/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
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revision 77 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:40:45 2007 UTC revision 289 by ph10, Sun Dec 23 12:17:20 2007 UTC
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1  PCRETEST(1)                                                        PCRETEST(1)  PCRETEST(1)                                                        PCRETEST(1)
2    
3    
   
4  NAME  NAME
5         pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.         pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.
6    
7    
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [-C] [-d] [-dfa] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source]         pcretest [options] [source] [destination]
             [destination]  
11    
12         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
# Line 20  SYNOPSIS Line 19  SYNOPSIS
19    
20  OPTIONS  OPTIONS
21    
22           -b        Behave as if each regex has the /B (show bytecode)  modifier;
23                     the internal form is output after compilation.
24    
25         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
26                   able   information  about  the  optional  features  that  are                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are
27                   included, and then exit.                   included, and then exit.
28    
29         -d        Behave as if each regex has  the  /D  (debug)  modifier;  the         -d        Behave  as  if  each  regex  has the /D (debug) modifier; the
30                   internal form is output after compilation.                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is
31                     output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
32    
33         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;
34                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,
35                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard
36                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).
37    
38           -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
39    
40         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information
41                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
42    
# Line 41  OPTIONS Line 46  OPTIONS
46                   pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.                   pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.
47    
48         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used
49                   when  calling  pcre_exec()  to be osize. The default value is                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The
50                   45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vec-                   default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  subex-
51                   tor  size  can  be  changed  for individual matching calls by                   pressions   for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches  for
52                   including \O in the data line (see below).                   pcre_dfa_exec(). The vector size can be changed for  individ-
53                     ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see
54                     below).
55    
56         -p        Behave as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX  wrap-         -p        Behave as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX  wrap-
57                   per  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options has                   per  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options has
58                   any effect when -p is set.                   any effect when -p is set.
59    
60           -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
61                     execution.
62    
63           -S size   On  Unix-like  systems,  set the size of the runtime stack to
64                     size megabytes.
65    
66         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,
67                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-
68                   onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the                   onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the
69                   size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-                   size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-
70                   torted.                   torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are
71                     used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate
72                     item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
73                     ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
74    
75           -tm       This is like -t except that it times only the matching phase,
76                     not the compile or study phases.
77    
78    
79  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
# Line 66  DESCRIPTION Line 85  DESCRIPTION
85         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
86         lines.         lines.
87    
88           When  pcretest  is  built,  a  configuration option can specify that it
89           should be linked with the libreadline library. When this  is  done,  if
90           the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
91           This provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from  the
92           -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
93    
94         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
95         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-
96         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
97    
98         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to
99         do multiple-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence  in  a         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
100         single  line  of  input  to  encode the newline characters. The maximum         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
101         length of data line is 30,000 characters.         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of
102           data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too
103           small.
104    
105         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new
106         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed
107         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
108    
109           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
110    
# Line 125  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 152  PATTERN MODIFIERS
152         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options
153         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
154    
155           /A    PCRE_ANCHORED           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
156           /C    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
157           /E    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
158           /f    PCRE_FIRSTLINE           /f              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
159           /N    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
160           /U    PCRE_UNGREEDY           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
161           /X    PCRE_EXTRA           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
162             /X              PCRE_EXTRA
163             /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
164             /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
165             /<crlf>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
166             /<anycrlf>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
167             /<any>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
168             /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
169             /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
170    
171           Those  specifying  line  ending sequences are literal strings as shown,
172           but the letters can be in either  case.  This  example  sets  multiline
173           matching with CRLF as the line ending sequence:
174    
175             /^abc/m<crlf>
176    
177         Searching  for  all  possible matches within each subject string can be         Details  of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the pcreapi
178         requested by the /g or /G modifier. After  finding  a  match,  PCRE  is         documentation.
179    
180       Finding all matches in a string
181    
182           Searching for all possible matches within each subject  string  can  be
183           requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is
184         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-
185         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument
186         to  pcre_exec()  to  start  searching  at a new point within the entire         to pcre_exec() to start searching at a  new  point  within  the  entire
187         string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the  latter  passes         string  (which  is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes
188         over  a  shortened  substring.  This makes a difference to the matching         over a shortened substring. This makes a  difference  to  the  matching
189         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b
190         or \B).         or \B).
