/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
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revision 429 by ph10, Tue Sep 1 16:10:16 2009 UTC revision 691 by ph10, Sun Sep 11 14:31:21 2011 UTC
# Line 7  NAME Line 7  NAME
7    
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [options] [source] [destination]         pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]
11    
12         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
14         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;
15         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern
16         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17         options, see the pcreapi documentation.         options, see the pcreapi documentation. The input  for  pcretest  is  a
18           sequence  of  regular expression patterns and strings to be matched, as
19           described below. The output shows the result of each match. Options  on
20           the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and exactly what
21           is output.
22    
23    
24  OPTIONS  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
25    
26         -b        Behave as if each regex has the /B (show bytecode)  modifier;         -b        Behave as if each pattern has the /B (show byte  code)  modi-
27                   the internal form is output after compilation.                   fier; the internal form is output after compilation.
28    
29         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
30                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are
31                   included, and then exit.                   included, and then exit.
32    
33         -d        Behave  as  if  each  regex  has the /D (debug) modifier; the         -d        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /D (debug) modifier; the
34                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is
35                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
36    
# Line 37  OPTIONS Line 41  OPTIONS
41    
42         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
43    
44         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave as if each pattern has the  /I  modifier;  information
45                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
46    
47         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;
# Line 47  OPTIONS Line 51  OPTIONS
51    
52         -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been         -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been
53                   compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular                   compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular
54                   expression.  For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions   of                   expression.
                  pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.  
55    
56         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used
57                   when calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize.  The                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The
58                   default  value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subex-                   default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  subex-
59                   pressions  for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches   for                   pressions   for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches  for
60                   pcre_dfa_exec().  The vector size can be changed for individ-                   pcre_dfa_exec(). The vector size can be changed for  individ-
61                   ual matching calls by including \O  in  the  data  line  (see                   ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see
62                   below).                   below).
63    
64         -p        Behave  as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX wrap-         -p        Behave as if each pattern has  the  /P  modifier;  the  POSIX
65                   per API is used to call PCRE. None of the other  options  has                   wrapper  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options
66                   any effect when -p is set.                   has any effect when -p is set.
67    
68         -q        Do  not output the version number of pcretest at the start of         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
69                   execution.                   execution.
70    
71         -S size   On Unix-like systems, set the size of the  runtime  stack  to         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems, set the size of the run-time stack to
72                   size megabytes.                   size megabytes.
73    
74         -t        Run  each  compile, study, and match many times with a timer,         -s or -s+ Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /S  modifier;  in  other
75                   and output resulting time per compile or match (in  millisec-                   words,  force each pattern to be studied. If -s+ is used, the
76                   onds).  Do  not set -m with -t, because you will then get the                   PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE flag is passed to pcre_study(),  caus-
77                   size output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be  dis-                   ing  just-in-time  optimization  to be set up if it is avail-
78                   torted.  You  can  control  the number of iterations that are                   able. If the  /I  or  /D  option  is  present  on  a  pattern
79                   used for timing by following -t with a number (as a  separate                   (requesting  output  about the compiled pattern), information
80                     about the result of studying is not included when studying is
81                     caused  only  by  -s  and neither -i nor -d is present on the
82                     command line. This behaviour means that the output from tests
83                     that  are run with and without -s should be identical, except
84                     when options that output information about the actual running
85                     of  a  match are set. The -M, -t, and -tm options, which give
86                     information about resources used, are likely to produce  dif-
87                     ferent  output with and without -s. Output may also differ if
88                     the /C option is present on an individual pattern. This  uses
89                     callouts  to  trace the the matching process, and this may be
90                     different between studied and non-studied  patterns.  If  the
91                     pattern contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences,
92                     for the same reason. The -s command line option can be  over-
93                     ridden  for  specific  patterns  that should never be studied
94                     (see the /S pattern modifier below).
