/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
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revision 461 by ph10, Mon Oct 5 10:59:35 2009 UTC revision 654 by ph10, Tue Aug 2 11:00:40 2011 UTC
# Line 7  NAME Line 7  NAME
7    
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [options] [source] [destination]         pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]
11    
12         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
14         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;
15         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern
16         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17         options, see the pcreapi documentation.         options, see the pcreapi documentation. The input  for  pcretest  is  a
18           sequence  of  regular expression patterns and strings to be matched, as
19           described below. The output shows the result of each match. Options  on
20           the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and exactly what
21           is output.
22    
23    
24  OPTIONS  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
25    
26         -b        Behave as if each regex has the /B (show bytecode)  modifier;         -b        Behave as if each pattern has the /B (show byte  code)  modi-
27                   the internal form is output after compilation.                   fier; the internal form is output after compilation.
28    
29         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
30                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are
31                   included, and then exit.                   included, and then exit.
32    
33         -d        Behave  as  if  each  regex  has the /D (debug) modifier; the         -d        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /D (debug) modifier; the
34                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is
35                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
36    
# Line 37  OPTIONS Line 41  OPTIONS
41    
42         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
43    
44         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave as if each pattern has the  /I  modifier;  information
45                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
46    
47         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;
# Line 47  OPTIONS Line 51  OPTIONS
51    
52         -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been         -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been
53                   compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular                   compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular
54                   expression.  For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions   of                   expression.
                  pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.  
55    
56         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used
57                   when calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize.  The                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The
58                   default  value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subex-                   default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  subex-
59                   pressions  for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches   for                   pressions   for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches  for
60                   pcre_dfa_exec().  The vector size can be changed for individ-                   pcre_dfa_exec(). The vector size can be changed for  individ-
61                   ual matching calls by including \O  in  the  data  line  (see                   ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see
62                   below).                   below).
63    
64         -p        Behave  as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX wrap-         -p        Behave as if each pattern has  the  /P  modifier;  the  POSIX
65                   per API is used to call PCRE. None of the other  options  has                   wrapper  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options
66                   any effect when -p is set.                   has any effect when -p is set.
67    
68         -q        Do  not output the version number of pcretest at the start of         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
69                   execution.                   execution.
70    
71         -S size   On Unix-like systems, set the size of the  runtime  stack  to         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems, set the size of the run-time stack to
72                   size megabytes.                   size megabytes.
73    
74         -t        Run  each  compile, study, and match many times with a timer,         -s        Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /S  modifier;  in  other
75                   and output resulting time per compile or match (in  millisec-                   words,  force  each  pattern  to  be studied. If the /I or /D
76                   onds).  Do  not set -m with -t, because you will then get the                   option is present on a pattern (requesting output  about  the
77                   size output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be  dis-                   compiled  pattern),  information about the result of studying
78                   torted.  You  can  control  the number of iterations that are                   is not included when studying is caused only by -s  and  nei-
79                   used for timing by following -t with a number (as a  separate                   ther -i nor -d is present on the command line. This behaviour
80                     means that the output from tests that are run with and  with-
81                     out  -s  should be identical, except when options that output
82                     information about the actual running of a match are set.  The
83                     -M,  -t,  and  -tm  options,  which  give  information  about
84                     resources used, are likely to produce different  output  with
85                     and  without  -s.  Output may also differ if the /C option is
86                     present on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace
87                     the  the  matching process, and this may be different between
88                     studied and non-studied patterns.  If  the  pattern  contains
89                     (*MARK)  items  there  may  also be differences, for the same
90                     reason. The -s command line option can be overridden for spe-
91                     cific  patterns  that  should  never  be  studied (see the /S
92                     option below).
93    
94           -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,
95                     and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-
96                     onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the
97                     size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-
98                     torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are
99                     used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate
100                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
101                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
102    
# Line 83  OPTIONS Line 106  OPTIONS
106    
107  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
108    
109         If  pcretest  is  given two filename arguments, it reads from the first         If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first
110         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
111         reads  from  that  file  and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from         reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from
112         stdin and writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of  input,  using         stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using
113         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
114         lines.         lines.
