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revision 77 by nigel, Sat Feb 24 21:40:45 2007 UTC revision 691 by ph10, Sun Sep 11 14:31:21 2011 UTC
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1  PCRETEST(1)                                                        PCRETEST(1)  PCRETEST(1)                                                        PCRETEST(1)
2    
3    
   
4  NAME  NAME
5         pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.         pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.
6    
7    
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [-C] [-d] [-dfa] [-i] [-m] [-o osize] [-p] [-t] [source]         pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]
             [destination]  
11    
12         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
14         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;
15         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern
16         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17         options, see the pcreapi documentation.         options, see the pcreapi documentation. The input  for  pcretest  is  a
18           sequence  of  regular expression patterns and strings to be matched, as
19           described below. The output shows the result of each match. Options  on
20           the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and exactly what
21           is output.
22    
23    
24  OPTIONS  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
25    
26           -b        Behave as if each pattern has the /B (show byte  code)  modi-
27                     fier; the internal form is output after compilation.
28    
29         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
30                   able   information  about  the  optional  features  that  are                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are
31                   included, and then exit.                   included, and then exit.
32    
33         -d        Behave as if each regex has  the  /D  (debug)  modifier;  the         -d        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /D (debug) modifier; the
34                   internal form is output after compilation.                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is
35                     output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
36    
37         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;
38                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,
39                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard
40                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).
41    
42         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
43    
44           -i        Behave as if each pattern has the  /I  modifier;  information
45                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
46    
47         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;
48                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular                   this causes PCRE to  discover  the  minimum  MATCH_LIMIT  and
49                   expression.   For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions  of                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by calling pcre_exec() repeat-
50                   pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.                   edly with different limits.
51    
52           -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been
53                     compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular
54                     expression.
55    
56         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used
57                   when  calling  pcre_exec()  to be osize. The default value is                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The
58                   45, which is enough for 14 capturing subexpressions. The vec-                   default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  subex-
59                   tor  size  can  be  changed  for individual matching calls by                   pressions   for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches  for
60                   including \O in the data line (see below).                   pcre_dfa_exec(). The vector size can be changed for  individ-
61                     ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see
62         -p        Behave as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX  wrap-                   below).
63                   per  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options has  
64                   any effect when -p is set.         -p        Behave as if each pattern has  the  /P  modifier;  the  POSIX
65                     wrapper  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options
66                     has any effect when -p is set.
67    
68           -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
69                     execution.
70    
71           -S size   On  Unix-like  systems, set the size of the run-time stack to
72                     size megabytes.
73    
74           -s or -s+ Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /S  modifier;  in  other
75                     words,  force each pattern to be studied. If -s+ is used, the
76                     PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE flag is passed to pcre_study(),  caus-
77                     ing  just-in-time  optimization  to be set up if it is avail-
78                     able. If the  /I  or  /D  option  is  present  on  a  pattern
79                     (requesting  output  about the compiled pattern), information
80                     about the result of studying is not included when studying is
81                     caused  only  by  -s  and neither -i nor -d is present on the
82                     command line. This behaviour means that the output from tests
83                     that  are run with and without -s should be identical, except
84                     when options that output information about the actual running
85                     of  a  match are set. The -M, -t, and -tm options, which give
86                     information about resources used, are likely to produce  dif-
87                     ferent  output with and without -s. Output may also differ if
88                     the /C option is present on an individual pattern. This  uses
89                     callouts  to  trace the the matching process, and this may be
90                     different between studied and non-studied  patterns.  If  the
91                     pattern contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences,
92                     for the same reason. The -s command line option can be  over-
93                     ridden  for  specific  patterns  that should never be studied
94                     (see the /S pattern modifier below).
95    
96         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,
97                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-
98                   onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the                   onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the
99                   size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-                   size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-
100                   torted.                   torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are
101                     used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate
102                     item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
103                     ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
104    
105           -tm       This is like -t except that it times only the matching phase,
106                     not the compile or study phases.
107    
108    
109  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
# Line 66  DESCRIPTION Line 115  DESCRIPTION
115         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
116         lines.         lines.
117    
118           When  pcretest  is  built,  a  configuration option can specify that it
119           should be linked with the libreadline library. When this  is  done,  if
120           the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
121           This provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from  the
122           -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
123    
124         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
125         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-
126         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
127    
128         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to
129         do multiple-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence  in  a         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
130         single  line  of  input  to  encode the newline characters. The maximum         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
131         length of data line is 30,000 characters.         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of
132           data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too
133           small.
