/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
ViewVC logotype

Diff of /code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

revision 579 by ph10, Wed Nov 24 17:39:25 2010 UTC revision 878 by ph10, Sun Jan 15 15:44:47 2012 UTC
# Line 7  NAME Line 7  NAME
7    
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [options] [source] [destination]         pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]
11    
12         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
14         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;
15         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern
16         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17         options, see the pcreapi documentation.         options, see the  pcreapi  and  pcre16  documentation.  The  input  for
18           pcretest is a sequence of regular expression patterns and strings to be
19           matched, as described below. The output shows the result of each match.
20           Options  on  the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and
21           exactly what is output.
22    
23    
24    PCRE's 8-BIT and 16-BIT LIBRARIES
25    
26           From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The origi-
27           nal  one  supports  8-bit  character  strings, whereas the newer 16-bit
28           library  supports  character  strings  encoded  in  16-bit  units.  The
29           pcretest  program  can  be  used to test both libraries. However, it is
30           itself still an 8-bit program, reading 8-bit input  and  writing  8-bit
31           output.  When testing the 16-bit library, the patterns and data strings
32           are converted to 16-bit format before being passed to the PCRE  library
33           functions. Results are converted to 8-bit for output.
34    
35           References  to  functions  and structures of the form pcre[16]_xx below
36           mean "pcre_xx when using the 8-bit library or pcre16_xx when using  the
37           16-bit library".
38    
39    
40    COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
41    
42           -16       If  both  the 8-bit and the 16-bit libraries have been built,
43                     this option causes the 16-bit library to be used. If only the
44                     16-bit library has been built, this is the default (so has no
45                     effect). If only the  8-bit  library  has  been  built,  this
46                     option causes an error.
47    
48           -b        Behave  as  if each pattern has the /B (show byte code) modi-
49  OPTIONS                   fier; the internal form is output after compilation.
   
        -b        Behave as if each regex has the /B (show bytecode)  modifier;  
                  the internal form is output after compilation.  
50    
51         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
52                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are                   able   information  about  the  optional  features  that  are
53                   included, and then exit.                   included, and then exit. All other options are ignored.
54    
55           -C option Output information about a specific build-time  option,  then
56                     exit.  This functionality is intended for use in scripts such
57                     as RunTest. The following options output the value indicated:
58    
59                       linksize   the internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
60                       newline    the default newline setting:
61                                    CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
62    
63                     The following options output 1 for true or zero for false:
64    
65                       jit        just-in-time support is available
66                       pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
67                       pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
68                       ucp        Unicode property support is available
69                       utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 support is available
70    
71         -d        Behave  as  if  each  regex  has the /D (debug) modifier; the         -d        Behave as if each pattern has the /D  (debug)  modifier;  the
72                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is                   internal  form  and information about the compiled pattern is
73                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
74    
75         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;         -dfa      Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape  sequence;
76                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,
77                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard                   pcre[16]_dfa_exec(), to  be  used  instead  of  the  standard
78                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).                   pcre[16]_exec() function (more detail is given below).
79    
80         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
81    
82         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /I modifier; information
83                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
84    
85         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;         -M        Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape  sequence;
86                   this causes PCRE to  discover  the  minimum  MATCH_LIMIT  and                   this  causes  PCRE  to  discover  the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
87                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by calling pcre_exec() repeat-                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION  settings  by  calling  pcre[16]_exec()
88                   edly with different limits.                   repeatedly with different limits.
89    
90         -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been
91                   compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular
92                   expression.  For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions   of                   expression. The size is given in bytes for both libraries.
                  pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.  
93    
94         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used
95                   when calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize.  The                   when calling pcre[16]_exec()  or  pcre[16]_dfa_exec()  to  be
96                   default  value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subex-                   osize.  The  default value is 45, which is enough for 14 cap-
97                   pressions  for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches   for                   turing subexpressions for  pcre[16]_exec()  or  22  different
98                   pcre_dfa_exec().  The vector size can be changed for individ-                   matches  for  pcre[16]_dfa_exec().   The  vector  size can be
99                   ual matching calls by including \O  in  the  data  line  (see                   changed for individual matching calls by including \O in  the
100                   below).                   data line (see below).
101    
102         -p        Behave  as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX wrap-         -p        Behave  as  if  each  pattern  has the /P modifier; the POSIX
103                   per API is used to call PCRE. None of the other  options  has                   wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  other  options
104                   any effect when -p is set.                   has  any  effect when -p is set. This option can be used only
105                     with the 8-bit library.