115    
116         When pcretest is built, a configuration  option  can  specify  that  it         When  pcretest  is  built,  a  configuration option can specify that it
117         should  be  linked  with the libreadline library. When this is done, if         should be linked with the libreadline library. When this  is  done,  if
118         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
119         This  provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the         This provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from  the
120         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
121    
122         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
123         Each  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any num-         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-
124         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
125    
126         Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want  to         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to
127         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
128         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
129         to  encode  the  newline  sequences. There is no limit on the length of         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of
130         data lines; the input buffer is automatically extended  if  it  is  too         data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too
131         small.         small.
132    
133         An  empty  line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new
134         regular expression is read. The regular expressions are given  enclosed         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed
135         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
136    
137           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
138    
139         White  space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expres-         White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-
140         sion may be continued over several input lines, in which case the  new-         sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-
141         line  characters  are included within it. It is possible to include the         line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the
142         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
143    
144           /abc\/def/           /abc\/def/
145    
146         If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part  of  the  pattern,         If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,
147         but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect         but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect
148         its interpretation.  If the terminating delimiter is  immediately  fol-         its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-
149         lowed by a backslash, for example,         lowed by a backslash, for example,
150    
151           /abc/\           /abc/\
152    
153         then  a  backslash  is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to         then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to
154         provide a way of testing the error condition that arises if  a  pattern         provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern
155         finishes with a backslash, because         finishes with a backslash, because
156    
157           /abc\/           /abc\/
158    
159         is  interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/",         is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",
160         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
161         expression.         expression.
162    
163    
164  PATTERN MODIFIERS  PATTERN MODIFIERS
165    
166         A  pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly         A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly
167         single characters. Following Perl usage, these are  referred  to  below         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below
168         as,  for  example,  "the /i modifier", even though the delimiter of the         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the
169         pattern need not always be a slash, and no slash is used  when  writing         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing
170         modifiers.  Whitespace  may  appear between the final pattern delimiter         modifiers. White space may appear between the final  pattern  delimiter
171         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
172    
173         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
174         PCRE_DOTALL,  or  PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively, when pcre_com-         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively,  when  pcre_com-
175         pile() is called. These four modifier letters have the same  effect  as         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as
176         they do in Perl. For example:         they do in Perl. For example:
177    
178           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
179    
180         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options         The following table shows additional modifiers for  setting  PCRE  com-
181         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
182    
183             /8              PCRE_UTF8
184             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
185           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
186           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
187           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
# Line 164  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 189  PATTERN MODIFIERS
189           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
190           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
191           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
192             /W              PCRE_UCP
193           /X              PCRE_EXTRA           /X              PCRE_EXTRA
194             /Y              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
195           /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT           /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
196           /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR           /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
197           /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF           /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
# Line 174  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 201  PATTERN MODIFIERS
201           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
202           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
203    
204         Those specifying line ending sequences are literal  strings  as  shown,         The  modifiers  that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings
205         but  the  letters  can  be  in either case. This example sets multiline         as shown, including the angle brackets, but the letters within  can  be
206         matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:         in  either case.  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the
207           line ending sequence:
208           /^abc/m<crlf>  
209             /^abc/m<CRLF>
210         Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the  pcreapi  
211         documentation.         As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the /8 modifier also causes
212           any  non-printing  characters in output strings to be printed using the
213           \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full  details  of
214           the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documentation.
215    
216     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
217    
# Line 199  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 229  PATTERN MODIFIERS
229         string, the next  call  is  done  with  the  PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART  and         string, the next  call  is  done  with  the  PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART  and
230         PCRE_ANCHORED  flags  set  in  order  to search for another, non-empty,         PCRE_ANCHORED  flags  set  in  order  to search for another, non-empty,
231         match at the same point. If this second match fails, the  start  offset         match at the same point. If this second match fails, the  start  offset
232         is  advanced  by  one  character, and the normal match is retried. This         is  advanced,  and  the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way
233         imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier  or         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-
234         the split() function.         tion.  Normally,  the start offset is advanced by one character, but if
235           the newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline,  and  the  current
236           character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.