134    
135         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new
136         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed
137         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
138    
139           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
140    
# Line 112  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 169  PATTERN MODIFIERS
169         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below
170         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the
171         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing
172         modifiers. Whitespace may appear between the  final  pattern  delimiter         modifiers. White space may appear between the final  pattern  delimiter
173         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
174    
175         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
# Line 122  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 179  PATTERN MODIFIERS
179    
180           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
181    
182         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options         The following table shows additional modifiers for  setting  PCRE  com-
183         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
184    
185             /8              PCRE_UTF8
186             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
187             /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
188             /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
189             /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
190             /f              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
191             /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
192             /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
193             /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
194             /W              PCRE_UCP
195             /X              PCRE_EXTRA
196             /Y              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
197             /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
198             /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
199             /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
200             /<crlf>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
201             /<anycrlf>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
202             /<any>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
203             /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
204             /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
205    
206           The  modifiers  that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings
207           as shown, including the angle brackets, but the letters within  can  be
208           in  either case.  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the
209           line ending sequence:
210    
211             /^abc/m<CRLF>
212    
213           As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the /8 modifier also causes
214           any  non-printing  characters in output strings to be printed using the
215           \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full  details  of
216           the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documentation.
217    
218           /A    PCRE_ANCHORED     Finding all matches in a string
          /C    PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT  
          /E    PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY  
          /f    PCRE_FIRSTLINE  
          /N    PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE  
          /U    PCRE_UNGREEDY  
          /X    PCRE_EXTRA  
219    
220         Searching  for  all  possible matches within each subject string can be         Searching  for  all  possible matches within each subject string can be
221         requested by the /g or /G modifier. After  finding  a  match,  PCRE  is         requested by the /g or /G modifier. After  finding  a  match,  PCRE  is
# Line 144  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 228  PATTERN MODIFIERS
228         or \B).         or \B).
229    
230         If  any  call  to  pcre_exec()  in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty         If  any  call  to  pcre_exec()  in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty
231         string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and  PCRE_ANCHORED         string, the next  call  is  done  with  the  PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART  and
232         flags  set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the same         PCRE_ANCHORED  flags  set  in  order  to search for another, non-empty,
233         point.  If this second match fails, the start  offset  is  advanced  by         match at the same point. If this second match fails, the  start  offset
234         one,  and  the normal match is retried. This imitates the way Perl han-         is  advanced,  and  the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way
235         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-
236           tion.  Normally,  the start offset is advanced by one character, but if
237           the newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline,  and  the  current
238           character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.
239    
240       Other modifiers
241    
242         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.
243    
244         The  /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that         The  /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
245         matched the entire pattern, pcretest  should  in  addition  output  the         matched the entire pattern, pcretest  should  in  addition  output  the
246         remainder  of  the  subject  string. This is useful for tests where the         remainder  of  the  subject  string. This is useful for tests where the
247         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the +  modi-
248           fier  appears  twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings.
249         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for         In each case the remainder is output on the following line with a  plus
250         example,         character  following  the  capture number. Note that this modifier must
251           not immediately follow the /S modifier because /S+ has another meaning.
252    
253           The /= modifier requests that the  values  of  all  potential  captured
254           parentheses  be  output  after a match by pcre_exec(). By default, only
255           those up to the highest one actually used in the match are output (cor-
256           responding  to the return code from pcre_exec()). Values in the offsets
257           vector corresponding to higher numbers should be set to -1,  and  these
258           are  output  as  "<unset>".  This modifier gives a way of checking that
259           this is happening.
260    
261           The /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest  out-
262           put  a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Nor-
263           mally this information contains length and offset values;  however,  if
264           /Z  is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special
265           feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
266           output is generated for different internal link sizes.
267    
268           /pattern/Lfr_FR         The  /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to /BI,
269           that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
270    
271         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in
272         pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the         the  compiled  pattern  that  contain  2-byte  and 4-byte numbers. This
273         locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the         facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it  to  execute
274         regular expression. Without an /L  modifier,  NULL  is  passed  as  the         patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This
275         tables  pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which it         feature is not available when the POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is  being
276         appears.         used,  that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the
277           section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.
278    
279         The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the         The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the
280         compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,         compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,
# Line 175  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 282  PATTERN MODIFIERS
282         pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-         pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-
283         put.         put.
