbs that are returned from calls to pcre[16]_exec().  It  causes
335           pcretest  to  create a pcre[16]_extra block if one has not already been
336           created by a call to pcre[16]_study(), and to set  the  PCRE_EXTRA_MARK
337           flag  and  the mark field within it, every time that pcre[16]_exec() is
338           called. If the variable that the mark field points to is non-NULL for a
339           match, non-match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which
340           it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged  with
341           "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
342    
343           The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
344         example,         example,
345    
346           /pattern/Lfr_FR           /pattern/Lfr_FR
347    
348         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
349         pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the         pcre[16]_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for
350         locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the         the locale, and this is then passed to pcre[16]_compile() when  compil-
351         regular expression. Without an /L  modifier,  NULL  is  passed  as  the         ing  the  regular  expression.  Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is
352         tables  pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which it         passed as the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to  the  expres-
353         appears.         sion on which it appears.
354    
355         The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the         The  /M  modifier  causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to
356         compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,         hold the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the  size
357         and so on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after  compiling  a         of the pcre[16] block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pat-
358         pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-         tern is successfully studied with  the  PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE  option,
359         put.         the size of the JIT compiled code is also output.
360    
361         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,         If  the  /S  modifier  appears  once,  it causes pcre[16]_study() to be
362         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         called after the expression has been compiled,  and  the  results  used
363           when  the  expression  is  matched.  If /S appears twice, it suppresses
364           studying, even if it was requested externally by the  -s  command  line
365           option.  This  makes  it  possible to specify that certain patterns are
366           always studied, and others are never studied, independently of -s. This
367           feature  is  used  in the test files in a few cases where the output is
368           different when the pattern is studied.
369    
370           If the /S modifier is immediately followed by a + character,  the  call
371           to  pcre[16]_study()  is  made  with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
372           requesting just-in-time optimization support if it is  available.  Note
373           that  there  is  also  a  /+ modifier; it must not be given immediately
374           after /S because this will be misinterpreted. If JIT studying  is  suc-
375           cessful,  it  will  automatically  be used when pcre[16]_exec() is run,
376           except when incompatible run-time options are specified. These  include
377           the  partial  matching options; a complete list is given in the pcrejit
378           documentation. See also the \J escape sequence below for a way of  set-
379           ting the size of the JIT stack.
380    
381           The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
382           cific set of built-in character tables to be  passed  to  pcre[16]_com-
383           pile().  It  is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with
384           different character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
385    
386             0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
387                   pcre_chartables.c.dist
388             1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
389    
390         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in         In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
391         the compiled pattern that  contain  2-byte  and  4-byte  numbers.  This         tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
        facility  is  for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute  
        patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This  
        feature  is  not  available  when  the POSIX interface to PCRE is being  
        used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the  
        section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.  
392    
393         The  /S  modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression     Using the POSIX wrapper API
        has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
   
        The /M modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold  the  com-  
        piled pattern to be output.  
394    
395         The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API         The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
396         rather than its native API. When this  is  done,  all  other  modifiers         rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library.  When
397         except  /i,  /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present,         /P  is set, the following modifiers set options for the regcomp() func-
398         and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m is present. The  wrapper  functions  force         tion:
399         PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
400             /i    REG_ICASE
401         The  /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8 option           /m    REG_NEWLINE
402         set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in  PCRE,  pro-           /N    REG_NOSUB
403         vided  that  it  was  compiled with this support enabled. This modifier           /s    REG_DOTALL     )
404         also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed           /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
405         using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.           /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
406             /8    REG_UTF8       )
407         If  the  /?  modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes pcretest to call  
408         pcre_compile() with the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to  suppress  the         The /+ modifier works as  described  above.  All  other  modifiers  are
409         checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.         ignored.
410    
411    
412  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
413    
414         Before  each  data  line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing         Before  each data line is passed to pcre[16]_exec(), leading and trail-
415         whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.  Some  of         ing white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes.  Some
416         these  are  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of         of  these  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some
417         the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordi-         of the more complicated features of  PCRE.  If  you  are  just  testing
418         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The         "ordinary"  regular  expressions, you probably don't need any of these.
