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1  The pcretest program  PCRETEST(1)                                                        PCRETEST(1)
 --------------------  
2    
 This program is intended for testing PCRE, but it can also be used for  
 experimenting with regular expressions.  
3    
4  If it is given two filename arguments, it reads from the first and writes to  NAME
5  the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it reads from that file         pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.
 and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from stdin and writes to stdout, and  
 prompts for each line of input, using "re>" to prompt for regular expressions,  
 and "data>" to prompt for data lines.  
   
 The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file. Each  
 set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any number of data  
 lines to be matched against the pattern. An empty line signals the end of the  
 data lines, at which point a new regular expression is read. The regular  
 expressions are given enclosed in any non-alphameric delimiters other than  
 backslash, for example  
   
   /(a|bc)x+yz/  
   
 White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expression may  
 be continued over several input lines, in which case the newline characters are  
 included within it. See the test input files in the testdata directory for many  
 examples. It is possible to include the delimiter within the pattern by  
 escaping it, for example  
   
   /abc\/def/  
   
 If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern, but since  
 delimiters are always non-alphameric, this does not affect its interpretation.  
 If the terminating delimiter is immediately followed by a backslash, for  
 example,  
   
   /abc/\  
   
 then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to provide a  
 way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern finishes with a  
 backslash, because  
   
   /abc\/  
   
 is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/", causing  
 pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular expression.  
   
 The pattern may be followed by i, m, s, or x to set the PCRE_CASELESS,  
 PCRE_MULTILINE, PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively. For  
 example:  
   
   /caseless/i  
   
 These modifier letters have the same effect as they do in Perl. There are  
 others which set PCRE options that do not correspond to anything in Perl: /A,  
 /E, and /X set PCRE_ANCHORED, PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY, and PCRE_EXTRA respectively.  
   
 Searching for all possible matches within each subject string can be requested  
 by the /g or /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is called again to search  
 the remainder of the subject string. The difference between /g and /G is that  
 the former uses the startoffset argument to pcre_exec() to start searching at  
 a new point within the entire string (which is in effect what Perl does),  
 whereas the latter passes over a shortened substring. This makes a difference  
 to the matching process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion  
 (including \b or \B).  
   
 If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty string, the  
 next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order  
 to search for another, non-empty, match at the same point. If this second match  
 fails, the start offset is advanced by one, and the normal match is retried.  
 This imitates the way Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the  
 split() function.  
   
 There are a number of other modifiers for controlling the way pcretest  
 operates.  
   
 The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that matched  
 the entire pattern, pcretest should in addition output the remainder of the  
 subject string. This is useful for tests where the subject contains multiple  
 copies of the same substring.  
   
 The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for example,  
   
   /pattern/Lfr  
   
 For this reason, it must be the last modifier letter. The given locale is set,  
 pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for the locale,  
 and this is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the regular  
 expression. Without an /L modifier, NULL is passed as the tables pointer; that  
 is, /L applies only to the expression on which it appears.  
   
 The /I modifier requests that pcretest output information about the compiled  
 expression (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character, and so on). It  
 does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after compiling an expression, and  
 outputting the information it gets back. If the pattern is studied, the results  
 of that are also output.  
   
 The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I. It causes  
 the internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output after  
 compilation.  
   
 The /S modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression has been  
 compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
   
 The /M modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the compiled  
 pattern to be output.  
   
 Finally, the /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API  
 rather than its native API. When this is done, all other modifiers except /i,  
 /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i is present, and REG_NEWLINE is  
 set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always,  
 and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is set.  
   
 Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing whitespace  
 is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. The following are recognized:  
   
   \a     alarm (= BEL)  
   \b     backspace  
   \e     escape  
   \f     formfeed  
   \n     newline  
   \r     carriage return  
   \t     tab  
   \v     vertical tab  
   \nnn   octal character (up to 3 octal digits)  
   \xhh   hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)  
   
   \A     pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()  
   \B     pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()  
   \Cdd   call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \Gdd   call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd after a successful match  
            (any decimal number less than 32)  
   \L     call pcre_get_substringlist() after a successful match  
   \N     pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()  
   \Odd   set the size of the output vector passed to pcre_exec() to dd  
            (any number of decimal digits)  
   \Z     pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()  
   
 A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the anything else. If the  
 very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a way of passing  
 an empty line as data, since a real empty line terminates the data input.  
   