237    
238     Other modifiers     Other modifiers
239    
# Line 210  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 242  PATTERN MODIFIERS
242         The  /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that         The  /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
243         matched the entire pattern, pcretest  should  in  addition  output  the         matched the entire pattern, pcretest  should  in  addition  output  the
244         remainder  of  the  subject  string. This is useful for tests where the         remainder  of  the  subject  string. This is useful for tests where the
245         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the +  modi-
246           fier  appears  twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings.
247         The /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest  out-         In each case the remainder is output on the following line with a  plus
248         put  a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Nor-         character following the capture number.
249         mally this information contains length and offset values;  however,  if  
250         /Z  is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special         The  /=  modifier  requests  that  the values of all potential captured
251           parentheses be output after a match by pcre_exec().  By  default,  only
252           those up to the highest one actually used in the match are output (cor-
253           responding to the return code from pcre_exec()). Values in the  offsets
254           vector  corresponding  to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these
255           are output as "<unset>". This modifier gives a  way  of  checking  that
256           this is happening.
257    
258           The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-
259           put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.  Nor-
260           mally  this  information contains length and offset values; however, if
261           /Z is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special
262         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
263         output is generated for different internal link sizes.         output is generated for different internal link sizes.
264    
265         The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
266         example,         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
   
          /pattern/Lfr_FR  
267    
268         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in
269         pcre_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for the         the compiled pattern that  contain  2-byte  and  4-byte  numbers.  This
270         locale, and this is then passed to pcre_compile()  when  compiling  the         facility  is  for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute
271         regular  expression.  Without  an  /L  modifier,  NULL is passed as the         patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This
272         tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which  it         feature  is  not  available  when  the POSIX interface to PCRE is being
273         appears.         used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the
274           section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.
275    
276         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the
277         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,
# Line 237  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 279  PATTERN MODIFIERS
279         pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are  also  out-         pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are  also  out-
280         put.         put.
281    
282         The  /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to /BI,         The  /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking con-
283         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         trol verbs that are returned  from  calls  to  pcre_exec().  It  causes
284           pcretest  to create a pcre_extra block if one has not already been cre-
285           ated by a call to pcre_study(), and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and
286           the mark field within it, every time that pcre_exec() is called. If the
287           variable that the mark field points to is non-NULL for  a  match,  non-
288           match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which it points.
289           For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".  For
290           a non-match it is added to the message.
291    
292         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in         The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
293         the  compiled  pattern  that  contain  2-byte  and 4-byte numbers. This         example,
294         facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it  to  execute  
295         patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This           /pattern/Lfr_FR
        feature is not available when the POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is  being  
        used,  that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the  
        section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.  
296    
297         The /S modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after  the  expression         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
298         has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.         pcre_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for the
299           locale, and this is then passed to pcre_compile()  when  compiling  the
300           regular  expression.  Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is passed as
301           the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which
302           it appears.
303    
304         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-
305         piled pattern to be output.         piled pattern to be output.
306    
307         The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API         If the /S modifier appears once, it causes pcre_study()  to  be  called
308         rather  than  its  native  API.  When this is done, all other modifiers         after  the  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the
309         except /i, /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i  is  present,         expression is matched. If /S appears  twice,  it  suppresses  studying,
310         and  REG_NEWLINE  is  set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force         even if it was requested externally by the -s command line option. This
311         PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.         makes it possible to specify that certain patterns are always  studied,
312           and others are never studied, independently of -s. This feature is used
313         The /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8  option         in the test files in a few cases where the output is different when the
314         set.  This  turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE, pro-         pattern is studied.