95    
96           -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,
97                     and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-
98                     onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the
99                     size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-
100                     torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are
101                     used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate
102                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
103                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
104    
# Line 83  OPTIONS Line 108  OPTIONS
108    
109  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
110    
111         If  pcretest  is  given two filename arguments, it reads from the first         If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first
112         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
113         reads  from  that  file  and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from         reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from
114         stdin and writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of  input,  using         stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using
115         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
116         lines.         lines.
117    
118         When pcretest is built, a configuration  option  can  specify  that  it         When  pcretest  is  built,  a  configuration option can specify that it
119         should  be  linked  with the libreadline library. When this is done, if         should be linked with the libreadline library. When this  is  done,  if
120         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
121         This  provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the         This provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from  the
122         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
123    
124         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
125         Each  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any num-         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-
126         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
127    
128         Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want  to         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to
129         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
130         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
131         to  encode  the  newline  sequences. There is no limit on the length of         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of
132         data lines; the input buffer is automatically extended  if  it  is  too         data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too
133         small.         small.
134    
135         An  empty  line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new
136         regular expression is read. The regular expressions are given  enclosed         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed
137         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
138    
139           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
140    
141         White  space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expres-         White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-
142         sion may be continued over several input lines, in which case the  new-         sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-
143         line  characters  are included within it. It is possible to include the         line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the
144         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
145    
146           /abc\/def/           /abc\/def/
147    
148         If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part  of  the  pattern,         If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,
149         but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect         but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect
150         its interpretation.  If the terminating delimiter is  immediately  fol-         its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-
151         lowed by a backslash, for example,         lowed by a backslash, for example,
152    
153           /abc/\           /abc/\
154    
155         then  a  backslash  is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to         then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to
156         provide a way of testing the error condition that arises if  a  pattern         provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern
157         finishes with a backslash, because         finishes with a backslash, because
158    
159           /abc\/           /abc\/
160    
161         is  interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/",         is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",
162         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
163         expression.         expression.
164    
165    
166  PATTERN MODIFIERS  PATTERN MODIFIERS
167    
168         A  pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly         A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly
169         single characters. Following Perl usage, these are  referred  to  below         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below
170         as,  for  example,  "the /i modifier", even though the delimiter of the         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the
171         pattern need not always be a slash, and no slash is used  when  writing         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing
172         modifiers.  Whitespace  may  appear between the final pattern delimiter         modifiers. White space may appear between the final  pattern  delimiter
173         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
174    
175         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
176         PCRE_DOTALL,  or  PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively, when pcre_com-         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively,  when  pcre_com-
177         pile() is called. These four modifier letters have the same  effect  as         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as
178         they do in Perl. For example:         they do in Perl. For example:
179    
180           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
181    
182         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options         The following table shows additional modifiers for  setting  PCRE  com-
183         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
184    
185             /8              PCRE_UTF8
186             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
187           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
188           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
189           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
# Line 164  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 191  PATTERN MODIFIERS
191           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
192           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
193           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
194             /W              PCRE_UCP
195           /X              PCRE_EXTRA           /X              PCRE_EXTRA
196             /Y              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
197           /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT           /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
198           /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR           /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
199           /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF           /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
# Line 174  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 203  PATTERN MODIFIERS
203           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
204           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
205    
206         Those specifying line ending sequences are literal  strings  as  shown,         The  modifiers  that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings
207         but  the  letters  can  be  in either case. This example sets multiline         as shown, including the angle brackets, but the letters within  can  be
208         matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:         in  either case.  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the
209           line ending sequence:
210           /^abc/m<crlf>  
211             /^abc/m<CRLF>
212         Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the  pcreapi  
213         documentation.         As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the /8 modifier also causes
214           any  non-printing  characters in output strings to be printed using the
215           \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full  details  of
216           the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documentation.
217    
218     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
219    
# Line 196  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 228  PATTERN MODIFIERS
228         or \B).         or \B).