419         following escapes are recognized:         The following escapes are recognized:
420    
421           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
422           \b         backspace (\x08)           \b         backspace (\x08)
423           \e         escape (\x27)           \e         escape (\x27)
424           \f         formfeed (\x0c)           \f         form feed (\x0c)
425           \n         newline (\x0a)           \n         newline (\x0a)
426           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
427                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
428           \r         carriage return (\x0d)           \r         carriage return (\x0d)
429           \t         tab (\x09)           \t         tab (\x09)
430           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
431           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
432           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                        a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit mode
433           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
434                        in UTF-8 mode           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
435           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre[16]_exec()
436                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
437           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre[16]_exec()
438                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
439           \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd           \Cdd       call pcre[16]_copy_substring() for substring dd
440                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
441           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring           \Cname     call pcre[16]_copy_named_substring() for substring
442                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
443                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)
444           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout
# Line 311  DATA LINES Line 450  DATA LINES
450                        reached for the nth time                        reached for the nth time
451           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
452                        data; this is used as the callout return value                        data; this is used as the callout return value
453           \D         use the pcre_dfa_exec() match function           \D         use the pcre[16]_dfa_exec() match function
454           \F         only shortest match for pcre_dfa_exec()           \F         only shortest match for pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
455           \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd           \Gdd       call pcre[16]_get_substring() for substring dd
456                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
457           \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring           \Gname     call pcre[16]_get_named_substring() for substring
458                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
459                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
460           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a           \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
461                          number of digits)
462             \L         call pcre[16]_get_substringlist() after a
463                        successful match                        successful match
464           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
465                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
466           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre[16]_exec()
467                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
468                          PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
469           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
470                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre[16]_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
471           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre[16]_exec()
472                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
473                          PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
474           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
475                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
476           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
477           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
478           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre[16]_exec()
479                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
480           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre[16]_exec()
481                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
482           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16]_CHECK option to
483                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()                        pcre[16]_exec() or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
484                        or pcre_dfa_exec()           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
485           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
486                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        argument for pcre[16]_exec() or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
487           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre[16]_exec()
488                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
489           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre[16]_exec()
490                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
491           \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre[16]_exec()
492                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
493           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()           \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre[16]_exec()
494                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
495             \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre[16]_exec()
496                          or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
497    
498           The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the /8 modifier  on
499           the  pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexa-
500           decimal digits inside the braces; invalid  values  provoke  error  mes-
501           sages.
502    
503           Note that \xhh specifies one byte in UTF-8 mode; this makes it possible
504           to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing purposes. On the other
505           hand,  \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in UTF-8 mode, gener-
506           ating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127. When testing
507           the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode, \x{hh} generates one byte for val-
508           ues less than 256, and causes an error for greater values.
509    
510           In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
511           possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
512    
513         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,         The  escapes  that  specify  line ending sequences are literal strings,
514         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
515         any data line.         any data line.
516    
517         A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  anything  else.         A  backslash  followed by anything else just escapes the anything else.
518         If  the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a         If the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives  a
519         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-         way  of  passing  an empty line as data, since a real empty line termi-
520         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
521    
522         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-         The \J escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that  is
523         ferent values in the match_limit and  match_limit_recursion  fields  of         used  by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT opti-
524         the  pcre_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers for         mization is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger  than  the
525         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-         default 32K is necessary only for very complicated patterns.
526         ber  is  a  measure of the amount of backtracking that takes place, and  
527         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number         If  \M  is  present, pcretest calls pcre[16]_exec() several times, with
528         is  quite  small,  but for patterns with very large numbers of matching         different values in the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of
529         possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing  length         the  pcre[16]_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers
530         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how         for each parameter  that  allow  pcre[16]_exec()  to  complete  without
531         much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with  NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)         error.  Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal inter-
532         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.         pretive pcre[16]_exec() execution, the use of any JIT optimization that
533           might have been set up by the /S+ qualifier of -s+ option is disabled.
534    
535           The  match_limit number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that
536           takes place, and checking it out can be instructive.  For  most  simple
537           matches,  the  number  is quite small, but for patterns with very large
538           numbers of matching possibilities, it can  become  large  very  quickly
539           with  increasing  length  of  subject string. The match_limit_recursion
540           number is a measure of how much stack (or, if  PCRE  is  compiled  with
541           NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)  memory  is  needed to complete the match
542           attempt.
543    
544         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the         When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower  than  the
545         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
546         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.         only to the call of pcre[16]_exec() for the line in which it appears.
547    
548         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-         If the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX  wrap-
549         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any         per  API  to  be  used, the only option-setting sequences that have any
550         effect  are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,         effect are \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL,  REG_NOTEMPTY,  and
551         to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
   
        The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on  
        the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.  