284    
285         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, which also assumes /I.  It         The /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking  con-
286         causes  the  internal form of compiled regular expressions to be output         trol  verbs  that  are  returned  from  calls to pcre_exec(). It causes
287         after compilation. If the pattern was studied, the information returned         pcretest to create a pcre_extra block if one has not already been  cre-
288         is also output.         ated by a call to pcre_study(), and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and
289           the mark field within it, every time that pcre_exec() is called. If the
290           variable  that  the  mark field points to is non-NULL for a match, non-
291           match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which it points.
292           For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".  For
293           a non-match it is added to the message.
294    
295         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for
296         the compiled pattern that  contain  2-byte  and  4-byte  numbers.  This         example,
        facility  is  for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute  
        patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This  
        feature  is  not  available  when  the POSIX interface to PCRE is being  
        used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the  
        section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.  
297    
298         The  /S  modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression           /pattern/Lfr_FR
        has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.  
299    
300         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
301           pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the
302           locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the
303           regular expression. Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is  passed  as
304           the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which
305           it appears.
306    
307           The /M modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold  the  com-
308         piled pattern to be output.         piled pattern to be output.
309    
310         The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API         If  the  /S  modifier appears once, it causes pcre_study() to be called
311         rather  than  its  native  API.  When this is done, all other modifiers         after the expression has been compiled, and the results used  when  the
312         except /i, /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i  is  present,         expression  is  matched.  If  /S appears twice, it suppresses studying,
313         and  REG_NEWLINE  is  set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force         even if it was requested externally by the -s command line option. This
314         PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is  set.         makes  it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied,
315           and others are never studied, independently of -s. This feature is used
316         The  /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8 option         in the test files in a few cases where the output is different when the
317         set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in  PCRE,  pro-         pattern is studied.
318         vided  that  it  was  compiled with this support enabled. This modifier  
319         also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed         If the /S modifier is immediately followed by a + character,  the  call
320         using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.         to   pcre_study()  is  made  with  the  PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE  option,
321           requesting just-in-time optimization support if it is  available.  Note
322         If  the  /?  modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes pcretest to call         that  there  is  also  a  /+ modifier; it must not be given immediately
323         pcre_compile() with the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to  suppress  the         after /S because this will be misinterpreted. If JIT studying  is  suc-
324         checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.         cessful,  it will automatically be used when pcre_exec() is run, except
325           when incompatible run-time options are  specified.  These  include  the
326           partial matching options; a complete list is given in the pcrejit docu-
327           mentation. See also the \J escape sequence below for a way  of  setting
328           the size of the JIT stack.
329    
330           The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
331           cific set of built-in character tables to be passed to  pcre_compile().
332           It is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different
333           character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
334    
335             0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
336                   pcre_chartables.c.dist
337             1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
338    
339           In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
340           tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
341    
342       Using the POSIX wrapper API
343    
344           The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
345           rather than its native API. When /P is set, the following modifiers set
346           options for the regcomp() function:
347    
348             /i    REG_ICASE
349             /m    REG_NEWLINE
350             /N    REG_NOSUB
351             /s    REG_DOTALL     )
352             /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
353             /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
354             /8    REG_UTF8       )
355    
356           The  /+  modifier  works  as  described  above. All other modifiers are
357           ignored.
358    
359    
360  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
361    
362         Before  each  data  line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing         Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(),  leading  and  trailing
363         whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.  Some  of         white  space  is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of
364         these  are  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of         these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out  some  of
365         the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordi-         the  more  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordi-
366         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The         nary" regular expressions, you probably don't need any  of  these.  The
367         following escapes are recognized:         following escapes are recognized:
368    
369           \a         alarm (= BEL)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
370           \b         backspace           \b         backspace (\x08)
371           \e         escape           \e         escape (\x27)
372           \f         formfeed           \f         form feed (\x0c)
373           \n         newline           \n         newline (\x0a)
374           \r         carriage return           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
375           \t         tab                        (any number of digits)
376           \v         vertical tab           \r         carriage return (\x0d)
377             \t         tab (\x09)
378             \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
379           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
380           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                        always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode
381             \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
382           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
383                        in UTF-8 mode                        in UTF-8 mode
384           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()
385                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
386           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()
387                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
388           \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd           \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd
389                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
390           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring
# Line 255  DATA LINES Line 406  DATA LINES
406           \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring           \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring
407                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
408                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
409             \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
410                          number of digits)
411           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a
412                        successful match                        successful match
413           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT setting           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
414                          MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
415           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()
416                          or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
417                          PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
418           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
419                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
420           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre_exec()
421                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
422                          PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
423             \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
424                          (any number of digits)
425           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()
426           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
427             \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre_exec()
428                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
429           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()
430                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
431           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
432                        pcre_exec()                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
433           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
434                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
435                          argument for pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
436             \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()
437                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
438             \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()
439                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
440             \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()
441                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
442             \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()
443                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
444             \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()
445                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
446    
447           Note  that  \xhh  always  specifies  one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this
448           makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing pur-
449           poses. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
450           UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater  than
451           127. When not in UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than
452           256, and causes an error for greater values.