106    
107         -q        Do  not output the version number of pcretest at the start of         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
108                   execution.                   execution.
109    
110         -S size   On Unix-like systems, set the size of the  runtime  stack  to         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems, set the size of the run-time stack to
111                   size megabytes.                   size megabytes.
112    
113         -t        Run  each  compile, study, and match many times with a timer,         -s or -s+ Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /S  modifier;  in  other
114                   and output resulting time per compile or match (in  millisec-                   words,  force each pattern to be studied. If -s+ is used, the
115                   onds).  Do  not set -m with -t, because you will then get the                   PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE flag is  passed  to  pcre[16]_study(),
116                   size output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be  dis-                   causing  just-in-time  optimization  to  be  set  up if it is
117                   torted.  You  can  control  the number of iterations that are                   available. If the /I or /D option is  present  on  a  pattern
118                   used for timing by following -t with a number (as a  separate                   (requesting  output  about the compiled pattern), information
119                     about the result of studying is not included when studying is
120                     caused  only  by  -s  and neither -i nor -d is present on the
121                     command line. This behaviour means that the output from tests
122                     that  are run with and without -s should be identical, except
123                     when options that output information about the actual running
124                     of a match are set.
125    
126                     The  -M,  -t,  and  -tm options, which give information about
127                     resources used, are likely to produce different  output  with
128                     and  without  -s.  Output may also differ if the /C option is
129                     present on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace
130                     the  the  matching process, and this may be different between
131                     studied and non-studied patterns.  If  the  pattern  contains
132                     (*MARK)  items  there  may  also be differences, for the same
133                     reason. The -s command line option can be overridden for spe-
134                     cific  patterns that should never be studied (see the /S pat-
135                     tern modifier below).
136    
137           -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,
138                     and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-
139                     onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the
140                     size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-
141                     torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are
142                     used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate
143                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
144                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
145    
# Line 83  OPTIONS Line 149  OPTIONS
149    
150  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
151    
152         If  pcretest  is  given two filename arguments, it reads from the first         If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first
153         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
154         reads  from  that  file  and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from         reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from
155         stdin and writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of  input,  using         stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using
156         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
157         lines.         lines.
158    
159         When pcretest is built, a configuration  option  can  specify  that  it         When  pcretest  is  built,  a  configuration option can specify that it
160         should  be  linked  with the libreadline library. When this is done, if         should be linked with the libreadline library. When this  is  done,  if
161         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
162         This  provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the         This provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from  the
163         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
164    
165         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
166         Each  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any num-         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-
167         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
168    
169         Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want  to         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to
170         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
171         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
172         to  encode  the  newline  sequences. There is no limit on the length of         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of
173         data lines; the input buffer is automatically extended  if  it  is  too         data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too
174         small.         small.
175    
176         An  empty  line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new
177         regular expression is read. The regular expressions are given  enclosed         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed
178         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
179    
180           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
181    
182         White  space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expres-         White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-
183         sion may be continued over several input lines, in which case the  new-         sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-
184         line  characters  are included within it. It is possible to include the         line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the
185         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
186    
187           /abc\/def/           /abc\/def/
188    
189         If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part  of  the  pattern,         If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,
190         but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect         but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect
191         its interpretation.  If the terminating delimiter is  immediately  fol-         its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-
192         lowed by a backslash, for example,         lowed by a backslash, for example,
193    
194           /abc/\           /abc/\
195    
196         then  a  backslash  is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to         then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to
197         provide a way of testing the error condition that arises if  a  pattern         provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern
198         finishes with a backslash, because         finishes with a backslash, because
199    
200           /abc\/           /abc\/
201    
202         is  interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/",         is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",
203         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
204         expression.         expression.