315         vided that it was compiled with this  support  enabled.  This  modifier  
316         also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed         The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
317         using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.         cific set of built-in character tables to be passed to  pcre_compile().
318           It is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different
319         If the /? modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes  pcretest  to  call         character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
320         pcre_compile()  with  the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to suppress the  
321         checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.           0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
322                   pcre_chartables.c.dist
323             1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
324    
325           In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
326           tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
327    
328       Using the POSIX wrapper API
329    
330           The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
331           rather than its native API. When /P is set, the following modifiers set
332           options for the regcomp() function:
333    
334             /i    REG_ICASE
335             /m    REG_NEWLINE
336             /N    REG_NOSUB
337             /s    REG_DOTALL     )
338             /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
339             /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
340             /8    REG_UTF8       )
341    
342           The  /+  modifier  works  as  described  above. All other modifiers are
343           ignored.
344    
345    
346  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
347    
348         Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(),  leading  and  trailing         Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(),  leading  and  trailing
349         whitespace  is  removed,  and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of         white  space  is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of
350         these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out  some  of         these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out  some  of
351         the  more  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordi-         the  more  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordi-
352         nary" regular expressions, you probably don't need any  of  these.  The         nary" regular expressions, you probably don't need any  of  these.  The
# Line 283  DATA LINES Line 355  DATA LINES
355           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
356           \b         backspace (\x08)           \b         backspace (\x08)
357           \e         escape (\x27)           \e         escape (\x27)
358           \f         formfeed (\x0c)           \f         form feed (\x0c)
359           \n         newline (\x0a)           \n         newline (\x0a)
360           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
361                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
# Line 291  DATA LINES Line 363  DATA LINES
363           \t         tab (\x09)           \t         tab (\x09)
364           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
365           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
366           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                        always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode
367             \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
368           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
369                        in UTF-8 mode                        in UTF-8 mode
370           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()
# Line 341  DATA LINES Line 414  DATA LINES
414                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
415           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
416                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
417           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
418                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
419                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        argument for pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
420           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()
421                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
422           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()
# Line 355  DATA LINES Line 428  DATA LINES
428           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()
429                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
430    
431         The  escapes  that  specify  line ending sequences are literal strings,         Note  that  \xhh  always  specifies  one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this
432           makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing pur-
433           poses. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
434           UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater  than
435           127. When not in UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than
436           256, and causes an error for greater values.
437    
438           The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
439         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
440         any data line.         any data line.
441    
442         A  backslash  followed by anything else just escapes the anything else.         A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  anything  else.
443         If the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives  a         If  the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a
444         way  of  passing  an empty line as data, since a real empty line termi-         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-
445         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
446    
447         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times,  with  dif-         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-
448         ferent  values  in  the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of         ferent values in the match_limit and  match_limit_recursion  fields  of
449         the pcre_extra data structure, until it finds the minimum  numbers  for         the  pcre_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers for
450         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-
451         ber is a measure of the amount of backtracking that  takes  place,  and         ber  is  a  measure of the amount of backtracking that takes place, and
452         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number
453         is quite small, but for patterns with very large  numbers  of  matching         is  quite  small,  but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
454         possibilities,  it can become large very quickly with increasing length         possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing  length
455         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how
456         much  stack  (or,  if  PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap)         much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with  NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)
457         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.
458    
459         When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower  than  the         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the
460         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
461         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.
462    
463         If the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX  wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
464         per  API  to  be  used, the only option-setting sequences that have any         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
465         effect are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL,  respectively,         effect  are  \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and
466         to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
467    
468         The  use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on
469         the use of the /8 modifier on the pattern.  It  is  recognized  always.         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.
470         There  may  be  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The         There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The
471         result is from one to six bytes,  encoded  according  to  the  original         result  is  from  one  to  six bytes, encoded according to the original
472         UTF-8  rules  of  RFC  2279.  This  allows for values in the range 0 to         UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This allows for  values  in  the  range  0  to
473         0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are valid Unicode  code  points,         0x7FFFFFFF.  Note  that not all of those are valid Unicode code points,
474         or  indeed  valid  UTF-8 characters according to the later rules in RFC         or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the later  rules  in  RFC
475         3629.         3629.