        There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The  
        result  is  from  one  to  six bytes, encoded according to the original  
        UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This allows for  values  in  the  range  0  to  
        0x7FFFFFFF.  Note  that not all of those are valid Unicode code points,  
        or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the later  rules  in  RFC  
        3629.  
552    
553    
554  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
555    
556         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,
557         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an         pcre[16]_exec() to match each data line. PCRE also supports an alterna-
558         alternative  matching  function,  pcre_dfa_test(),  which operates in a         tive  matching  function, pcre[16]_dfa_test(), which operates in a dif-
559         different way, and has some restrictions. The differences  between  the         ferent way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the  two
560         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
561    
562         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
563         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is  called.         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching  function  is  used.
564         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
565         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the
566         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
# Line 408  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION Line 569  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
569  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
570    
571         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,
572         pcre_exec(), is being used.         pcre[16]_exec(), is being used.
573    
574         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
575         that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that         that  pcre[16]_exec()  returns,  starting  with number 0 for the string
576         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial         that matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No  match"  when
577         match"  when  pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PAR-         the  return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the
578         TIAL, respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number.  Here         partially   matching    substring    when    pcre[16]_exec()    returns
579         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.  (Note  that  this is the entire substring that was
580           inspected during the partial match; it may  include  characters  before
581           the  actual  match  start  if a lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was
582           involved.) For any other return, pcretest  outputs  the  PCRE  negative
583           error  number  and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is a failed
584           UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character  and
585           the  reason  code are also output, provided that the size of the output
586           vector is at least two. Here is an example of an  interactive  pcretest
587           run.
588    
589           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
590           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006           PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
591    
592             re> /^abc(\d+)/             re> /^abc(\d+)/
593           data> abc123           data> abc123
# Line 427  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 596  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
596           data> xyz           data> xyz
597           No match           No match
598    
599         Note  that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are
600         is set are not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by  pcretest.         not returned by pcre[16]_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In  the
601         In  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when         following  example,  there  are  two capturing substrings, but when the
602         the first data line is matched, the  second,  unset  substring  is  not         first data line is matched, the second, unset substring is  not  shown.
603         shown.  An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the         An  "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second
604         second data line.         data line.
605    
606             re> /(a)|(b)/             re> /(a)|(b)/
607           data> a           data> a
# Line 444  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 613  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
613            2: b            2: b
614    
615         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as
616         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on         \xhh  escapes  if  the  value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set.
617         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.         Otherwise they are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the defi-
618         If  the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is fol-         nition  of non-printing characters. If the pattern has the /+ modifier,
619         lowed by the the rest of the subject string, identified  by  "0+"  like         the output for substring 0 is followed by the the rest of  the  subject
620         this:         string, identified by "0+" like this:
621    
622             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
623           data> cataract           data> cataract
# Line 467  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 636  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
636            0: ipp            0: ipp
637            1: pp            1: pp
638    
639         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is  an
640           example  of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \>4 is
641           past the end of the subject string):
642    
643               re> /xyz/
644             data> xyz\>4
645             Error -24 (bad offset value)
646    
647         If any of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data  line  that         If any of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data  line  that
648         is  successfully  matched,  the substrings extracted by the convenience         is  successfully  matched,  the substrings extracted by the convenience
# Line 484  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 659  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
659    
660  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
661    
662         When the alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(),  is  used  (by         When the alternative matching function,  pcre[16]_dfa_exec(),  is  used
663         means  of  the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option), the         (by  means  of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option),
664         output consists of a list of all the matches that start  at  the  first         the output consists of a list of all the  matches  that  start  at  the
665         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:         first point in the subject where there is at least one match. For exam-
666           ple:
667    
668             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
669           data> yellow tangerine\D           data> yellow tangerine\D
# Line 495  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 671  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
671            1: tang            1: tang
672            2: tan            2: tan
673    
674         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)         (Using the normal matching function on this data  finds  only  "tang".)
675         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).         The  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).
676           After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
677           lowed  by  the  partially  matching  substring.  (Note that this is the
678           entire substring that was inspected during the partial  match;  it  may
679           include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-
680           tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
681    
682         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
683         at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
# Line 538  CALLOUTS Line 719  CALLOUTS
719         tion is called during matching. This works  with  both  matching  func-         tion is called during matching. This works  with  both  matching  func-
720         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
721         start and current positions in the text at the callout  time,  and  the         start and current positions in the text at the callout  time,  and  the
722         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output         next pattern item to be tested. For example:
723    
724           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
725             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
726    
727         indicates  that  callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting         This  output  indicates  that  callout  number  0  occurred for a match
728         at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was  at         attempt starting at the fourth character of the  subject  string,  when
729         the  seventh  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was         the pointer was at the seventh character of the data, and when the next
730         \d. Just one circumflex is output if the start  and  current  positions         pattern item was \d. Just one circumflex is output  if  the  start  and
731         are the same.         current positions are the same.