205    
206    
207  PATTERN MODIFIERS  PATTERN MODIFIERS
208    
209         A  pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly         A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly
210         single characters. Following Perl usage, these are  referred  to  below         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below
211         as,  for  example,  "the /i modifier", even though the delimiter of the         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the
212         pattern need not always be a slash, and no slash is used  when  writing         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing
213         modifiers.  Whitespace  may  appear between the final pattern delimiter         modifiers. White space may appear between the final  pattern  delimiter
214         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
215    
216         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
217         PCRE_DOTALL,  or  PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively, when pcre_com-         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when pcre[16]_com-
218         pile() is called. These four modifier letters have the same  effect  as         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as
219         they do in Perl. For example:         they do in Perl. For example:
220    
221           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
222    
223         The  following  table  shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE com-         The following table shows additional modifiers for  setting  PCRE  com-
224         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
225    
226           /8              PCRE_UTF8           /8              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
227           /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK           /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
228    
229             /8              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
230             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
231    
232           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
233           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
234           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
# Line 178  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 248  PATTERN MODIFIERS
248           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF           /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
249           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
250    
251         The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are  literal  strings         The  modifiers  that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings
252         as  shown,  including  the  angle  brackets,  but the letters can be in         as shown, including the angle brackets, but the letters within  can  be
253         either case. This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line         in  either case.  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the
254         ending sequence:         line ending sequence:
255    
256           /^abc/m<crlf>           /^abc/m<CRLF>
257    
258         As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the /8 modifier also causes         As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16 option, the /8  modifier  causes
259         any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed  using  the         all  non-printing  characters in output strings to be printed using the
260         \x{hh...}  notation  if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full details of         \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in  hex
261         the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documentation.         without the curly brackets.
262    
263           Full  details  of  the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documenta-
264           tion.
265    
266     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
267    
# Line 196  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 269  PATTERN MODIFIERS
269         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is
270         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-
271         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument
272         to pcre_exec() to start searching at a  new  point  within  the  entire         to pcre[16]_exec() to start searching at a new point within the  entire
273         string  (which  is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes         string  (which  is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes
274         over a shortened substring. This makes a  difference  to  the  matching         over a shortened substring. This makes a  difference  to  the  matching
275         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b
276         or \B).         or \B).
277    
278         If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an  empty         If any call to pcre[16]_exec() in a /g or /G sequence matches an  empty
279         string,  the  next  call  is  done  with  the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and         string,  the  next  call  is  done  with  the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
280         PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order  to  search  for  another,  non-empty,         PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order  to  search  for  another,  non-empty,
281         match  at  the same point. If this second match fails, the start offset         match  at  the same point. If this second match fails, the start offset
# Line 219  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 292  PATTERN MODIFIERS
292         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that
293         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the
294         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the
295         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the + modi-
296           fier appears twice, the same action is taken for  captured  substrings.
297           In  each case the remainder is output on the following line with a plus
298           character following the capture number. Note that  this  modifier  must
299           not immediately follow the /S modifier because /S+ has another meaning.
300    
301           The  /=  modifier  requests  that  the values of all potential captured
302           parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up  to  the
303           highest one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the
304           return code from pcre[16]_exec()). Values in the offsets vector  corre-
305           sponding to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as
306           "<unset>". This modifier gives a way of checking that this  is  happen-
307           ing.
308    
309         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-
310         put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.  Nor-         put a representation of the compiled code after  compilation.  Normally
311         mally  this  information contains length and offset values; however, if         this  information  contains length and offset values; however, if /Z is
312         /Z is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special         also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special  fea-
313         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same         ture  for  use  in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
314         output is generated for different internal link sizes.         output is generated for different internal link sizes.
315    
316         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
317         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
318    
319         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in         The  /F  modifier  causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the 2-byte
320         the compiled pattern that  contain  2-byte  and  4-byte  numbers.  This         and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
321         facility  is  for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute         the  feature  in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were com-
322         patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This         piled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not avail-
323         feature  is  not  available  when  the POSIX interface to PCRE is being         able  when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the
324         used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the         /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
325         section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.         reloading compiled patterns below.
326    
327         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the
328         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,
329         and  so  on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after compiling a         and so on). It does this by calling pcre[16]_fullinfo() after compiling
330         pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are  also  out-         a pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-
331         put.         put.