229    
230         If  any  call  to  pcre_exec()  in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty         If  any  call  to  pcre_exec()  in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty
231         string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and  PCRE_ANCHORED         string, the next  call  is  done  with  the  PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART  and
232         flags  set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same         PCRE_ANCHORED  flags  set  in  order  to search for another, non-empty,
233         point.  If this second match fails, the start  offset  is  advanced  by         match at the same point. If this second match fails, the  start  offset
234         one,  and  the normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl han-         is  advanced,  and  the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way
235         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-
236           tion.  Normally,  the start offset is advanced by one character, but if
237           the newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline,  and  the  current
238           character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.
239    
240     Other modifiers     Other modifiers
241    
242         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.
243    
244         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that         The  /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
245         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the         matched the entire pattern, pcretest  should  in  addition  output  the
246         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the         remainder  of  the  subject  string. This is useful for tests where the
247         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the +  modi-
248           fier  appears  twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings.
249         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-         In each case the remainder is output on the following line with a  plus
250         put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.  Nor-         character  following  the  capture number. Note that this modifier must
251         mally  this  information contains length and offset values; however, if         not immediately follow the /S modifier because /S+ has another meaning.
252         /Z is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special  
253           The /= modifier requests that the  values  of  all  potential  captured
254           parentheses  be  output  after a match by pcre_exec(). By default, only
255           those up to the highest one actually used in the match are output (cor-
256           responding  to the return code from pcre_exec()). Values in the offsets
257           vector corresponding to higher numbers should be set to -1,  and  these
258           are  output  as  "<unset>".  This modifier gives a way of checking that
259           this is happening.
260    
261           The /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest  out-
262           put  a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Nor-
263           mally this information contains length and offset values;  however,  if
264           /Z  is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special
265         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
266         output is generated for different internal link sizes.         output is generated for different internal link sizes.
267    
268         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for         The  /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to /BI,
269         example,         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
   
          /pattern/Lfr_FR  
270    
271         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in
272         pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the         the  compiled  pattern  that  contain  2-byte  and 4-byte numbers. This
273         locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the         facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it  to  execute
274         regular expression. Without an /L  modifier,  NULL  is  passed  as  the         patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This
275         tables  pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which it         feature is not available when the POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is  being
276         appears.         used,  that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the
277           section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.
278    
279         The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the         The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the
280         compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,         compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,
# Line 236  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 282  PATTERN MODIFIERS
282         pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-         pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-
283         put.         put.
284    
285         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,         The /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking  con-
286         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         trol  verbs  that  are  returned  from  calls to pcre_exec(). It causes
287           pcretest to create a pcre_extra block if one has not already been  cre-
288           ated by a call to pcre_study(), and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and
289           the mark field within it, every time that pcre_exec() is called. If the
290           variable  that  the  mark field points to is non-NULL for a match, non-
291           match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which it points.
292           For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".  For
293           a non-match it is added to the message.
294    
295         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for
296         the compiled pattern that  contain  2-byte  and  4-byte  numbers.  This         example,
        facility  is  for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute  
        patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This  
        feature  is  not  available  when  the POSIX interface to PCRE is being  
        used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the  
        section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.  
297    
298         The  /S  modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression           /pattern/Lfr_FR
299         has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
300           For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
301           pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the
302           locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the
303           regular expression. Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is  passed  as
304           the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which
305           it appears.
306    
307         The /M modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold  the  com-         The /M modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold  the  com-
308         piled pattern to be output.         piled pattern to be output.
309    
310           If  the  /S  modifier appears once, it causes pcre_study() to be called
311           after the expression has been compiled, and the results used  when  the
312           expression  is  matched.  If  /S appears twice, it suppresses studying,
313           even if it was requested externally by the -s command line option. This
314           makes  it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied,
315           and others are never studied, independently of -s. This feature is used
316           in the test files in a few cases where the output is different when the
317           pattern is studied.