453    
454           The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
455           exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
456           any data line.
457    
458         A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  anything  else.         A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  anything  else.
459         If  the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a         If  the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a
460         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-
461         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
462    
463         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-         The  \J escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
464         ferent values in the match_limit field of the  pcre_extra  data  struc-         used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT  opti-
465         ture,  until it finds the minimum number that is needed for pcre_exec()         mization  is  not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the
466         to complete. This number is a measure of the amount  of  recursion  and         default 32K is necessary only for very complicated patterns.
467         backtracking  that takes place, and checking it out can be instructive.  
468         For most simple matches, the number is quite small,  but  for  patterns         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times,  with  dif-
469         with  very large numbers of matching possibilities, it can become large         ferent  values  in  the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of
470         very quickly with increasing length of subject string.         the pcre_extra data structure, until it finds the minimum  numbers  for
471           each  parameter  that  allow  pcre_exec()  to  complete  without error.
472           Because this is testing a specific feature of the  normal  interpretive
473           pcre_exec()  execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might have
474           been set up by the /S+ qualifier of -s+ option is disabled.
475    
476           The match_limit number is a measure of the amount of backtracking  that
477           takes  place,  and  checking it out can be instructive. For most simple
478           matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns  with  very  large
479           numbers  of  matching  possibilities,  it can become large very quickly
480           with increasing length of  subject  string.  The  match_limit_recursion
481           number  is  a  measure  of how much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with
482           NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory  is  needed  to  complete  the  match
483           attempt.
484    
485         When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower  than  the         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the
486         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
487         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.
488    
489         If the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX  wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
490         per  API to be used, only \B and \Z have any effect, causing REG_NOTBOL         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
491         and REG_NOTEOL to be passed to regexec() respectively.         effect  are  \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and
492           REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
493    
494         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on
495         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.
496         There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The         There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The
497         result  is from one to six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.         result  is  from  one  to  six bytes, encoded according to the original
498           UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This allows for  values  in  the  range  0  to
499           0x7FFFFFFF.  Note  that not all of those are valid Unicode code points,
500           or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the later  rules  in  RFC
501           3629.
502    
503    
504  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
505    
506         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,
507         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
508         alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_test(),  which  operates  in  a         alternative  matching  function,  pcre_dfa_test(),  which operates in a
509         different  way,  and has some restrictions. The differences between the         different way, and has some restrictions. The differences  between  the
510         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
511    
512         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
513         contains  the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is called.         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is  called.
514         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
515         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the
516         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
517    
518    
519  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
520    
521         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,
522         pcre_exec(), is being used.         pcre_exec(), is being used.
523    
524         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
525         that pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for  the  string  that         that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that
526         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No  match"  when  the
527         match" when pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH  or  PCRE_ERROR_PAR-         return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the par-
528         TIAL,  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here         tially matching substring when pcre_exec() returns  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.
529         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         (Note  that  this is the entire substring that was inspected during the
530           partial match; it may include characters before the actual match  start
531           if  a  lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other
532           return, pcretest outputs the PCRE negative error  number  and  a  short
533           descriptive  phrase.  If  the error is a failed UTF-8 string check, the
534           byte offset of the start of the failing character and the  reason  code
535           are  also  output,  provided  that  the size of the output vector is at
536           least two. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.
537    
538           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
539           PCRE version 5.00 07-Sep-2004           PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
540    
541             re> /^abc(\d+)/             re> /^abc(\d+)/
542           data> abc123           data> abc123
# Line 336  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 545  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
545           data> xyz           data> xyz
546           No match           No match
547    
548         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are
549         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on         not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In the fol-
550         the pattern. If the pattern has the /+ modifier, the  output  for  sub-         lowing example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the  first
551         string  0 is followed by the the rest of the subject string, identified         data  line  is  matched,  the  second, unset substring is not shown. An
552         by "0+" like this:         "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>",  as  for  the  second
553           data line.