191    
192         If  any  call  to  pcre_exec()  in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty         If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an  empty
193         string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and  PCRE_ANCHORED         string,  the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED
194         flags  set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same         flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the  same
195         point.  If this second match fails, the start  offset  is  advanced  by         point.   If  this  second  match fails, the start offset is advanced by
196         one,  and  the normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl han-         one, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way  Perl  han-
197         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.
198    
199       Other modifiers
200    
201         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.
202    
203         The  /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that
204         matched the entire pattern, pcretest  should  in  addition  output  the         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the
205         remainder  of  the  subject  string. This is useful for tests where the         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the
206         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.
207    
208           The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-
209           put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.  Nor-
210           mally  this  information contains length and offset values; however, if
211           /Z is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special
212           feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
213           output is generated for different internal link sizes.
214    
215         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for
216         example,         example,
217    
# Line 175  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 230  PATTERN MODIFIERS
230         pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-         pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-
231         put.         put.
232    
233         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I.  It         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
234         causes  the  internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
        after compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned  
        is also output.  
235    
236         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in
237         the compiled pattern that  contain  2-byte  and  4-byte  numbers.  This         the compiled pattern that  contain  2-byte  and  4-byte  numbers.  This
# Line 220  DATA LINES Line 273  DATA LINES
273         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The
274         following escapes are recognized:         following escapes are recognized:
275    
276           \a         alarm (= BEL)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
277           \b         backspace           \b         backspace (\x08)
278           \e         escape           \e         escape (\x27)
279           \f         formfeed           \f         formfeed (\x0c)
280           \n         newline           \n         newline (\x0a)
281           \r         carriage return           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
282           \t         tab                        (any number of digits)
283           \v         vertical tab           \r         carriage return (\x0d)
284             \t         tab (\x09)
285             \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
286           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
287           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)
288           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
289                        in UTF-8 mode                        in UTF-8 mode
290           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()
291                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
292           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()
293                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
294           \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd           \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd
295                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
296           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring
# Line 257  DATA LINES Line 314  DATA LINES
314                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
315           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a
316                        successful match                        successful match
317           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
318                          MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
319           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()
320                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
321           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
322                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
323           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()
324                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
325             \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
326                          (any number of digits)
327           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()
328           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
329           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()
330                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
331           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
332                        pcre_exec()                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
333           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);
334                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()
335                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
336             \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()
337                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
338             \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()
339                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
340             \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()
341                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
342             \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()
343                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
344             \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()
345                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
346    
347           The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
348           exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
349           any data line.
350    
351         A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  anything  else.         A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  anything  else.
352         If  the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a         If  the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a
# Line 277  DATA LINES Line 354  DATA LINES
354         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
355    
356         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-
357         ferent values in the match_limit field of the  pcre_extra  data  struc-         ferent values in the match_limit and  match_limit_recursion  fields  of
358         ture,  until it finds the minimum number that is needed for pcre_exec()         the  pcre_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers for
359         to complete. This number is a measure of the amount  of  recursion  and         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-
360         backtracking  that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive.         ber  is  a  measure of the amount of backtracking that takes place, and
361         For most simple matches, the number is quite small,  but  for  patterns         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number
362         with  very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large         is  quite  small,  but for patterns with very large numbers of matching
363         very quickly with increasing length of subject string.         possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing  length
364           of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how
365           much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with  NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)
366           memory is needed to complete the match attempt.
367    
368         When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower  than  the         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the
369         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
370         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.
371    
372         If the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX  wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
373         per  API to be used, only \B and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
374         and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to regexec() respectively.         effect  are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,
375           to be passed to regexec().
376    
377         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on
378         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.