318    
319           If the /S modifier is immediately followed by a + character,  the  call
320           to   pcre_study()  is  made  with  the  PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE  option,
321           requesting just-in-time optimization support if it is  available.  Note
322           that  there  is  also  a  /+ modifier; it must not be given immediately
323           after /S because this will be misinterpreted. If JIT studying  is  suc-
324           cessful,  it will automatically be used when pcre_exec() is run, except
325           when incompatible run-time options are  specified.  These  include  the
326           partial matching options; a complete list is given in the pcrejit docu-
327           mentation. See also the \J escape sequence below for a way  of  setting
328           the size of the JIT stack.
329    
330           The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
331           cific set of built-in character tables to be passed to  pcre_compile().
332           It is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different
333           character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
334    
335             0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
336                   pcre_chartables.c.dist
337             1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
338    
339           In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
340           tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
341    
342       Using the POSIX wrapper API
343    
344         The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API         The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
345         rather than its native API. When this  is  done,  all  other  modifiers         rather than its native API. When /P is set, the following modifiers set
346         except  /i,  /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present,         options for the regcomp() function:
347         and REG_NEWLINE is set if /m is present. The  wrapper  functions  force  
348         PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.           /i    REG_ICASE
349             /m    REG_NEWLINE
350         The  /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8 option           /N    REG_NOSUB
351         set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in  PCRE,  pro-           /s    REG_DOTALL     )
352         vided  that  it  was  compiled with this support enabled. This modifier           /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
353         also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed           /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
354         using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.           /8    REG_UTF8       )
355    
356         If  the  /?  modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes pcretest to call         The  /+  modifier  works  as  described  above. All other modifiers are
357         pcre_compile() with the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to  suppress  the         ignored.
        checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  
358    
359    
360  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
361    
362         Before  each  data  line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing         Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(),  leading  and  trailing
363         whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.  Some  of         white  space  is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of
364         these  are  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of         these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out  some  of
365         the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordi-         the  more  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordi-
366         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The         nary" regular expressions, you probably don't need any  of  these.  The
367         following escapes are recognized:         following escapes are recognized:
368    
369           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
370           \b         backspace (\x08)           \b         backspace (\x08)
371           \e         escape (\x27)           \e         escape (\x27)
372           \f         formfeed (\x0c)           \f         form feed (\x0c)
373           \n         newline (\x0a)           \n         newline (\x0a)
374           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
375                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
# Line 290  DATA LINES Line 377  DATA LINES
377           \t         tab (\x09)           \t         tab (\x09)
378           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
379           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
380           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                        always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode
381             \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
382           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
383                        in UTF-8 mode                        in UTF-8 mode
384           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()
# Line 318  DATA LINES Line 406  DATA LINES
406           \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring           \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring
407                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
408                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
409             \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
410                          number of digits)
411           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a
412                        successful match                        successful match
413           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
414                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
415           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()
416                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
417                          PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
418           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
419                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
420           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre_exec()
# Line 333  DATA LINES Line 424  DATA LINES
424                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
425           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()
426           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
427             \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre_exec()
428                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
429           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()
430                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
431           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
432                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
433           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
434                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
435                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        argument for pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
436           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()
437                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
438           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()
# Line 351  DATA LINES Line 444  DATA LINES
444           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()
445                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
446    
447           Note  that  \xhh  always  specifies  one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this
448           makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing pur-
449           poses. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
450           UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater  than
451           127. When not in UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than
452           256, and causes an error for greater values.
453    
454         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
455         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
456         any data line.         any data line.
# Line 360  DATA LINES Line 460  DATA LINES
460         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-
461         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
462    
463         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-         The  \J escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
464         ferent values in the match_limit and  match_limit_recursion  fields  of         used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT  opti-
465         the  pcre_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers for         mization  is  not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the
466         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-         default 32K is necessary only for very complicated patterns.
467         ber  is  a  measure of the amount of backtracking that takes place, and  
468         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times,  with  dif-
469         is  quite  small,  but for patterns with very large numbers of matching         ferent  values  in  the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of
470         possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing  length         the pcre_extra data structure, until it finds the minimum  numbers  for
471         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how         each  parameter  that  allow  pcre_exec()  to  complete  without error.
