/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
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revision 123 by ph10, Mon Mar 12 15:19:06 2007 UTC revision 579 by ph10, Wed Nov 24 17:39:25 2010 UTC
# Line 40  OPTIONS Line 40  OPTIONS
40         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information
41                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
42    
43         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;
44                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular                   this causes PCRE to  discover  the  minimum  MATCH_LIMIT  and
45                   expression.   For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions  of                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by calling pcre_exec() repeat-
46                     edly with different limits.
47    
48           -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been
49                     compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular
50                     expression.  For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions   of
51                   pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.                   pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.
52    
53         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used
54                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The                   when calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize.  The
55                   default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  subex-                   default  value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subex-
56                   pressions   for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches  for                   pressions  for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches   for
57                   pcre_dfa_exec(). The vector size can be changed for  individ-                   pcre_dfa_exec().  The vector size can be changed for individ-
58                   ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see                   ual matching calls by including \O  in  the  data  line  (see
59                   below).                   below).
60    
61         -p        Behave as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX  wrap-         -p        Behave  as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX wrap-
62                   per  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options has                   per API is used to call PCRE. None of the other  options  has
63                   any effect when -p is set.                   any effect when -p is set.
64    
65         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of         -q        Do  not output the version number of pcretest at the start of
66                   execution.                   execution.
67    
68         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems,  set the size of the runtime stack to         -S size   On Unix-like systems, set the size of the  runtime  stack  to
69                   size megabytes.                   size megabytes.
70    
71         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,         -t        Run  each  compile, study, and match many times with a timer,
72                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-                   and output resulting time per compile or match (in  millisec-
73                   onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the                   onds).  Do  not set -m with -t, because you will then get the
74                   size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-                   size output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be  dis-
75                   torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are                   torted.  You  can  control  the number of iterations that are
76                   used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate                   used for timing by following -t with a number (as a  separate
77                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
78                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
79    
# Line 78  OPTIONS Line 83  OPTIONS
83    
84  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
85    
86         If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first         If  pcretest  is  given two filename arguments, it reads from the first
87         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
88         reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from         reads  from  that  file  and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from
89         stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using         stdin and writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of  input,  using
90         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
91         lines.         lines.
92    
93           When pcretest is built, a configuration  option  can  specify  that  it
94           should  be  linked  with the libreadline library. When this is done, if
95           the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
96           This  provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the
97           -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
98    
99         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
100         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-         Each  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any num-
101         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
102    
103         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to         Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want  to
104         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
105         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
106         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of         to  encode  the  newline  sequences. There is no limit on the length of
107         data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too         data lines; the input buffer is automatically extended  if  it  is  too
108         small.         small.
109    
110         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new         An  empty  line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new
111         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed         regular expression is read. The regular expressions are given  enclosed
112         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
113    
114           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
115    
116         White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-         White  space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expres-
117         sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-         sion may be continued over several input lines, in which case the  new-
118         line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the         line  characters  are included within it. It is possible to include the
119         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
120    
121           /abc\/def/           /abc\/def/
122    
123         If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,         If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part  of  the  pattern,
124         but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect         but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect
125         its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-         its interpretation.  If the terminating delimiter is  immediately  fol-
126         lowed by a backslash, for example,         lowed by a backslash, for example,
127    
128           /abc/\           /abc/\
129    
130         then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to         then  a  backslash  is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to
131         provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern         provide a way of testing the error condition that arises if  a  pattern
132         finishes with a backslash, because         finishes with a backslash, because
133    
134           /abc\/           /abc\/
135    
136         is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",         is  interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/",
137         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
138         expression.         expression.
139    
140    
141  PATTERN MODIFIERS  PATTERN MODIFIERS
142    
143         A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly         A  pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly
144         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below         single characters. Following Perl usage, these are  referred  to  below
145         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the         as,  for  example,  "the /i modifier", even though the delimiter of the
146         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing         pattern need not always be a slash, and no slash is used  when  writing
147         modifiers. Whitespace may appear between the  final  pattern  delimiter         modifiers.  Whitespace  may  appear between the final pattern delimiter
148         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
149    
150         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
151         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively,  when  pcre_com-         PCRE_DOTALL,  or  PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively, when pcre_com-
152         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as         pile() is called. These four modifier letters have the same  effect  as
153         they do in Perl. For example:         they do in Perl. For example:
154    
155           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
156    
157         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options         The  following  table  shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE com-
158         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
159    
160           /A       PCRE_ANCHORED           /8              PCRE_UTF8
161           /C       PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
162           /E       PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
163           /f       PCRE_FIRSTLINE           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
164           /J       PCRE_DUPNAMES           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
165           /N       PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE           /f              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
166           /U       PCRE_UNGREEDY           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
167           /X       PCRE_EXTRA           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
168           /<cr>    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
169           /<lf>    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF           /W              PCRE_UCP
170           /<crlf>  PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF           /X              PCRE_EXTRA
171           /<any>   PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY           /Y              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
172             /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
173         Those  specifying  line ending sequencess are literal strings as shown.           /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
174         This example sets multiline matching  with  CRLF  as  the  line  ending           /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
175         sequence:           /<crlf>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
176             /<anycrlf>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
177             /<any>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
178             /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
179             /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
180    
181           The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are  literal  strings
182           as  shown,  including  the  angle  brackets,  but the letters can be in
183           either case. This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line
184           ending sequence:
185    
186           /^abc/m<crlf>           /^abc/m<crlf>
187    
188         Details  of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the pcreapi         As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the /8 modifier also causes
189         documentation.         any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed  using  the
190           \x{hh...}  notation  if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full details of
191           the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documentation.
192    
193     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
194    
# Line 181  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 203  PATTERN MODIFIERS
203         or \B).         or \B).
204    
205         If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an  empty         If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an  empty
206         string,  the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED         string,  the  next  call  is  done  with  the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
207         flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the  same         PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order  to  search  for  another,  non-empty,
208         point.   If  this  second  match fails, the start offset is advanced by         match  at  the same point. If this second match fails, the start offset
209         one, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way  Perl  han-         is advanced, and the normal match is retried.  This  imitates  the  way
210         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-
211           tion. Normally, the start offset is advanced by one character,  but  if
212           the  newline  convention  recognizes CRLF as a newline, and the current
213           character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.
214    
215     Other modifiers     Other modifiers
216    
# Line 203  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 228  PATTERN MODIFIERS
228         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
229         output is generated for different internal link sizes.         output is generated for different internal link sizes.
230    
        The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for  
        example,  
   
