/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
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revision 461 by ph10, Mon Oct 5 10:59:35 2009 UTC revision 878 by ph10, Sun Jan 15 15:44:47 2012 UTC
# Line 7  NAME Line 7  NAME
7    
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [options] [source] [destination]         pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]
11    
12         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
14         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;
15         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern
16         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17         options, see the pcreapi documentation.         options, see the  pcreapi  and  pcre16  documentation.  The  input  for
18           pcretest is a sequence of regular expression patterns and strings to be
19           matched, as described below. The output shows the result of each match.
20           Options  on  the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and
21           exactly what is output.
22    
23    
24    PCRE's 8-BIT and 16-BIT LIBRARIES
25    
26           From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The origi-
27           nal  one  supports  8-bit  character  strings, whereas the newer 16-bit
28           library  supports  character  strings  encoded  in  16-bit  units.  The
29           pcretest  program  can  be  used to test both libraries. However, it is
30           itself still an 8-bit program, reading 8-bit input  and  writing  8-bit
31           output.  When testing the 16-bit library, the patterns and data strings
32           are converted to 16-bit format before being passed to the PCRE  library
33           functions. Results are converted to 8-bit for output.
34    
35           References  to  functions  and structures of the form pcre[16]_xx below
36           mean "pcre_xx when using the 8-bit library or pcre16_xx when using  the
37           16-bit library".
38    
39    
40    COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
41    
42           -16       If  both  the 8-bit and the 16-bit libraries have been built,
43                     this option causes the 16-bit library to be used. If only the
44                     16-bit library has been built, this is the default (so has no
45                     effect). If only the  8-bit  library  has  been  built,  this
46                     option causes an error.
47    
48           -b        Behave  as  if each pattern has the /B (show byte code) modi-
49  OPTIONS                   fier; the internal form is output after compilation.
   
        -b        Behave as if each regex has the /B (show bytecode)  modifier;  
                  the internal form is output after compilation.  
50    
51         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
52                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are                   able   information  about  the  optional  features  that  are
53                   included, and then exit.                   included, and then exit. All other options are ignored.
54    
55           -C option Output information about a specific build-time  option,  then
56                     exit.  This functionality is intended for use in scripts such
57                     as RunTest. The following options output the value indicated:
58    
59                       linksize   the internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
60                       newline    the default newline setting:
61                                    CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
62    
63                     The following options output 1 for true or zero for false:
64    
65                       jit        just-in-time support is available
66                       pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
67                       pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
68                       ucp        Unicode property support is available
69                       utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 support is available
70    
71         -d        Behave  as  if  each  regex  has the /D (debug) modifier; the         -d        Behave as if each pattern has the /D  (debug)  modifier;  the
72                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is                   internal  form  and information about the compiled pattern is
73                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
74    
75         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;         -dfa      Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape  sequence;
76                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,
77                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard                   pcre[16]_dfa_exec(), to  be  used  instead  of  the  standard
78                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).                   pcre[16]_exec() function (more detail is given below).
79    
80         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
81    
82         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /I modifier; information
83                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
84    
85         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;         -M        Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape  sequence;
86                   this causes PCRE to  discover  the  minimum  MATCH_LIMIT  and                   this  causes  PCRE  to  discover  the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
87                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by calling pcre_exec() repeat-                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION  settings  by  calling  pcre[16]_exec()
88                   edly with different limits.                   repeatedly with different limits.
89    
90         -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been
91                   compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular
92                   expression.  For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions   of                   expression. The size is given in bytes for both libraries.
                  pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.  
93    
94         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used
95                   when calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize.  The                   when calling pcre[16]_exec()  or  pcre[16]_dfa_exec()  to  be
96                   default  value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subex-                   osize.  The  default value is 45, which is enough for 14 cap-
97                   pressions  for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches   for                   turing subexpressions for  pcre[16]_exec()  or  22  different
98                   pcre_dfa_exec().  The vector size can be changed for individ-                   matches  for  pcre[16]_dfa_exec().   The  vector  size can be
99                   ual matching calls by including \O  in  the  data  line  (see                   changed for individual matching calls by including \O in  the
100                   below).                   data line (see below).