472         much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with  NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)         Because this is testing a specific feature of the  normal  interpretive
473         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.         pcre_exec()  execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might have
474           been set up by the /S+ qualifier of -s+ option is disabled.
475    
476           The match_limit number is a measure of the amount of backtracking  that
477           takes  place,  and  checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
478           matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns  with  very  large
479           numbers  of  matching  possibilities,  it can become large very quickly
480           with increasing length of  subject  string.  The  match_limit_recursion
481           number  is  a  measure  of how much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with
482           NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory  is  needed  to  complete  the  match
483           attempt.
484    
485         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the
486         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
# Line 378  DATA LINES Line 488  DATA LINES
488    
489         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
490         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
491         effect  are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,         effect  are  \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and
492         to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
493    
494         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on
495         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.
# Line 413  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 523  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
523    
524         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
525         that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that         that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that
526         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No  match"  when  the
527         match:"  followed  by the partially matching substring when pcre_exec()         return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the par-
528         returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH  or  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL,  respectively,  and         tially matching substring when pcre_exec() returns  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.
529         otherwise  the  PCRE  negative  error  number. Here is an example of an         (Note  that  this is the entire substring that was inspected during the
530         interactive pcretest run.         partial match; it may include characters before the actual match  start
531           if  a  lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other
532           return, pcretest outputs the PCRE negative error  number  and  a  short
533           descriptive  phrase.  If  the error is a failed UTF-8 string check, the
534           byte offset of the start of the failing character and the  reason  code
535           are  also  output,  provided  that  the size of the output vector is at
536           least two. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.
537    
538           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
539           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006           PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
540    
541             re> /^abc(\d+)/             re> /^abc(\d+)/
542           data> abc123           data> abc123
# Line 429  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 545  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
545           data> xyz           data> xyz
546           No match           No match
547    
548         Note that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one  that         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are
549         is  set are not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest.         not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In the fol-
550         In the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but  when         lowing example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the  first
551         the  first  data  line  is  matched, the second, unset substring is not         data  line  is  matched,  the  second, unset substring is not shown. An
552         shown. An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for  the         "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>",  as  for  the  second
553         second data line.         data line.
554    
555             re> /(a)|(b)/             re> /(a)|(b)/
556           data> a           data> a
# Line 469  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 585  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
585            0: ipp            0: ipp
586            1: pp            1: pp
587    
588         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.         "No  match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an
589           example of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \>4  is
590           past the end of the subject string):
591    
592               re> /xyz/
593             data> xyz\>4
594             Error -24 (bad offset value)
595    
596         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that
597         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience
# Line 500  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 622  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
622         (Using the normal matching function on this data  finds  only  "tang".)         (Using the normal matching function on this data  finds  only  "tang".)
623         The  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).         The  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).
624         After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-         After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
625         lowed by the partially matching substring.         lowed  by  the  partially  matching  substring.  (Note that this is the
626           entire substring that was inspected during the partial  match;  it  may
627           include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-
628           tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
629    
630         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
631         at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
# Line 514  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 639  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
639            1: tan            1: tan
640            0: tan            0: tan
641    
642         Since the matching function does not  support  substring  capture,  the         Since  the  matching  function  does not support substring capture, the
643         escape  sequences  that  are concerned with captured substrings are not         escape sequences that are concerned with captured  substrings  are  not
644         relevant.         relevant.
645    
646    
647  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
648    
649         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL
650         return,  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you         return, indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern,  you
651         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R         can  restart  the match with additional subject data by means of the \R
652         escape sequence. For example:         escape sequence. For example:
653    
654             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
# Line 532  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH Line 657  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
657           data> n05\R\D           data> n05\R\D
658            0: n05            0: n05
659    
660         For  further  information  about  partial matching, see the pcrepartial         For further information about partial  matching,  see  the  pcrepartial
661         documentation.         documentation.