 If /P was present on the regex, causing the POSIX wrapper API to be used, only  
 \B, and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to  
 regexec() respectively.  
   
 When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings that  
 pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string that matched the  
 whole pattern. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.  
   
   $ pcretest  
   PCRE version 2.06 08-Jun-1999  
   
     re> /^abc(\d+)/  
   data> abc123  
    0: abc123  
    1: 123  
   data> xyz  
   No match  
   
 If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as \0x  
 escapes. If the pattern has the /+ modifier, then the output for substring 0 is  
 followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like this:  
   
     re> /cat/+  
   data> cataract  
    0: cat  
    0+ aract  
   
 If the pattern has the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive matching  
 attempts are output in sequence, like this:  
   
     re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g  
   data> Mississippi  
    0: iss  
    1: ss  
    0: iss  
    1: ss  
    0: ipp  
    1: pp  
   
 "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.  
   
 If any of \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that is successfully  
 matched, the substrings extracted by the convenience functions are output with  
 C, G, or L after the string number instead of a colon. This is in addition to  
 the normal full list. The string length (that is, the return from the  
 extraction function) is given in parentheses after each string for \C and \G.  
   
 Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain ">"  
 prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However newlines can be  
 included in data by means of the \n escape.  
   
 If the -p option is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /P to each  
 regular expression: the POSIX wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  
 following flags has any effect in this case.  
   
 If the option -d is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /D to each  
 regular expression: the internal form is output after compilation.  
   
 If the option -i is given to pcretest, it is equivalent to adding /I to each  
 regular expression: information about the compiled pattern is given after  
 compilation.  
   
 If the option -m is given to pcretest, it outputs the size of each compiled  
 pattern after it has been compiled. It is equivalent to adding /M to each  
 regular expression. For compatibility with earlier versions of pcretest, -s is  
 a synonym for -m.  
   