          /pattern/Lfr_FR  
   
        For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  
        pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the  
        locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the  
        regular expression. Without an /L  modifier,  NULL  is  passed  as  the  
        tables  pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which it  
        appears.  
   
        The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the  
        compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,  
        and so on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after  compiling  a  
        pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-  
        put.  
   
231         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
232         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
233    
# Line 232  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 239  PATTERN MODIFIERS
239         used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the         used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the
240         section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.         section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.
241    
242         The  /S  modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the
243         has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,
244           and  so  on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after compiling a
245           pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are  also  out-
246           put.
247    
248           The  /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking con-
249           trol verbs that are returned  from  calls  to  pcre_exec().  It  causes
250           pcretest  to create a pcre_extra block if one has not already been cre-
251           ated by a call to pcre_study(), and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and
252           the mark field within it, every time that pcre_exec() is called. If the
253           variable that the mark field points to is non-NULL for  a  match,  non-
254           match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which it points.
255           For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".  For
256           a non-match it is added to the message.
257    
258           The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
259           example,
260    
261             /pattern/Lfr_FR
262    
263           For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
264           pcre_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for the
265           locale, and this is then passed to pcre_compile()  when  compiling  the
266           regular  expression.  Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is passed as
267           the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which
268           it appears.
269    
270         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-
271         piled pattern to be output.         piled pattern to be output.
272    
273         The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API         The /S modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after  the  expression
274         rather  than  its  native  API.  When this is done, all other modifiers         has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.
275         except /i, /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i  is  present,  
276         and  REG_NEWLINE  is  set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force         The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
277         PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is  set.         cific set of built-in character tables to be passed to  pcre_compile().
278           It is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different
279         The  /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8 option         character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
280         set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in  PCRE,  pro-  
281         vided  that  it  was  compiled with this support enabled. This modifier           0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
282         also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed                 pcre_chartables.c.dist
283         using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.           1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
284    
285         If  the  /?  modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes pcretest to call         In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
286         pcre_compile() with the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to  suppress  the         tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
287         checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  
288       Using the POSIX wrapper API
289    
290           The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
291           rather than its native API. When /P is set, the following modifiers set
292           options for the regcomp() function:
293    
294             /i    REG_ICASE
295             /m    REG_NEWLINE
296             /N    REG_NOSUB
297             /s    REG_DOTALL     )
298             /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
299             /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
300             /8    REG_UTF8       )
301    
302           The  /+  modifier  works  as  described  above. All other modifiers are
303           ignored.
304    
305    
306  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
307    
308         Before  each  data  line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing         Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(),  leading  and  trailing
309         whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.  Some  of         whitespace  is  removed,  and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of
310         these  are  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of         these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out  some  of
311         the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordi-         the  more  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordi-
312         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The         nary" regular expressions, you probably don't need any  of  these.  The
313         following escapes are recognized:         following escapes are recognized:
314    
315           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
# Line 275  DATA LINES Line 323  DATA LINES
323           \t         tab (\x09)           \t         tab (\x09)
324           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
325           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
326           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                        always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode
327             \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
328           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
329                        in UTF-8 mode                        in UTF-8 mode
330           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()
# Line 308  DATA LINES Line 357  DATA LINES
357           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
358                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
359           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()
360                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
361                          PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
362           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
363                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
364           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre_exec()
365                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
366                          PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
367           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
368                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
369           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()
370           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
371             \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre_exec()
372                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
373           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()
374                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
375           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
376                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
377           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
378                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
379                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        argument for pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
380           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()
381                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
382           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()
383                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
384           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()
385                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
386             \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()
387                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
388           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()
389                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
390    
391           Note  that  \xhh  always  specifies  one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this
392           makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing pur-
393           poses. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
394           UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater  than
395           127. When not in UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than
396           256, and causes an error for greater values.
397    
398         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
399         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
400         any data line.         any data line.
# Line 360  DATA LINES Line 422  DATA LINES
422    
423         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
424         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
425         effect  are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,         effect  are  \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and
426         to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