662    
663    
664  CALLOUTS  CALLOUTS
665    
666         If the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout  func-         If  the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout func-
667         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-         tion is called during matching. This works  with  both  matching  func-
668         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
669         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the         start and current positions in the text at the callout  time,  and  the
670         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output
671    
672           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
673             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
674    
675         indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match  attempt  starting         indicates  that  callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting
676         at  the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at         at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was  at
677         the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern  item  was         the  seventh  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was
678         \d.  Just  one  circumflex is output if the start and current positions         \d. Just one circumflex is output if the start  and  current  positions
679         are the same.         are the same.
680    
681         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
682         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing         a result of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead  of  showing
683         the callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a  plus,  is         the  callout  number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is
684         output. For example:         output. For example:
685    
686             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C
# Line 567  CALLOUTS Line 692  CALLOUTS
692           +10 ^ ^           +10 ^ ^
693            0: E*            0: E*
694    
695           If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-
696           ever  a  change  of  latest mark is passed to the callout function. For
697           example:
698    
699               re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
700             data> abc
701             --->abc
702              +0 ^       a
703              +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
704             +10 ^^      b
705             Latest Mark: X
706             +11 ^ ^     c
707             +12 ^  ^
708              0: abc
709    
710           The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the  same  for
711           the  rest  of  the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of
712           backtracking, the mark reverts to being unset, the  text  "<unset>"  is
713           output.
714    
715         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by
716         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)
717         to change this.         to change this and other parameters of the callout.
718    
719         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-
720         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see
# Line 591  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS Line 736  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
736  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
737    
738         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the
739         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-         POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is being used, that is, when the /P pattern
740         ifier is specified.         modifier is specified.
741    
742         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
743         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a
# Line 601  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 746  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
746           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
747    
748         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and
749         re-using compiled patterns.         re-using  compiled patterns.  Note that if the pattern was successfully
750           studied with JIT optimization, the JIT data cannot be saved.
751    
752         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the
753         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the
754         optional  study  data,  each  written as four bytes in big-endian order         optional study data, each written as four  bytes  in  big-endian  order
755         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the
756         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
757         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the
758         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-         compiled pattern. If there is additional study  data,  this  (excluding
759         diately after the compiled pattern. After writing  the  file,  pcretest         any  JIT  data)  follows  immediately after the compiled pattern. After
760         expects to read a new pattern.         writing the file, pcretest expects to read a new pattern.
761    
762         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by  specifying  <  and  a
763         name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not  contain  a  <         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a
764         character,  as  otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
765         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
766    
767            re> </some/file            re> </some/file
768           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
769           No study data           No study data
770    
771         When the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines         If  the  pattern  was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the
772         in the usual way.         JIT information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When  the
773           pattern  has  been  loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines in the
774         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload         usual way.
775         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on  
776         which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload
777           it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on
778           which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86
779         machine and run on a SPARC machine.         machine and run on a SPARC machine.
780    
781         File names for saving and reloading can be absolute  or  relative,  but         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but
782         note  that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with
783         a tilde (~) is not available.         a tilde (~) is not available.
784    
785         The ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for  test-         The  ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for test-
786         ing  and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because         ing and experimentation. It is not intended for production use  because
787         only a single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore,  there  is         only  a  single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is
788         no  facility  for  supplying  custom  character  tables  for use with a         no facility for supplying  custom  character  tables  for  use  with  a
789         reloaded pattern. If the original  pattern  was  compiled  with  custom         reloaded  pattern.  If  the  original  pattern was compiled with custom
790         tables,  an  attempt to match a subject string using a reloaded pattern         tables, an attempt to match a subject string using a  reloaded  pattern
791         is likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to  load         is  likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to load
792         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
793    
794    
795  SEE ALSO  SEE ALSO
796    
797         pcre(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3), pcrematching(3), pcrepartial(d),         pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3), pcrejit, pcrematching(3), pcrepar-
798         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).         tial(d), pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
799    
800    
801  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
# Line 659  AUTHOR Line 807  AUTHOR
807    
808  REVISION  REVISION
809    
810         Last updated: 29 August 2009         Last updated: 26 August 2011
811         Copyright (c) 1997-2009 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.

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