332    
333         The  /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking con-         The  /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking con-
334         trol verbs that are returned  from  calls  to  pcre_exec().  It  causes         trol verbs that are returned from calls to pcre[16]_exec().  It  causes
335         pcretest  to create a pcre_extra block if one has not already been cre-         pcretest  to  create a pcre[16]_extra block if one has not already been
336         ated by a call to pcre_study(), and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and         created by a call to pcre[16]_study(), and to set  the  PCRE_EXTRA_MARK
337         the mark field within it, every time that pcre_exec() is called. If the         flag  and  the mark field within it, every time that pcre[16]_exec() is
338         variable that the mark field points to is non-NULL for  a  match,  non-         called. If the variable that the mark field points to is non-NULL for a
339         match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which it points.         match, non-match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which
340         For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".  For         it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged  with
341         a non-match it is added to the message.         "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
342    
343         The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for         The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
344         example,         example,
# Line 261  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 346  PATTERN MODIFIERS
346           /pattern/Lfr_FR           /pattern/Lfr_FR
347    
348         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
349         pcre_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for the         pcre[16]_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for
350         locale, and this is then passed to pcre_compile()  when  compiling  the         the locale, and this is then passed to pcre[16]_compile() when  compil-
351         regular  expression.  Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is passed as         ing  the  regular  expression.  Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is
352         the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which         passed as the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to  the  expres-
353         it appears.         sion on which it appears.
354    
355         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-         The  /M  modifier  causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to
356         piled pattern to be output.         hold the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the  size
357           of the pcre[16] block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pat-
358         The /S modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after  the  expression         tern is successfully studied with  the  PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE  option,
359         has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.         the size of the JIT compiled code is also output.
360    
361           If  the  /S  modifier  appears  once,  it causes pcre[16]_study() to be
362           called after the expression has been compiled,  and  the  results  used
363           when  the  expression  is  matched.  If /S appears twice, it suppresses
364           studying, even if it was requested externally by the  -s  command  line
365           option.  This  makes  it  possible to specify that certain patterns are
366           always studied, and others are never studied, independently of -s. This
367           feature  is  used  in the test files in a few cases where the output is
368           different when the pattern is studied.
369    
370           If the /S modifier is immediately followed by a + character,  the  call
371           to  pcre[16]_study()  is  made  with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
372           requesting just-in-time optimization support if it is  available.  Note
373           that  there  is  also  a  /+ modifier; it must not be given immediately
374           after /S because this will be misinterpreted. If JIT studying  is  suc-
375           cessful,  it  will  automatically  be used when pcre[16]_exec() is run,
376           except when incompatible run-time options are specified. These  include
377           the  partial  matching options; a complete list is given in the pcrejit
378           documentation. See also the \J escape sequence below for a way of  set-
379           ting the size of the JIT stack.
380    
381         The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-         The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
382         cific set of built-in character tables to be passed to  pcre_compile().         cific set of built-in character tables to be  passed  to  pcre[16]_com-
383         It is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different         pile().  It  is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with
384         character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:         different character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
385    
386           0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in           0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
387                 pcre_chartables.c.dist                 pcre_chartables.c.dist
# Line 288  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 393  PATTERN MODIFIERS
393     Using the POSIX wrapper API     Using the POSIX wrapper API
394    
395         The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API         The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
396         rather than its native API. When /P is set, the following modifiers set         rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library.  When
397         options for the regcomp() function:         /P  is set, the following modifiers set options for the regcomp() func-
398           tion:
399    
400           /i    REG_ICASE           /i    REG_ICASE
401           /m    REG_NEWLINE           /m    REG_NEWLINE
# Line 299  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 405  PATTERN MODIFIERS
405           /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard           /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
406           /8    REG_UTF8       )           /8    REG_UTF8       )
407    
408         The  /+  modifier  works  as  described  above. All other modifiers are         The /+ modifier works as  described  above.  All  other  modifiers  are
409         ignored.         ignored.
410    
411    
412  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
413    
414         Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(),  leading  and  trailing         Before  each data line is passed to pcre[16]_exec(), leading and trail-
415         whitespace  is  removed,  and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of         ing white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes.  Some
416         these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out  some  of         of  these  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some
417         the  more  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordi-         of the more complicated features of  PCRE.  If  you  are  just  testing
418         nary" regular expressions, you probably don't need any  of  these.  The         "ordinary"  regular  expressions, you probably don't need any of these.