101    
102         -p        Behave  as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX wrap-         -p        Behave  as  if  each  pattern  has the /P modifier; the POSIX
103                   per API is used to call PCRE. None of the other  options  has                   wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  other  options
104                   any effect when -p is set.                   has  any  effect when -p is set. This option can be used only
105                     with the 8-bit library.
106    
107         -q        Do  not output the version number of pcretest at the start of         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
108                   execution.                   execution.
109    
110         -S size   On Unix-like systems, set the size of the  runtime  stack  to         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems, set the size of the run-time stack to
111                   size megabytes.                   size megabytes.
112    
113         -t        Run  each  compile, study, and match many times with a timer,         -s or -s+ Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /S  modifier;  in  other
114                   and output resulting time per compile or match (in  millisec-                   words,  force each pattern to be studied. If -s+ is used, the
115                   onds).  Do  not set -m with -t, because you will then get the                   PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE flag is  passed  to  pcre[16]_study(),
116                   size output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be  dis-                   causing  just-in-time  optimization  to  be  set  up if it is
117                   torted.  You  can  control  the number of iterations that are                   available. If the /I or /D option is  present  on  a  pattern
118                   used for timing by following -t with a number (as a  separate                   (requesting  output  about the compiled pattern), information
119                     about the result of studying is not included when studying is
120                     caused  only  by  -s  and neither -i nor -d is present on the
121                     command line. This behaviour means that the output from tests
122                     that  are run with and without -s should be identical, except
123                     when options that output information about the actual running
124                     of a match are set.
125    
126                     The  -M,  -t,  and  -tm options, which give information about
127                     resources used, are likely to produce different  output  with
128                     and  without  -s.  Output may also differ if the /C option is
129                     present on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace
130                     the  the  matching process, and this may be different between
131                     studied and non-studied patterns.  If  the  pattern  contains
132                     (*MARK)  items  there  may  also be differences, for the same
133                     reason. The -s command line option can be overridden for spe-
134                     cific  patterns that should never be studied (see the /S pat-
135                     tern modifier below).
136    
137           -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,
138                     and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-
139                     onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the
140                     size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-
141                     torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are
142                     used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate
143                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
144                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
145    
# Line 83  OPTIONS Line 149  OPTIONS
149    
150  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
151    
152         If  pcretest  is  given two filename arguments, it reads from the first         If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first
153         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
154         reads  from  that  file  and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from         reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from
155         stdin and writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of  input,  using         stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using
156         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
157         lines.         lines.
158    
159         When pcretest is built, a configuration  option  can  specify  that  it         When  pcretest  is  built,  a  configuration option can specify that it
160         should  be  linked  with the libreadline library. When this is done, if         should be linked with the libreadline library. When this  is  done,  if
161         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
162         This  provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the         This provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from  the
163         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
164    
165         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
166         Each  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any num-         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-
167         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
168    
169         Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want  to         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to
170         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
171         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
172         to  encode  the  newline  sequences. There is no limit on the length of         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of
173         data lines; the input buffer is automatically extended  if  it  is  too         data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too
174         small.         small.
175    
176         An  empty  line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new
177         regular expression is read. The regular expressions are given  enclosed         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed
178         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
179    
180           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
181    
182         White  space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expres-         White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-
183         sion may be continued over several input lines, in which case the  new-         sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-
184         line  characters  are included within it. It is possible to include the         line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the
185         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
186    
187           /abc\/def/           /abc\/def/
188    
189         If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part  of  the  pattern,         If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,
190         but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect         but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect
191         its interpretation.  If the terminating delimiter is  immediately  fol-         its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-
192         lowed by a backslash, for example,         lowed by a backslash, for example,
193    
194           /abc/\           /abc/\
195    
196         then  a  backslash  is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to         then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to
197         provide a way of testing the error condition that arises if  a  pattern         provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern
198         finishes with a backslash, because         finishes with a backslash, because
199    
200           /abc\/           /abc\/
201    
202         is  interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/",         is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",
203         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
204         expression.         expression.