427    
428         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on
429         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.
430         There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The         There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The
431         result  is from one to six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.         result  is  from  one  to  six bytes, encoded according to the original
432           UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This allows for  values  in  the  range  0  to
433           0x7FFFFFFF.  Note  that not all of those are valid Unicode code points,
434           or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the later  rules  in  RFC
435           3629.
436    
437    
438  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
439    
440         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,
441         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
442         alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_test(),  which  operates  in  a         alternative  matching  function,  pcre_dfa_test(),  which operates in a
443         different  way,  and has some restrictions. The differences between the         different way, and has some restrictions. The differences  between  the
444         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
445    
446         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
447         contains  the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is called.         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is  called.
448         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
449         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the
450         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
451    
452    
453  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
454    
455         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,
456         pcre_exec(), is being used.         pcre_exec(), is being used.
457    
458         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
459         that pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for  the  string  that         that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that
460         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No  match"  when  the
461         match" when pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH  or  PCRE_ERROR_PAR-         return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the par-
462         TIAL,  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here         tially matching substring when pcre_exec() returns  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.
463         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         (Note  that  this is the entire substring that was inspected during the
464           partial match; it may include characters before the actual match  start
465           if  a  lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other
466           returns, it outputs the PCRE negative error number. Here is an  example
467           of an interactive pcretest run.
468    
469           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
470           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
# Line 406  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 476  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
476           data> xyz           data> xyz
477           No match           No match
478    
479           Note  that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that
480           is set are not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by  pcretest.
481           In  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when
482           the first data line is matched, the  second,  unset  substring  is  not
483           shown.  An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the
484           second data line.
485    
486               re> /(a)|(b)/
487             data> a
488              0: a
489              1: a
490             data> b
491              0: b
492              1: <unset>
493              2: b
494    
495         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as
496         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on
497         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.
# Line 460  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 546  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
546    
547         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)
548         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).
549           After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
550           lowed by the partially matching  substring.  (Note  that  this  is  the
551           entire  substring  that  was inspected during the partial match; it may
552           include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-
553           tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
554    
555         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
556         at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
# Line 485  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH Line 576  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
576         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R
577         escape sequence. For example:         escape sequence. For example:
578    
579             re> /^?(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)$/             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
580           data> 23ja\P\D           data> 23ja\P\D
581           Partial match: 23ja           Partial match: 23ja
582           data> n05\R\D           data> n05\R\D
# Line 549  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS Line 640  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
640    
641  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
642    
643         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the
644         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-
645         ifier is specified.         ifier is specified.
646    
647         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
648         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a
649         file name.  For example:         file name.  For example:
650    
651           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
652    
653         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and
654         re-using compiled patterns.         re-using compiled patterns.
655    
656         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the
657         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the
658         optional study data, each written as four  bytes  in  big-endian  order         optional  study  data,  each  written as four bytes in big-endian order
659         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the
660         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
661         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the
662         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-
663         diately  after  the  compiled pattern. After writing the file, pcretest         diately after the compiled pattern. After writing  the  file,  pcretest
664         expects to read a new pattern.         expects to read a new pattern.
665    
666         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file
667         name  instead  of  a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a <         name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not  contain  a  <
668         character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as  a  pattern         character,  as  otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
669         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
670    
671            re> </some/file            re> </some/file
672           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file
673           No study data           No study data
674    
675         When  the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines         When the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines
676         in the usual way.         in the usual way.
677    
678         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload
679         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on
680         which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86         which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86
681         machine and run on a SPARC machine.         machine and run on a SPARC machine.
682    
683         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but         File names for saving and reloading can be absolute  or  relative,  but
684         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with         note  that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with
685         a tilde (~) is not available.         a tilde (~) is not available.
686    
687         The  ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for test-         The ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for  test-
688         ing and experimentation. It is not intended for production use  because         ing  and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because
689         only  a  single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is         only a single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore,  there  is
690         no facility for supplying  custom  character  tables  for  use  with  a         no  facility  for  supplying  custom  character  tables  for use with a
691         reloaded  pattern.  If  the  original  pattern was compiled with custom         reloaded pattern. If the original  pattern  was  compiled  with  custom
692         tables, an attempt to match a subject string using a  reloaded  pattern         tables,  an  attempt to match a subject string using a reloaded pattern
693         is  likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to load         is likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to  load
694         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
695    
696    
697  SEE ALSO  SEE ALSO
698    
699         pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3),  pcrematching(3),  pcrepartial(d),         pcre(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3), pcrematching(3), pcrepartial(d),
700         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
701    
702    
# Line 618  AUTHOR Line 709  AUTHOR
709    
710  REVISION  REVISION
711    
712         Last updated: 06 March 2007         Last updated: 21 November 2010
713         Copyright (c) 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.

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