419         following escapes are recognized:         The following escapes are recognized:
420    
421           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
422           \b         backspace (\x08)           \b         backspace (\x08)
423           \e         escape (\x27)           \e         escape (\x27)
424           \f         formfeed (\x0c)           \f         form feed (\x0c)
425           \n         newline (\x0a)           \n         newline (\x0a)
426           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
427                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
428           \r         carriage return (\x0d)           \r         carriage return (\x0d)
429           \t         tab (\x09)           \t         tab (\x09)
430           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
431           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
432                        always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode                        a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit mode
433           \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)           \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
434           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
435                        in UTF-8 mode           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre[16]_exec()
436           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
437                        or pcre_dfa_exec()           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre[16]_exec()
438           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
439                        or pcre_dfa_exec()           \Cdd       call pcre[16]_copy_substring() for substring dd
          \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd  
440                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
441           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring           \Cname     call pcre[16]_copy_named_substring() for substring
442                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
443                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)
444           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout
# Line 345  DATA LINES Line 450  DATA LINES
450                        reached for the nth time                        reached for the nth time
451           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
452                        data; this is used as the callout return value                        data; this is used as the callout return value
453           \D         use the pcre_dfa_exec() match function           \D         use the pcre[16]_dfa_exec() match function
454           \F         only shortest match for pcre_dfa_exec()           \F         only shortest match for pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
455           \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd           \Gdd       call pcre[16]_get_substring() for substring dd
456                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
457           \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring           \Gname     call pcre[16]_get_named_substring() for substring
458                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
459                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
460           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a           \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
461                          number of digits)
462             \L         call pcre[16]_get_substringlist() after a
463                        successful match                        successful match
464           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
465                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
466           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre[16]_exec()
467                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
468                        PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option                        PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
469           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
470                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre[16]_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
471           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre[16]_exec()
472                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
473                        PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option                        PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
474           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
475                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
476           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
477           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
478           \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre_exec()           \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre[16]_exec()
479                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
480           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre[16]_exec()
481                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
482           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16]_CHECK option to
483                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()                        pcre[16]_exec() or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
484           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
485                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
486                        argument for pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()                        argument for pcre[16]_exec() or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
487           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre[16]_exec()
488                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
489           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre[16]_exec()
490                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
491           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre[16]_exec()
492                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
493           \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre[16]_exec()
494                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
495           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre[16]_exec()
496                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
497    
498         Note  that  \xhh  always  specifies  one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this         The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the /8 modifier  on
499         makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing pur-         the  pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexa-
500         poses. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in         decimal digits inside the braces; invalid  values  provoke  error  mes-
501         UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater  than         sages.
502         127. When not in UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than  
503         256, and causes an error for greater values.         Note  that  \xhh  specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8
504           mode; this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8  sequences  for
505           testing  purposes.  On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8
506           character in UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value  is
507           greater  than  127.   When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode,
508           \x{hh} generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error
509           for greater values.
510    
511           In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
512           possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
513    
514         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
515         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
# Line 404  DATA LINES Line 520  DATA LINES
520         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-
521         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
522    
523         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-         The  \J escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
524         ferent values in the match_limit and  match_limit_recursion  fields  of         used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT  opti-
525         the  pcre_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers for         mization  is  not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the
526         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-         default 32K is necessary only for very complicated patterns.
527         ber  is  a  measure of the amount of backtracking that takes place, and  
528         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre[16]_exec()  several  times,  with
529         is  quite  small,  but for patterns with very large numbers of matching         different values in the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of
530         possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing  length         the pcre[16]_extra data structure, until it finds the  minimum  numbers
531         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how         for  each  parameter  that  allow  pcre[16]_exec()  to complete without
532         much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with  NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)         error. Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal  inter-
533         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.         pretive pcre[16]_exec() execution, the use of any JIT optimization that
534           might have been set up by the /S+ qualifier of -s+ option is disabled.
535    
536           The match_limit number is a measure of the amount of backtracking  that
537           takes  place,  and  checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
538           matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns  with  very  large
539           numbers  of  matching  possibilities,  it can become large very quickly
540           with increasing length of  subject  string.  The  match_limit_recursion
541           number  is  a  measure  of how much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with
542           NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory  is  needed  to  complete  the  match
543           attempt.
544    
545         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the
546         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
547         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.         only to the call of pcre[16]_exec() for the line in which it appears.
548    
549         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
550         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
551         effect  are  \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and         effect  are  \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and
552         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
553    
        The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on  
        the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.  
        There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The  
        result  is  from  one  to  six bytes, encoded according to the original  
        UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This allows for  values  in  the  range  0  to  
        0x7FFFFFFF.  Note  that not all of those are valid Unicode code points,  
        or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the later  rules  in  RFC  
        3629.  