205    
206    
207  PATTERN MODIFIERS  PATTERN MODIFIERS
208    
209         A  pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly         A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly
210         single characters. Following Perl usage, these are  referred  to  below         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below
211         as,  for  example,  "the /i modifier", even though the delimiter of the         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the
212         pattern need not always be a slash, and no slash is used  when  writing         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing
213         modifiers.  Whitespace  may  appear between the final pattern delimiter         modifiers. White space may appear between the final  pattern  delimiter
214         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
215    
216         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
217         PCRE_DOTALL,  or  PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively, when pcre_com-         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when pcre[16]_com-
218         pile() is called. These four modifier letters have the same  effect  as         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as
219         they do in Perl. For example:         they do in Perl. For example:
220    
221           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
222    
223         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options         The following table shows additional modifiers for  setting  PCRE  com-
224         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
225    
226             /8              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
227             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
228    
229             /8              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
230             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
231    
232           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
233           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
# Line 164  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 236  PATTERN MODIFIERS
236           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
237           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
238           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
239             /W              PCRE_UCP
240           /X              PCRE_EXTRA           /X              PCRE_EXTRA
241             /Y              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
242           /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT           /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
243           /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR           /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
244           /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF           /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
# Line 174  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 248  PATTERN MODIFIERS
248           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
249           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
250    
251         Those specifying line ending sequences are literal  strings  as  shown,         The  modifiers  that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings
252         but  the  letters  can  be  in either case. This example sets multiline         as shown, including the angle brackets, but the letters within  can  be
253         matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:         in  either case.  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the
254           line ending sequence:
255           /^abc/m<crlf>  
256             /^abc/m<CRLF>
257    
258           As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16 option, the /8  modifier  causes
259           all  non-printing  characters in output strings to be printed using the
260           \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in  hex
261           without the curly brackets.
262    
263         Details of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the  pcreapi         Full  details  of  the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documenta-
264         documentation.         tion.
265    
266     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
267    
268         Searching  for  all  possible matches within each subject string can be         Searching for all possible matches within each subject  string  can  be
269         requested by the /g or /G modifier. After  finding  a  match,  PCRE  is         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is
270         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-
271         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument
272         to  pcre_exec()  to  start  searching  at a new point within the entire         to pcre[16]_exec() to start searching at a new point within the  entire
273         string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the  latter  passes         string  (which  is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes
274         over  a  shortened  substring.  This makes a difference to the matching         over a shortened substring. This makes a  difference  to  the  matching
275         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b
276         or \B).         or \B).
277    
278         If  any  call  to  pcre_exec()  in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty         If any call to pcre[16]_exec() in a /g or /G sequence matches an  empty
279         string, the next  call  is  done  with  the  PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART  and         string,  the  next  call  is  done  with  the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
280         PCRE_ANCHORED  flags  set  in  order  to search for another, non-empty,         PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order  to  search  for  another,  non-empty,
281         match at the same point. If this second match fails, the  start  offset         match  at  the same point. If this second match fails, the start offset
282         is  advanced  by  one  character, and the normal match is retried. This         is advanced, and the normal match is retried.  This  imitates  the  way
283         imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier  or         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-
284         the split() function.         tion. Normally, the start offset is advanced by one character,  but  if
285           the  newline  convention  recognizes CRLF as a newline, and the current
286           character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.
287    
288     Other modifiers     Other modifiers
289    
290         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.
291    
292         The  /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that
293         matched the entire pattern, pcretest  should  in  addition  output  the         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the
294         remainder  of  the  subject  string. This is useful for tests where the         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the
295         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the + modi-
296           fier appears twice, the same action is taken for  captured  substrings.