 If the -t option is given, each compile, study, and match is run 20000 times  
 while being timed, and the resulting time per compile or match is output in  
 milliseconds. Do not set -t with -s, because you will then get the size output  
 20000 times and the timing will be distorted. If you want to change the number  
 of repetitions used for timing, edit the definition of LOOPREPEAT at the top of  
 pcretest.c  
6    
7  Philip Hazel <ph10@cam.ac.uk>  
8  January 2000  SYNOPSIS
9    
10           pcretest [options] [source] [destination]
11    
12           pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13           library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
14           expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;
15           for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern
16           documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17           options, see the pcreapi documentation.
18    
19    
20    OPTIONS
21    
22           -b        Behave as if each regex has the /B (show bytecode)  modifier;
23                     the internal form is output after compilation.
24    
25           -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
26                     able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are
27                     included, and then exit.
28    
29           -d        Behave  as  if  each  regex  has the /D (debug) modifier; the
30                     internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is
31                     output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
32    
33           -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;
34                     this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,
35                     pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard
36                     pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).
37    
38           -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
39    
40           -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information
41                     about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
42    
43           -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been
44                     compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular
45                     expression.   For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions  of
46                     pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.
47    
48           -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used
49                     when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The
50                     default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  subex-
51                     pressions   for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches  for
52                     pcre_dfa_exec(). The vector size can be changed for  individ-
53                     ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see
54                     below).
55    
56           -p        Behave as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX  wrap-
57                     per  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options has
58                     any effect when -p is set.
59    
60           -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
61                     execution.
62    
63           -S size   On  Unix-like  systems,  set the size of the runtime stack to
64                     size megabytes.
65    
66           -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,
67                     and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-
68                     onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the
69                     size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-
70                     torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are
71                     used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate
72                     item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
73                     ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
74    
75           -tm       This is like -t except that it times only the matching phase,
76                     not the compile or study phases.
77    
78    
79    DESCRIPTION
80    
81           If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first
82           and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
83           reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from
84           stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using
85           "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
86           lines.
87    
88           The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
89           Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-
90           ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
91    
92           Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to
93           do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
94           \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
95           to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of
96           data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too
97           small.
98    
99           An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new
100           regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed
101           in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
102    
103             /(a|bc)x+yz/
104    
105           White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-
106           sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-
107           line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the
108           delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
109    
110             /abc\/def/
111    
112           If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,
113           but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect
114           its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-
115           lowed by a backslash, for example,
116    
117             /abc/\
118    
119           then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to
120           provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern
121           finishes with a backslash, because
122    
123             /abc\/
124    
125           is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",
126           causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
127           expression.
128    
129    
130    PATTERN MODIFIERS
131    
132           A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly
133           single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below
134           as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the
135           pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing
136           modifiers. Whitespace may appear between the  final  pattern  delimiter
137           and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
138    
139           The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
140           PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively,  when  pcre_com-
141           pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as
142           they do in Perl. For example:
143    
144             /caseless/i
145    
146           The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options
147           that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
148    
149             /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
150             /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
151             /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
152             /f              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
153             /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
154             /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
155             /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
156             /X              PCRE_EXTRA
157             /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
158             /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
159             /<crlf>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
160             /<anycrlf>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
161             /<any>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
162             /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
163             /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
164    
165           Those  specifying  line  ending sequences are literal strings as shown,
166           but the letters can be in either  case.  This  example  sets  multiline
167           matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
168    
169             /^abc/m<crlf>
170    
171           Details  of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the pcreapi
172           documentation.
173    
174       Finding all matches in a string
175    
176           Searching for all possible matches within each subject  string  can  be
177           requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is
178           called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-
179           ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument
180           to pcre_exec() to start searching at a  new  point  within  the  entire
181           string  (which  is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes
182           over a shortened substring. This makes a  difference  to  the  matching
183           process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b
184           or \B).
185    
186           If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an  empty
187           string,  the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED
188           flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the  same
189           point.   If  this  second  match fails, the start offset is advanced by
190           one, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way  Perl  han-
191           dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.
192    
193       Other modifiers
194    
195           There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.
196    
197           The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that
198           matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the
199           remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the
200           subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.
201    
202           The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-
203           put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.  Nor-
204           mally  this  information contains length and offset values; however, if
205           /Z is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special
206           feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
207           output is generated for different internal link sizes.
208    
209           The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for
210           example,
211    
212             /pattern/Lfr_FR
213    
214           For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
215           pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the