   
554    
555  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
556    
557         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,
558         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an         pcre[16]_exec() to match each data line. PCRE also supports an alterna-
559         alternative  matching  function,  pcre_dfa_test(),  which operates in a         tive matching function, pcre[16]_dfa_test(), which operates in  a  dif-
560         different way, and has some restrictions. The differences  between  the         ferent  way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the two
561         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
562    
563         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line
564         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is  called.         contains  the  -dfa  option, the alternative matching function is used.
565         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
566         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the
567         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
568    
569    
570  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
571    
572         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,
573         pcre_exec(), is being used.         pcre[16]_exec(), is being used.
574    
575         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
576         that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that         that pcre[16]_exec() returns, starting with number  0  for  the  string
577         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No  match"  when  the         that  matched  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when
578         return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the par-         the return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by  the
579         tially matching substring when pcre_exec() returns  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.         partially    matching    substring    when    pcre[16]_exec()   returns
580         (Note  that  this is the entire substring that was inspected during the         PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is the entire  substring  that  was
581         partial match; it may include characters before the actual match  start         inspected  during  the  partial match; it may include characters before
582         if  a  lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other         the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion, \K,  \b,  or  \B  was
583         returns, it outputs the PCRE negative error number. Here is an  example         involved.)  For  any  other  return, pcretest outputs the PCRE negative
584         of an interactive pcretest run.         error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is  a  failed
585           UTF  string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
586           the reason code are also output, provided that the size of  the  output
587           vector  is  at least two. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest
588           run.
589    
590           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
591           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006           PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
592    
593             re> /^abc(\d+)/             re> /^abc(\d+)/
594           data> abc123           data> abc123
# Line 476  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 597  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
597           data> xyz           data> xyz
598           No match           No match
599    
600         Note  that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are
601         is set are not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by  pcretest.         not  returned by pcre[16]_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In the
602         In  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when         following example, there are two capturing  substrings,  but  when  the
603         the first data line is matched, the  second,  unset  substring  is  not         first  data  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown.
604         shown.  An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the         An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the  second
605         second data line.         data line.
606    
607             re> /(a)|(b)/             re> /(a)|(b)/
608           data> a           data> a
# Line 492  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 613  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
613            1: <unset>            1: <unset>
614            2: b            2: b
615    
616         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         If  the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as
617         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on         \xhh escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF  mode  is  not  set.
618         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.         Otherwise they are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the defi-
619         If  the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is fol-         nition of non-printing characters. If the pattern has the /+  modifier,
620         lowed by the the rest of the subject string, identified  by  "0+"  like         the  output  for substring 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject
621         this:         string, identified by "0+" like this:
622    
623             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
624           data> cataract           data> cataract
625            0: cat            0: cat
626            0+ aract            0+ aract
627    
628         If  the  pattern  has  the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive         If the pattern has the /g or /G modifier,  the  results  of  successive
629         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
630    
631             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g
# Line 516  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 637  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
637            0: ipp            0: ipp
638            1: pp            1: pp
639    
640         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.         "No  match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an
641           example of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \>4  is
642           past the end of the subject string):
643    
644               re> /xyz/
645             data> xyz\>4
646             Error -24 (bad offset value)
647    
648         If any of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data  line  that         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that
649         is  successfully  matched,  the substrings extracted by the convenience         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience
650         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of
651         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length
652         (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given  in  paren-         (that  is,  the return from the extraction function) is given in paren-
653         theses after each string for \C and \G.         theses after each string for \C and \G.
654    
655         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain
656         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-
657         lines  can  be included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n,         lines can be included in data by means of the \n escape (or  \r,  \r\n,
658         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).
659    
660    
661  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
662    
663         When the alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(),  is  used  (by         When  the  alternative  matching function, pcre[16]_dfa_exec(), is used
664         means  of  the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option), the         (by means of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command  line  option),
665         output consists of a list of all the matches that start  at  the  first         the  output  consists  of  a  list of all the matches that start at the
666         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:         first point in the subject where there is at least one match. For exam-
667           ple:
668    
669             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
670           data> yellow tangerine\D           data> yellow tangerine\D
# Line 592  CALLOUTS Line 720  CALLOUTS
720         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-
721         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
722         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the
723         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output         next pattern item to be tested. For example:
724    
725           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
726             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
727    
728         indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match  attempt  starting         This output indicates that  callout  number  0  occurred  for  a  match
729         at  the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at         attempt  starting  at  the fourth character of the subject string, when
730         the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern  item  was         the pointer was at the seventh character of the data, and when the next
731         \d.  Just  one  circumflex is output if the start and current positions         pattern  item  was  \d.  Just one circumflex is output if the start and
732         are the same.         current positions are the same.