297         The /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest  out-         In  each case the remainder is output on the following line with a plus
298         put  a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Nor-         character following the capture number. Note that  this  modifier  must
299         mally this information contains length and offset values;  however,  if         not immediately follow the /S modifier because /S+ has another meaning.
300         /Z  is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special  
301         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same         The  /=  modifier  requests  that  the values of all potential captured
302           parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up  to  the
303           highest one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the
304           return code from pcre[16]_exec()). Values in the offsets vector  corre-
305           sponding to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as
306           "<unset>". This modifier gives a way of checking that this  is  happen-
307           ing.
308    
309           The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-
310           put a representation of the compiled code after  compilation.  Normally
311           this  information  contains length and offset values; however, if /Z is
312           also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special  fea-
313           ture  for  use  in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
314         output is generated for different internal link sizes.         output is generated for different internal link sizes.
315    
316         The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
317         example,         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
   
          /pattern/Lfr_FR  
318    
319         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,         The  /F  modifier  causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the 2-byte
320         pcre_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for the         and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
321         locale, and this is then passed to pcre_compile()  when  compiling  the         the  feature  in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were com-
322         regular  expression.  Without  an  /L  modifier,  NULL is passed as the         piled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not avail-
323         tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which  it         able  when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the
324         appears.         /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
325           reloading compiled patterns below.
326    
327         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the
328         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,
329         and  so  on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after compiling a         and so on). It does this by calling pcre[16]_fullinfo() after compiling
330         pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are  also  out-         a pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-
331         put.         put.
332    
333         The  /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to /BI,         The  /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking con-
334         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         trol verbs that are returned from calls to pcre[16]_exec().  It  causes
335           pcretest  to  create a pcre[16]_extra block if one has not already been
336           created by a call to pcre[16]_study(), and to set  the  PCRE_EXTRA_MARK
337           flag  and  the mark field within it, every time that pcre[16]_exec() is
338           called. If the variable that the mark field points to is non-NULL for a
339           match, non-match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which
340           it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged  with
341           "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
342    
343           The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
344           example,
345    
346             /pattern/Lfr_FR
347    
348           For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
349           pcre[16]_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for
350           the locale, and this is then passed to pcre[16]_compile() when  compil-
351           ing  the  regular  expression.  Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is
352           passed as the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to  the  expres-
353           sion on which it appears.
354    
355           The  /M  modifier  causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to
356           hold the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the  size
357           of the pcre[16] block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pat-
358           tern is successfully studied with  the  PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE  option,
359           the size of the JIT compiled code is also output.
360    
361           If  the  /S  modifier  appears  once,  it causes pcre[16]_study() to be
362           called after the expression has been compiled,  and  the  results  used
363           when  the  expression  is  matched.  If /S appears twice, it suppresses
364           studying, even if it was requested externally by the  -s  command  line
365           option.  This  makes  it  possible to specify that certain patterns are
366           always studied, and others are never studied, independently of -s. This
367           feature  is  used  in the test files in a few cases where the output is
368           different when the pattern is studied.
369    
370           If the /S modifier is immediately followed by a + character,  the  call
371           to  pcre[16]_study()  is  made  with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
372           requesting just-in-time optimization support if it is  available.  Note
373           that  there  is  also  a  /+ modifier; it must not be given immediately
374           after /S because this will be misinterpreted. If JIT studying  is  suc-
375           cessful,  it  will  automatically  be used when pcre[16]_exec() is run,
376           except when incompatible run-time options are specified. These  include
377           the  partial  matching options; a complete list is given in the pcrejit
378           documentation. See also the \J escape sequence below for a way of  set-
379           ting the size of the JIT stack.