379         There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The         There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The
380         result  is from one to six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.         result  is  from  one  to  six bytes, encoded according to the original
381           UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This allows for  values  in  the  range  0  to
382           0x7FFFFFFF.  Note  that not all of those are valid Unicode code points,
383           or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the later  rules  in  RFC
384           3629.
385    
386    
387  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
388    
389         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,
390         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
391         alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_test(),  which  operates  in  a         alternative  matching  function,  pcre_dfa_test(),  which operates in a
392         different  way,  and has some restrictions. The differences between the         different way, and has some restrictions. The differences  between  the
393         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
394    
395         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
396         contains  the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is called.         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is  called.
397         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
398         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the
399         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
400    
401    
402  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
403    
404         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,
405         pcre_exec(), is being used.         pcre_exec(), is being used.
406    
407         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
408         that pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for  the  string  that         that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that
409         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial
410         match" when pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH  or  PCRE_ERROR_PAR-         match"  when  pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH or PCRE_ERROR_PAR-
411         TIAL,  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here         TIAL, respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number.  Here
412         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.
413    
414           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
415           PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006
416    
417             re> /^abc(\d+)/             re> /^abc(\d+)/
418           data> abc123           data> abc123
# Line 336  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 421  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
421           data> xyz           data> xyz
422           No match           No match
423    
424           Note  that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that
425           is set are not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by  pcretest.
426           In  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when
427           the first data line is matched, the  second,  unset  substring  is  not
428           shown.  An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the
429           second data line.
430    
431               re> /(a)|(b)/
432             data> a
433              0: a
434              1: a
435             data> b
436              0: b
437              1: <unset>
438              2: b
439    
440         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as
441         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on
442         the pattern. If the pattern has the /+ modifier, the  output  for  sub-         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.
443         string  0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified         If  the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is fol-
444         by "0+" like this:         lowed by the the rest of the subject string, identified  by  "0+"  like
445           this:
446    
447             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
448           data> cataract           data> cataract
449            0: cat            0: cat
450            0+ aract            0+ aract
451    
452         If the pattern has the /g or /G modifier,  the  results  of  successive         If  the  pattern  has  the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive
453         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
454    
455             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g
# Line 361  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 463  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
463    
464         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.
465    
466         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that         If any of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data  line  that
467         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience         is  successfully  matched,  the substrings extracted by the convenience
468         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of
469         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length
470         (that  is,  the return from the extraction function) is given in paren-         (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given  in  paren-
471         theses after each string for \C and \G.         theses after each string for \C and \G.
472    
473         Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines  (a  plain         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain
474         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-
475         lines can be included in data by means of the \n escape.         lines  can  be included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n,
476           etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).
477    
478    
479  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
# Line 389  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 492  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
492         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)
493         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).
494    
495         If  /gP  is  present  on  the  pattern,  the search for further matches         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
496         resumes at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
497    
498             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
499           data> yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D           data> yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
# Line 413  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH Line 516  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
516         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R
517         escape sequence. For example:         escape sequence. For example:
518    
519             re> /^?(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)$/             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
520           data> 23ja\P\D           data> 23ja\P\D
521           Partial match: 23ja           Partial match: 23ja
522           data> n05\R\D           data> n05\R\D
# Line 463  CALLOUTS Line 566  CALLOUTS
566         the pcrecallout documentation.         the pcrecallout documentation.
567    
568    
569    NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
570    
571           When  pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
572           bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as  non-printing  characters
573           are are therefore shown as hex escapes.
574    
575           When  pcretest  is  outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
576           string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has  been
577           set  for  the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this case, the
578           isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
579    
580    
581  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
582    
583         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the
# Line 519  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 634  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
634         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
635    
636    
637    SEE ALSO
638    
639           pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3),  pcrematching(3),  pcrepartial(d),
640           pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
641    
642    
643  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
644    
645         Philip Hazel         Philip Hazel
646         University Computing Service,         University Computing Service
647         Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.         Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
648    
649    
650    REVISION
651    
652  Last updated: 28 February 2005         Last updated: 18 December 2007
653  Copyright (c) 1997-2005 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2007 University of Cambridge.

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