733    
734         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
735         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing
# Line 617  CALLOUTS Line 745  CALLOUTS
745           +10 ^ ^           +10 ^ ^
746            0: E*            0: E*
747    
748         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by         If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-
749         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)         ever a change of latest mark is passed to  the  callout  function.  For
750         to change this.         example:
751    
752               re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
753             data> abc
754             --->abc
755              +0 ^       a
756              +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
757             +10 ^^      b
758             Latest Mark: X
759             +11 ^ ^     c
760             +12 ^  ^
761              0: abc
762    
763           The  mark  changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for
764           the rest of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as  a  result  of
765           backtracking,  the  mark  reverts to being unset, the text "<unset>" is
766           output.
767    
768           The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by
769           default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)
770           to change this and other parameters of the callout.
771    
772         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-
773         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
774         the pcrecallout documentation.         the pcrecallout documentation.
775    
776    
777  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
778    
779         When  pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,         When pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a  pattern,
780         bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as  non-printing  characters         bytes  other  than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters
781         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.
782    
783         When  pcretest  is  outputting text that is a matched part of a subject         When pcretest is outputting text that is a matched part  of  a  subject
784         string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has  been         string,  it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been
785         set  for  the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this case, the         set for the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this  case,  the
786         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
787    
788    
789  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
790    
791         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the
792         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-         POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is,  when  the  /P  pattern
793         ifier is specified.         modifier is specified.
794    
795         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
796         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a
797         file name.  For example:         file name.  For example:
798    
799           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
800    
801         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and
802         re-using compiled patterns.         re-using compiled patterns.  Note that if the pattern was  successfully
803           studied with JIT optimization, the JIT data cannot be saved.
804    
805         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the
806         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the
# Line 659  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 808  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
808         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the
809         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
810         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the
811         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-         compiled  pattern.  If  there is additional study data, this (excluding
812         diately after the compiled pattern. After writing  the  file,  pcretest         any JIT data) follows immediately after  the  compiled  pattern.  After
813         expects to read a new pattern.         writing the file, pcretest expects to read a new pattern.
814    
815         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file         A  saved  pattern  can  be reloaded into pcretest by specifying < and a
816         name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not  contain  a  <         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a
817         character,  as  otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
818         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
819    
820            re> </some/file            re> </some/file
821           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
822           No study data           No study data
823    
824         When the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines         If the pattern was previously studied with the  JIT  optimization,  the
825         in the usual way.         JIT  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the
826           pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines  in  the
827           usual way.
828    
829         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload
830         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on
831         which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86         which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86
832         machine and run on a SPARC machine.         machine and run on a SPARC machine. When a pattern  is  reloaded  on  a
833           host with different endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
834    
835             Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
836    
837           The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
838           endianness. These are reloaded using "<!" instead  of  just  "<".  This
839           suppresses the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on
840           all hosts. It also forces debugging output once the  pattern  has  been
841           reloaded.
842    
843         File names for saving and reloading can be absolute  or  relative,  but         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but
844         note  that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with
845         a tilde (~) is not available.         a tilde (~) is not available.
846    
847         The ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for  test-         The  ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for test-
848         ing  and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because         ing and experimentation. It is not intended for production use  because
849         only a single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore,  there  is         only  a  single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is
850         no  facility  for  supplying  custom  character  tables  for use with a         no facility for supplying  custom  character  tables  for  use  with  a
851         reloaded pattern. If the original  pattern  was  compiled  with  custom         reloaded  pattern.  If  the  original  pattern was compiled with custom
852         tables,  an  attempt to match a subject string using a reloaded pattern         tables, an attempt to match a subject string using a  reloaded  pattern
853         is likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to  load         is  likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to load
854         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
855    
856    
857  SEE ALSO  SEE ALSO
858    
859         pcre(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3), pcrematching(3), pcrepartial(d),         pcre(3), pcre16(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3),  pcrejit,  pcrematch-
860         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).         ing(3), pcrepartial(d), pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
861    
862    
863  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
# Line 709  AUTHOR Line 869  AUTHOR
869    
870  REVISION  REVISION
871    
872         Last updated: 21 November 2010         Last updated: 14 January 2012
873         Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.

Legend:
Removed from v.579  
changed lines
  Added in v.878

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.5