380    
381           The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
382           cific set of built-in character tables to be  passed  to  pcre[16]_com-
383           pile().  It  is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with
384           different character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
385    
386             0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
387                   pcre_chartables.c.dist
388             1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
389    
390           In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
391           tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
392    
393       Using the POSIX wrapper API
394    
395           The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
396           rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library.  When
397           /P  is set, the following modifiers set options for the regcomp() func-
398           tion:
399    
400             /i    REG_ICASE
401             /m    REG_NEWLINE
402             /N    REG_NOSUB
403             /s    REG_DOTALL     )
404             /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
405             /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
406             /8    REG_UTF8       )
407    
408         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in         The /+ modifier works as  described  above.  All  other  modifiers  are
409         the  compiled  pattern  that  contain  2-byte  and 4-byte numbers. This         ignored.
        facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it  to  execute  
        patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This  
        feature is not available when the POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is  being  
        used,  that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the  
        section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.  
   
        The /S modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after  the  expression  
        has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
   
        The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-  
        piled pattern to be output.  
   
        The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API  
        rather  than  its  native  API.  When this is done, all other modifiers  
        except /i, /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i  is  present,  
        and  REG_NEWLINE  is  set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force  
        PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
   
        The /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8  option  
        set.  This  turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in PCRE, pro-  
        vided that it was compiled with this  support  enabled.  This  modifier  
        also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed  
        using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.  
   
        If the /? modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes  pcretest  to  call  
        pcre_compile()  with  the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to suppress the  
        checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  
410    
411    
412  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
413    
414         Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(),  leading  and  trailing         Before  each data line is passed to pcre[16]_exec(), leading and trail-
415         whitespace  is  removed,  and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of         ing white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes.  Some
416         these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out  some  of         of  these  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some
417         the  more  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordi-         of the more complicated features of  PCRE.  If  you  are  just  testing
418         nary" regular expressions, you probably don't need any  of  these.  The         "ordinary"  regular  expressions, you probably don't need any of these.
419         following escapes are recognized:         The following escapes are recognized:
420    
421           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
422           \b         backspace (\x08)           \b         backspace (\x08)
423           \e         escape (\x27)           \e         escape (\x27)
424           \f         formfeed (\x0c)           \f         form feed (\x0c)
425           \n         newline (\x0a)           \n         newline (\x0a)
426           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
427                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
428           \r         carriage return (\x0d)           \r         carriage return (\x0d)
429           \t         tab (\x09)           \t         tab (\x09)
430           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
431           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
432           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                        a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit mode
433           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
434                        in UTF-8 mode           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
435           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre[16]_exec()
436                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
437           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre[16]_exec()
438                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
439           \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd           \Cdd       call pcre[16]_copy_substring() for substring dd
440                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
441           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring           \Cname     call pcre[16]_copy_named_substring() for substring
442                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
443                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)
444           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout
# Line 312  DATA LINES Line 450  DATA LINES
450                        reached for the nth time                        reached for the nth time
451           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
452                        data; this is used as the callout return value                        data; this is used as the callout return value
453           \D         use the pcre_dfa_exec() match function           \D         use the pcre[16]_dfa_exec() match function
454           \F         only shortest match for pcre_dfa_exec()           \F         only shortest match for pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
455           \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd           \Gdd       call pcre[16]_get_substring() for substring dd
456                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
457           \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring           \Gname     call pcre[16]_get_named_substring() for substring
458                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
459                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
460           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a           \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
461                          number of digits)
462             \L         call pcre[16]_get_substringlist() after a
463                        successful match                        successful match
464           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
465                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
466           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre[16]_exec()
467                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
468                        PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option                        PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
469           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
470                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre[16]_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
471           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre[16]_exec()
472                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
473                        PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option                        PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
474           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
475                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
476           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
477           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
478           \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre_exec()           \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre[16]_exec()
479                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
480           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre[16]_exec()
481                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
482           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16]_CHECK option to
483                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()                        pcre[16]_exec() or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
484           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
485                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
486                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        argument for pcre[16]_exec() or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
487           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre[16]_exec()
488                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
489           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre[16]_exec()
490                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
491           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre[16]_exec()
492                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
493           \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre[16]_exec()
494                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
495           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre[16]_exec()
496                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
497    
498           The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the /8 modifier  on
499           the  pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexa-
500           decimal digits inside the braces; invalid  values  provoke  error  mes-
501           sages.