216           locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the
217           regular expression. Without an /L  modifier,  NULL  is  passed  as  the
218           tables  pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which it
219           appears.
220    
221           The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the
222           compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,
223           and so on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after  compiling  a
224           pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-
225           put.
226    
227           The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
228           that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
229    
230           The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in
231           the compiled pattern that  contain  2-byte  and  4-byte  numbers.  This
232           facility  is  for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute
233           patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This
234           feature  is  not  available  when  the POSIX interface to PCRE is being
235           used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the
236           section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.
237    
238           The  /S  modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression
239           has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.
240    
241           The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-
242           piled pattern to be output.
243    
244           The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API
245           rather  than  its  native  API.  When this is done, all other modifiers
246           except /i, /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i  is  present,
247           and  REG_NEWLINE  is  set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force
248           PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is  set.
249    
250           The  /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8 option
251           set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in  PCRE,  pro-
252           vided  that  it  was  compiled with this support enabled. This modifier
253           also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed
254           using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.
255    
256           If  the  /?  modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes pcretest to call
257           pcre_compile() with the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to  suppress  the
258           checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.
259    
260    
261    DATA LINES
262    
263           Before  each  data  line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing
264           whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.  Some  of
265           these  are  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of
266           the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordi-
267           nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The
268           following escapes are recognized:
269    
270             \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
271             \b         backspace (\x08)
272             \e         escape (\x27)
273             \f         formfeed (\x0c)
274             \n         newline (\x0a)
275             \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
276                          (any number of digits)
277             \r         carriage return (\x0d)
278             \t         tab (\x09)
279             \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
280             \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
281             \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)
282             \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
283                          in UTF-8 mode
284             \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()
285                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
286             \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()
287                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
288             \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd
289                          after a successful match (number less than 32)
290             \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring
291                          "name" after a successful match (name termin-
292                          ated by next non alphanumeric character)
293             \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout
294                          time
295             \C-        do not supply a callout function
296             \C!n       return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is
297                          reached
298             \C!n!m     return 1 instead of 0 when callout number n is
299                          reached for the nth time
300             \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
301                          data; this is used as the callout return value
302             \D         use the pcre_dfa_exec() match function
303             \F         only shortest match for pcre_dfa_exec()
304             \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd
305                          after a successful match (number less than 32)
306             \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring
307                          "name" after a successful match (name termin-
308                          ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
309             \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a
310                          successful match
311             \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
312                          MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
313             \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()
314                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
315             \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
316                          pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
317             \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()
318                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
319             \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
320                          (any number of digits)
321             \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()
322             \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
323             \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()
324                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
325             \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
326                          pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
327             \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);
328                          this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()
329                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
330             \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()
331                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
332             \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()
333                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
334             \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()
335                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
336             \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()
337                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
338             \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()
339                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
340    
341           The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
342           exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
343           any data line.
344    
345           A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  anything  else.
346           If  the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a
347           way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-
348           nates the data input.
349    
350           If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-
351           ferent values in the match_limit and  match_limit_recursion  fields  of
352           the  pcre_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers for
353           each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-
354           ber  is  a  measure of the amount of backtracking that takes place, and
355           checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number
356           is  quite  small,  but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
357           possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing  length
358           of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how
359           much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with  NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)
360           memory is needed to complete the match attempt.
361    
362           When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the
363           size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
364           only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.
365    
366           If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
367           per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
368           effect  are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
369           to be passed to regexec().
370    
371           The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on
372           the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.
373           There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The
374           result  is  from  one  to  six bytes, encoded according to the original
375           UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This allows for  values  in  the  range  0  to
376           0x7FFFFFFF.  Note  that not all of those are valid Unicode code points,
377           or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the later  rules  in  RFC
378           3629.
379    
380    
381    THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
382    
383           By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,
384           pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
385           alternative  matching  function,  pcre_dfa_test(),  which operates in a
386           different way, and has some restrictions. The differences  between  the
387           two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
388    
389           If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
390           contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is  called.
391           This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
392           the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the
393           first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
394    
395    
396    DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
397    