476    
477    
478  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
479    
480         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,
481         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
482         alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_test(),  which  operates  in  a         alternative  matching  function,  pcre_dfa_test(),  which operates in a
483         different  way,  and has some restrictions. The differences between the         different way, and has some restrictions. The differences  between  the
484         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
485    
486         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
487         contains  the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is called.         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is  called.
488         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
489         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the
490         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
491    
492    
493  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
494    
495         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,
496         pcre_exec(), is being used.         pcre_exec(), is being used.
497    
498         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
499         that pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for  the  string  that         that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that
500         matched  the  whole  pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No  match"  when  the
501         return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the par-         return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the par-
502         tially  matching substring when pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.         tially matching substring when pcre_exec() returns  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.
503         For any other returns, it outputs the PCRE negative error number.  Here         (Note  that  this is the entire substring that was inspected during the
504         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         partial match; it may include characters before the actual match  start
505           if  a  lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other
506           return, pcretest outputs the PCRE negative error  number  and  a  short
507           descriptive  phrase.  If  the error is a failed UTF-8 string check, the
508           byte offset of the start of the failing character and the  reason  code
509           are  also  output,  provided  that  the size of the output vector is at
510           least two. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.
511    
512           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
513           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006           PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
514    
515             re> /^abc(\d+)/             re> /^abc(\d+)/
516           data> abc123           data> abc123
# Line 433  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 519  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
519           data> xyz           data> xyz
520           No match           No match
521    
522         Note  that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are
523         is set are not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by  pcretest.         not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In the fol-
524         In  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when         lowing example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the  first
525         the first data line is matched, the  second,  unset  substring  is  not         data  line  is  matched,  the  second, unset substring is not shown. An
526         shown.  An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the         "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>",  as  for  the  second
527         second data line.         data line.
528    
529             re> /(a)|(b)/             re> /(a)|(b)/
530           data> a           data> a
# Line 449  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 535  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
535            1: <unset>            1: <unset>
536            2: b            2: b
537    
538         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         If  the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as
539         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on         \0x escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier  was  present  on
540         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.         the  pattern.  See below for the definition of non-printing characters.
541         If  the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is fol-         If the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is  fol-
542         lowed by the the rest of the subject string, identified  by  "0+"  like         lowed  by  the  the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
543         this:         this:
544    
545             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
# Line 461  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 547  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
547            0: cat            0: cat
548            0+ aract            0+ aract
549    
550         If  the  pattern  has  the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive         If the pattern has the /g or /G modifier,  the  results  of  successive
551         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
552    
553             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g
# Line 473  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 559  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
559            0: ipp            0: ipp
560            1: pp            1: pp
561    
562         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.         "No  match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an
563           example of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \>4  is
564           past the end of the subject string):
565    
566               re> /xyz/
567             data> xyz\>4
568             Error -24 (bad offset value)
569    
570         If any of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data  line  that         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that
571         is  successfully  matched,  the substrings extracted by the convenience         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience
572         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of
573         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length
574         (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given  in  paren-         (that  is,  the return from the extraction function) is given in paren-
575         theses after each string for \C and \G.         theses after each string for \C and \G.
576    
577         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain
578         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-
579         lines  can  be included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n,         lines can be included in data by means of the \n escape (or  \r,  \r\n,
580         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).
581    
582    
583  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
584    
585         When the alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(),  is  used  (by         When  the  alternative  matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(), is used (by
586         means  of  the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option), the         means of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line  option),  the
587         output consists of a list of all the matches that start  at  the  first         output  consists  of  a list of all the matches that start at the first
588         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
589    
590             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
# Line 501  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 593  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
593            1: tang            1: tang
594            2: tan            2: tan
595    
596         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)         (Using the normal matching function on this data  finds  only  "tang".)