502    
503           Note  that  \xhh  specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8
504           mode; this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8  sequences  for
505           testing  purposes.  On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8
506           character in UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value  is
507           greater  than  127.   When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode,
508           \x{hh} generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error
509           for greater values.
510    
511         The  escapes  that  specify  line ending sequences are literal strings,         In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
512           possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
513    
514           The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
515         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
516         any data line.         any data line.
517    
518         A  backslash  followed by anything else just escapes the anything else.         A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  anything  else.
519         If the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives  a         If  the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a
520         way  of  passing  an empty line as data, since a real empty line termi-         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-
521         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
522    
523         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times,  with  dif-         The  \J escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
524         ferent  values  in  the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of         used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT  opti-
525         the pcre_extra data structure, until it finds the minimum  numbers  for         mization  is  not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the
526         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-         default 32K is necessary only for very complicated patterns.
527         ber is a measure of the amount of backtracking that  takes  place,  and  
528         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre[16]_exec()  several  times,  with
529         is quite small, but for patterns with very large  numbers  of  matching         different values in the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of
530         possibilities,  it can become large very quickly with increasing length         the pcre[16]_extra data structure, until it finds the  minimum  numbers
531         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how         for  each  parameter  that  allow  pcre[16]_exec()  to complete without
532         much  stack  (or,  if  PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap)         error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal  inter-
533         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.         pretive pcre[16]_exec() execution, the use of any JIT optimization that
534           might have been set up by the /S+ qualifier of -s+ option is disabled.
535    
536           The match_limit number is a measure of the amount of backtracking  that
537           takes  place,  and  checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
538           matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns  with  very  large
539           numbers  of  matching  possibilities,  it can become large very quickly
540           with increasing length of  subject  string.  The  match_limit_recursion
541           number  is  a  measure  of how much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with
542           NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory  is  needed  to  complete  the  match
543           attempt.
544    
545         When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower  than  the         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the
546         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
547         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.         only to the call of pcre[16]_exec() for the line in which it appears.
548    
549         If the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX  wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
550         per  API  to  be  used, the only option-setting sequences that have any         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
551         effect are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL,  respectively,         effect  are  \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and
552         to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
   
        The  use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on  
        the use of the /8 modifier on the pattern.  It  is  recognized  always.  
        There  may  be  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The  
        result is from one to six bytes,  encoded  according  to  the  original  
        UTF-8  rules  of  RFC  2279.  This  allows for values in the range 0 to  
        0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are valid Unicode  code  points,  
        or  indeed  valid  UTF-8 characters according to the later rules in RFC  
        3629.  
553    
554    
555  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
556    
557         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,
558         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an         pcre[16]_exec() to match each data line. PCRE also supports an alterna-
559         alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_test(),  which  operates  in  a         tive matching function, pcre[16]_dfa_test(), which operates in  a  dif-
560         different  way,  and has some restrictions. The differences between the         ferent  way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
561         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
562    
563         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line
564         contains  the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is called.         contains  the  -dfa  option, the alternative matching function is used.
565         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
566         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the
567         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
# Line 413  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION Line 570  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
570  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
571    
572         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,
573         pcre_exec(), is being used.         pcre[16]_exec(), is being used.
574    
575         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
576         that pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for  the  string  that         that pcre[16]_exec() returns, starting with number  0  for  the  string
577         matched  the  whole  pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the         that  matched  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when
578         return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the par-         the return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by  the
579         tially  matching substring when pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.         partially    matching    substring    when    pcre[16]_exec()   returns
580         For any other returns, it outputs the PCRE negative error number.  Here         PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is the entire  substring  that  was
581         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         inspected  during  the  partial match; it may include characters before
582           the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion, \K,  \b,  or  \B  was
583           involved.)  For  any  other  return, pcretest outputs the PCRE negative
584           error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is  a  failed
585           UTF  string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
586           the reason code are also output, provided that the size of  the  output
587           vector  is  at least two. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest
588           run.