398           This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,
399           pcre_exec(), is being used.
400    
401           When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
402           that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that
403           matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial
404           match"  when  pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PAR-
405           TIAL, respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number.  Here
406           is an example of an interactive pcretest run.
407    
408             $ pcretest
409             PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
410    
411               re> /^abc(\d+)/
412             data> abc123
413              0: abc123
414              1: 123
415             data> xyz
416             No match
417    
418           Note  that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that
419           is set are not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by  pcretest.
420           In  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when
421           the first data line is matched, the  second,  unset  substring  is  not
422           shown.  An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the
423           second data line.
424    
425               re> /(a)|(b)/
426             data> a
427              0: a
428              1: a
429             data> b
430              0: b
431              1: <unset>
432              2: b
433    
434           If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as
435           \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on
436           the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.
437           If  the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is fol-
438           lowed by the the rest of the subject string, identified  by  "0+"  like
439           this:
440    
441               re> /cat/+
442             data> cataract
443              0: cat
444              0+ aract
445    
446           If  the  pattern  has  the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive
447           matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
448    
449               re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g
450             data> Mississippi
451              0: iss
452              1: ss
453              0: iss
454              1: ss
455              0: ipp
456              1: pp
457    
458           "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.
459    
460           If any of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data  line  that
461           is  successfully  matched,  the substrings extracted by the convenience
462           functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of
463           a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length
464           (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given  in  paren-
465           theses after each string for \C and \G.
466    
467           Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain
468           ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-
469           lines  can  be included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n,
470           etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).
471    
472    
473    OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
474    
475           When the alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(),  is  used  (by
476           means  of  the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option), the
477           output consists of a list of all the matches that start  at  the  first
478           point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
479    
480               re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
481             data> yellow tangerine\D
482              0: tangerine
483              1: tang
484              2: tan
485    
486           (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)
487           The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).
488    
489           If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
490           at the end of the longest match. For example:
491    
492               re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
493             data> yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
494              0: tangerine
495              1: tang
496              2: tan
497              0: tang
498              1: tan
499              0: tan
500    
501           Since the matching function does not  support  substring  capture,  the
502           escape  sequences  that  are concerned with captured substrings are not
503           relevant.
504    
505    
506    RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
507    
508           When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL
509           return,  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you
510           can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R
511           escape sequence. For example:
512    
513               re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
514             data> 23ja\P\D
515             Partial match: 23ja
516             data> n05\R\D
517              0: n05
518    
519           For  further  information  about  partial matching, see the pcrepartial
520           documentation.
521    
522    
523    CALLOUTS
524    
525           If the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout  func-
526           tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-
527           tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
528           start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the
529           next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output
530    
531             --->pqrabcdef
532               0    ^  ^     \d
533    
534           indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match  attempt  starting
535           at  the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at
536           the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern  item  was
537           \d.  Just  one  circumflex is output if the start and current positions
538           are the same.
539    
540           Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
541           a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing
542           the callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a  plus,  is
543           output. For example:
544    
545               re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C
546             data> E*
547             --->E*
548              +0 ^      \d?
549              +3 ^      [A-E]
550              +8 ^^     \*
551             +10 ^ ^
552              0: E*
553    
554           The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by
555           default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)
556           to change this.
557    
558           Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-
559           cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see
560           the pcrecallout documentation.
561    
562    
563    NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
564    
565           When  pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
566           bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as  non-printing  characters
567           are are therefore shown as hex escapes.
568    
569           When  pcretest  is  outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
570           string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has  been
571           set  for  the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this case, the
572           isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
573    
574    
575    SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
576    
577           The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the
578           POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-
579           ifier is specified.
580    
581           When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
582           a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a
583           file name.  For example:
584    
585             /pattern/im >/some/file
586    
587           See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and
588           re-using compiled patterns.
589    
590           The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the
591           length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the
592           optional study data, each written as four  bytes  in  big-endian  order
593           (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the
594           pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
595           ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the
596           compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-
597           diately  after  the  compiled pattern. After writing the file, pcretest
598           expects to read a new pattern.
599    
600           A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file
601           name  instead  of  a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a <
602           character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as  a  pattern
603           delimited by < characters.  For example:
604    
605              re> </some/file
606             Compiled regex loaded from /some/file
607             No study data
608    
609           When  the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines
610           in the usual way.
611    
612           You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload
613           it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on
614           which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86
615           machine and run on a SPARC machine.
616    
617           File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but
618           note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with
619           a tilde (~) is not available.
620    
621           The  ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for test-
622           ing and experimentation. It is not intended for production use  because
623           only  a  single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is
624           no facility for supplying  custom  character  tables  for  use  with  a
625           reloaded  pattern.  If  the  original  pattern was compiled with custom
626           tables, an attempt to match a subject string using a  reloaded  pattern
627           is  likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to load
628           a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
629    
630    
631    SEE ALSO
632    
633           pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3),  pcrematching(3),  pcrepartial(d),
634           pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
635    
636    
637    AUTHOR
638    
639           Philip Hazel
640           University Computing Service
641           Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
642    
643    
644    REVISION
645    
646           Last updated: 19 November 2007
647           Copyright (c) 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.

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