732    
733         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
734         a result of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead  of  showing         a result of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead  of  showing
# Line 563  CALLOUTS Line 744  CALLOUTS
744           +10 ^ ^           +10 ^ ^
745            0: E*            0: E*
746    
747         The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by         If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-
748         default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)         ever  a  change  of  latest mark is passed to the callout function. For
749         to change this.         example:
750    
751               re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
752             data> abc
753             --->abc
754              +0 ^       a
755              +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
756             +10 ^^      b
757             Latest Mark: X
758             +11 ^ ^     c
759             +12 ^  ^
760              0: abc
761    
762           The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the  same  for
763           the  rest  of  the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of
764           backtracking, the mark reverts to being unset, the  text  "<unset>"  is
765           output.
766    
767           The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by
768           default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)
769           to change this and other parameters of the callout.
770    
771         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-
772         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see
773         the pcrecallout documentation.         the pcrecallout documentation.
774    
775    
776  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
777    
778         When pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a  pattern,         When  pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
779         bytes  other  than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters         bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as  non-printing  characters
780         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.
781    
782         When pcretest is outputting text that is a matched part  of  a  subject         When  pcretest  is  outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
783         string,  it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been         string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has  been
784         set for the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this  case,  the         set  for  the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this case, the
785         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
786    
787    
788  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
789    
790         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the
791         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-         POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is being used, that is, when the /P pattern
792         ifier is specified.         modifier is specified.
793    
794         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
795         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a
796         file name.  For example:         file name.  For example:
797    
798           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
799    
800         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and
801         re-using compiled patterns.         re-using  compiled patterns.  Note that if the pattern was successfully
802           studied with JIT optimization, the JIT data cannot be saved.
803    
804         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the
805         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the
# Line 605  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 807  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
807         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the
808         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
809         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the
810         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-         compiled pattern. If there is additional study  data,  this  (excluding
811         diately  after  the  compiled pattern. After writing the file, pcretest         any  JIT  data)  follows  immediately after the compiled pattern. After
812         expects to read a new pattern.         writing the file, pcretest expects to read a new pattern.
813    
814         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by  specifying  <  and  a
815         name  instead  of  a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a <         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a
816         character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as  a  pattern         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
817         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
818    
819            re> </some/file            re> </some/file
820           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
821           No study data           No study data
822    
823         When  the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines         If  the  pattern  was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the
824         in the usual way.         JIT information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When  the
825           pattern  has  been  loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines in the
826           usual way.
827    
828         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload
829         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on
830         which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86         which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86
831         machine and run on a SPARC machine.         machine  and  run  on  a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a
832           host with different endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
833    
834             Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
835    
836           The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
837           endianness.  These  are  reloaded  using "<!" instead of just "<". This
838           suppresses the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on
839           all  hosts.  It  also forces debugging output once the pattern has been
840           reloaded.
841    
842         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but         File names for saving and reloading can be absolute  or  relative,  but
843         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with         note  that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with
844         a tilde (~) is not available.         a tilde (~) is not available.
845    
846         The  ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for test-         The ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for  test-
847         ing and experimentation. It is not intended for production use  because         ing  and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because
848         only  a  single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is         only a single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore,  there  is
849         no facility for supplying  custom  character  tables  for  use  with  a         no  facility  for  supplying  custom  character  tables  for use with a
850         reloaded  pattern.  If  the  original  pattern was compiled with custom         reloaded pattern. If the original  pattern  was  compiled  with  custom
851         tables, an attempt to match a subject string using a  reloaded  pattern         tables,  an  attempt to match a subject string using a reloaded pattern
852         is  likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to load         is likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to  load
853         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
854    
855    
856  SEE ALSO  SEE ALSO
857    
858         pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3),  pcrematching(3),  pcrepartial(d),         pcre(3),  pcre16(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3),  pcrejit, pcrematch-
859         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).         ing(3), pcrepartial(d), pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
860    
861    
862  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
# Line 655  AUTHOR Line 868  AUTHOR
868    
869  REVISION  REVISION
870    
871         Last updated: 10 March 2009         Last updated: 13 January 2012
872         Copyright (c) 1997-2009 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.

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