589    
590           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
591           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006           PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
592    
593             re> /^abc(\d+)/             re> /^abc(\d+)/
594           data> abc123           data> abc123
# Line 433  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 597  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
597           data> xyz           data> xyz
598           No match           No match
599    
600         Note  that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are
601         is set are not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by  pcretest.         not  returned by pcre[16]_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In the
602         In  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when         following example, there are two capturing  substrings,  but  when  the
603         the first data line is matched, the  second,  unset  substring  is  not         first  data  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown.
604         shown.  An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the         An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the  second
605         second data line.         data line.
606    
607             re> /(a)|(b)/             re> /(a)|(b)/
608           data> a           data> a
# Line 449  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 613  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
613            1: <unset>            1: <unset>
614            2: b            2: b
615    
616         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         If  the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as
617         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on         \xhh escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF  mode  is  not  set.
618         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.         Otherwise they are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the defi-
619         If  the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is fol-         nition of non-printing characters. If the pattern has the /+  modifier,
620         lowed by the the rest of the subject string, identified  by  "0+"  like         the  output  for substring 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject
621         this:         string, identified by "0+" like this:
622    
623             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
624           data> cataract           data> cataract
625            0: cat            0: cat
626            0+ aract            0+ aract
627    
628         If  the  pattern  has  the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive         If the pattern has the /g or /G modifier,  the  results  of  successive
629         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
630    
631             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g
# Line 473  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 637  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
637            0: ipp            0: ipp
638            1: pp            1: pp
639    
640         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.         "No  match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an
641           example of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \>4  is
642           past the end of the subject string):
643    
644               re> /xyz/
645             data> xyz\>4
646             Error -24 (bad offset value)
647    
648         If any of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data  line  that         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that
649         is  successfully  matched,  the substrings extracted by the convenience         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience
650         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of
651         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length
652         (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given  in  paren-         (that  is,  the return from the extraction function) is given in paren-
653         theses after each string for \C and \G.         theses after each string for \C and \G.
654    
655         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain
656         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-
657         lines  can  be included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n,         lines can be included in data by means of the \n escape (or  \r,  \r\n,
658         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).
659    
660    
661  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
662    
663         When the alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(),  is  used  (by         When  the  alternative  matching function, pcre[16]_dfa_exec(), is used
664         means  of  the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option), the         (by means of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command  line  option),
665         output consists of a list of all the matches that start  at  the  first         the  output  consists  of  a  list of all the matches that start at the
666         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:         first point in the subject where there is at least one match. For exam-
667           ple:
668    
669             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
670           data> yellow tangerine\D           data> yellow tangerine\D
# Line 504  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 675  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
675         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)
676         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).
677         After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-         After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
678         lowed by the partially matching substring.         lowed by the partially matching  substring.  (Note  that  this  is  the
679           entire  substring  that  was inspected during the partial match; it may
680           include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-
681           tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
682    
683         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
684         at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
# Line 518  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 692  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
692            1: tan            1: tan
693            0: tan            0: tan
694    
695         Since  the  matching  function  does not support substring capture, the         Since the matching function does not  support  substring  capture,  the
696         escape sequences that are concerned with captured  substrings  are  not         escape  sequences  that  are concerned with captured substrings are not
697         relevant.         relevant.
698    
699    
700  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
701    
702         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL
703         return, indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern,  you         return,  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you
704         can  restart  the match with additional subject data by means of the \R         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R
705         escape sequence. For example:         escape sequence. For example:
706    
707             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
# Line 536  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH Line 710  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
710           data> n05\R\D           data> n05\R\D
711            0: n05            0: n05
712    
713         For further information about partial  matching,  see  the  pcrepartial         For  further  information  about  partial matching, see the pcrepartial
714         documentation.         documentation.