597         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).         The  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).
598         After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-         After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
599         lowed by the partially matching substring.         lowed  by  the  partially  matching  substring.  (Note that this is the
600           entire substring that was inspected during the partial  match;  it  may
601           include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-
602           tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
603    
604         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
605         at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
# Line 571  CALLOUTS Line 666  CALLOUTS
666           +10 ^ ^           +10 ^ ^
667            0: E*            0: E*
668    
669         The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by         If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-
670         default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)         ever  a  change  of  latest mark is passed to the callout function. For
671         to change this.         example:
672    
673               re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
674             data> abc
675             --->abc
676              +0 ^       a
677              +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
678             +10 ^^      b
679             Latest Mark: X
680             +11 ^ ^     c
681             +12 ^  ^
682              0: abc
683    
684           The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the  same  for
685           the  rest  of  the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of
686           backtracking, the mark reverts to being unset, the  text  "<unset>"  is
687           output.
688    
689           The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by
690           default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)
691           to change this and other parameters of the callout.
692    
693         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-
694         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see
695         the pcrecallout documentation.         the pcrecallout documentation.
696    
697    
698  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
699    
700         When pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a  pattern,         When  pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
701         bytes  other  than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters         bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as  non-printing  characters
702         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.
703    
704         When pcretest is outputting text that is a matched part  of  a  subject         When  pcretest  is  outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
705         string,  it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been         string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has  been
706         set for the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this  case,  the         set  for  the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this case, the
707         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
708    
709    
710  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
711    
712         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the
713         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-         POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is being used, that is, when the /P pattern
714         ifier is specified.         modifier is specified.
715    
716         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
717         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a
718         file name.  For example:         file name.  For example:
719    
720           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
721    
722         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and
723         re-using compiled patterns.         re-using compiled patterns.
724    
725         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the
726         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the
727         optional study data, each written as four  bytes  in  big-endian  order         optional  study  data,  each  written as four bytes in big-endian order
728         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the
729         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
730         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the
731         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-
732         diately  after  the  compiled pattern. After writing the file, pcretest         diately after the compiled pattern. After writing  the  file,  pcretest
733         expects to read a new pattern.         expects to read a new pattern.
734    
735         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file         A  saved  pattern  can  be reloaded into pcretest by specifying < and a
736         name  instead  of  a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a <         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a
737         character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as  a  pattern         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
738         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
739    
740            re> </some/file            re> </some/file
741           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
742           No study data           No study data
743    
744         When  the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines         When the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines
745         in the usual way.         in the usual way.
746    
747         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload
748         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on
749         which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86         which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86
750         machine and run on a SPARC machine.         machine and run on a SPARC machine.
751    
752         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but         File names for saving and reloading can be absolute  or  relative,  but
753         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with         note  that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with
754         a tilde (~) is not available.         a tilde (~) is not available.
755    
756         The  ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for test-         The ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for  test-
757         ing and experimentation. It is not intended for production use  because         ing  and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because
758         only  a  single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is         only a single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore,  there  is
759         no facility for supplying  custom  character  tables  for  use  with  a         no  facility  for  supplying  custom  character  tables  for use with a
760         reloaded  pattern.  If  the  original  pattern was compiled with custom         reloaded pattern. If the original  pattern  was  compiled  with  custom
761         tables, an attempt to match a subject string using a  reloaded  pattern         tables,  an  attempt to match a subject string using a reloaded pattern
762         is  likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to load         is likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to  load
763         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
764    
765    
766  SEE ALSO  SEE ALSO
767    
768         pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3),  pcrematching(3),  pcrepartial(d),         pcre(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3), pcrematching(3), pcrepartial(d),
769         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
770    
771    
# Line 663  AUTHOR Line 778  AUTHOR
778    
779  REVISION  REVISION
780    
781         Last updated: 26 September 2009         Last updated: 01 August 2011
782         Copyright (c) 1997-2009 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.

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