715    
716    
717  CALLOUTS  CALLOUTS
718    
719         If  the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout func-         If the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout  func-
720         tion is called during matching. This works  with  both  matching  func-         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-
721         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
722         start and current positions in the text at the callout  time,  and  the         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the
723         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output         next pattern item to be tested. For example:
724    
725           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
726             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
727    
728         indicates  that  callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting         This output indicates that  callout  number  0  occurred  for  a  match
729         at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was  at         attempt  starting  at  the fourth character of the subject string, when
730         the  seventh  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was         the pointer was at the seventh character of the data, and when the next
731         \d. Just one circumflex is output if the start  and  current  positions         pattern  item  was  \d.  Just one circumflex is output if the start and
732         are the same.         current positions are the same.
733    
734         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
735         a result of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead  of  showing         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing
736         the  callout  number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is         the callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a  plus,  is
737         output. For example:         output. For example:
738    
739             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C
# Line 571  CALLOUTS Line 745  CALLOUTS
745           +10 ^ ^           +10 ^ ^
746            0: E*            0: E*
747    
748           If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-
749           ever a change of latest mark is passed to  the  callout  function.  For
750           example:
751    
752               re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
753             data> abc
754             --->abc
755              +0 ^       a
756              +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
757             +10 ^^      b
758             Latest Mark: X
759             +11 ^ ^     c
760             +12 ^  ^
761              0: abc
762    
763           The  mark  changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for
764           the rest of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as  a  result  of
765           backtracking,  the  mark  reverts to being unset, the text "<unset>" is
766           output.
767    
768         The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by         The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by
769         default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)         default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)
770         to change this.         to change this and other parameters of the callout.
771    
772         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-
773         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
# Line 595  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS Line 789  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
789  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
790    
791         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the
792         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-         POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is,  when  the  /P  pattern
793         ifier is specified.         modifier is specified.
794    
795         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
796         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a
# Line 605  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 799  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
799           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
800    
801         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and
802         re-using compiled patterns.         re-using compiled patterns.  Note that if the pattern was  successfully
803           studied with JIT optimization, the JIT data cannot be saved.
804    
805         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the
806         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the
807         optional study data, each written as four  bytes  in  big-endian  order         optional  study  data,  each  written as four bytes in big-endian order
808         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the
809         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
810         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the
811         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-         compiled  pattern.  If  there is additional study data, this (excluding
812         diately  after  the  compiled pattern. After writing the file, pcretest         any JIT data) follows immediately after  the  compiled  pattern.  After
813         expects to read a new pattern.         writing the file, pcretest expects to read a new pattern.
814    
815         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file         A  saved  pattern  can  be reloaded into pcretest by specifying < and a
816         name  instead  of  a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a <         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a
817         character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as  a  pattern         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
818         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
819    
820            re> </some/file            re> </some/file
821           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
822           No study data           No study data
823    
824         When  the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines         If the pattern was previously studied with the  JIT  optimization,  the
825         in the usual way.         JIT  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the
826           pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines  in  the
827         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload         usual way.
828         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on  
829         which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload
830         machine and run on a SPARC machine.         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on
831           which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86
832           machine and run on a SPARC machine. When a pattern  is  reloaded  on  a
833           host with different endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
834    
835             Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
836    
837           The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
838           endianness. These are reloaded using "<!" instead  of  just  "<".  This
839           suppresses the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on
840           all hosts. It also forces debugging output once the  pattern  has  been
841           reloaded.
842    
843         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but
844         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with
# Line 650  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 856  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
856    
857  SEE ALSO  SEE ALSO
858    
859         pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3),  pcrematching(3),  pcrepartial(d),         pcre(3), pcre16(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3),  pcrejit,  pcrematch-
860         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).         ing(3), pcrepartial(d), pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
861    
862    
863  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
# Line 663  AUTHOR Line 869  AUTHOR
869    
870  REVISION  REVISION
871    
872         Last updated: 26 September 2009         Last updated: 14 January 2012
873         Copyright (c) 1997-2009 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.

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