554    
555               re> /(a)|(b)/
556             data> a
557              0: a
558              1: a
559             data> b
560              0: b
561              1: <unset>
562              2: b
563    
564           If  the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as
565           \0x escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier  was  present  on
566           the  pattern.  See below for the definition of non-printing characters.
567           If the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is  fol-
568           lowed  by  the  the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
569           this:
570    
571             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
572           data> cataract           data> cataract
# Line 359  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 585  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
585            0: ipp            0: ipp
586            1: pp            1: pp
587    
588         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.         "No  match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an
589           example of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \>4  is
590           past the end of the subject string):
591    
592               re> /xyz/
593             data> xyz\>4
594             Error -24 (bad offset value)
595    
596         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that
597         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience
# Line 368  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 600  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
600         (that  is,  the return from the extraction function) is given in paren-         (that  is,  the return from the extraction function) is given in paren-
601         theses after each string for \C and \G.         theses after each string for \C and \G.
602    
603         Note that while patterns can be continued over several lines  (a  plain         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain
604         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-
605         lines can be included in data by means of the \n escape.         lines can be included in data by means of the \n escape (or  \r,  \r\n,
606           etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).
607    
608    
609  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
610    
611         When the alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(),  is  used  (by         When  the  alternative  matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(), is used (by
612         means  of  the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option), the         means of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line  option),  the
613         output consists of a list of all the matches that start  at  the  first         output  consists  of  a list of all the matches that start at the first
614         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
615    
616             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
# Line 386  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 619  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
619            1: tang            1: tang
620            2: tan            2: tan
621    
622         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)         (Using the normal matching function on this data  finds  only  "tang".)
623         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).         The  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).
624           After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
625           lowed  by  the  partially  matching  substring.  (Note that this is the
626           entire substring that was inspected during the partial  match;  it  may
627           include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-
628           tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
629    
630         If  /gP  is  present  on  the  pattern,  the search for further matches         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
631         resumes at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
632    
633             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/g
634           data> yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D           data> yellow tangerine and tangy sultana\D
# Line 401  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 639  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
639            1: tan            1: tan
640            0: tan            0: tan
641    
642         Since the matching function does not  support  substring  capture,  the         Since  the  matching  function  does not support substring capture, the
643         escape  sequences  that  are concerned with captured substrings are not         escape sequences that are concerned with captured  substrings  are  not
644         relevant.         relevant.
645    
646    
647  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
648    
649         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL
650         return,  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you         return, indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern,  you
651         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R         can  restart  the match with additional subject data by means of the \R
652         escape sequence. For example:         escape sequence. For example:
653    
654             re> /^?(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)$/             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
655           data> 23ja\P\D           data> 23ja\P\D
656           Partial match: 23ja           Partial match: 23ja
657           data> n05\R\D           data> n05\R\D
658            0: n05            0: n05
659    
660         For  further  information  about  partial matching, see the pcrepartial         For further information about partial  matching,  see  the  pcrepartial
661         documentation.         documentation.
662    
663    
664  CALLOUTS  CALLOUTS
665    
666         If the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout  func-         If  the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout func-
667         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-         tion is called during matching. This works  with  both  matching  func-
668         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
669         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the         start and current positions in the text at the callout  time,  and  the
670         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output
671    
672           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
673             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
674    
675         indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match  attempt  starting         indicates  that  callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting
676         at  the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at         at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was  at
677         the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern  item  was         the  seventh  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was
678         \d.  Just  one  circumflex is output if the start and current positions         \d. Just one circumflex is output if the start  and  current  positions
679         are the same.         are the same.
680    
681         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
682         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing         a result of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead  of  showing
683         the callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a  plus,  is         the  callout  number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is
684         output. For example:         output. For example:
685    
686             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C
# Line 454  CALLOUTS Line 692  CALLOUTS
692           +10 ^ ^           +10 ^ ^
693            0: E*            0: E*
694    
695           If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-
696           ever  a  change  of  latest mark is passed to the callout function. For
697           example:
698    
699               re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
700             data> abc
701             --->abc
702              +0 ^       a
703              +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
704             +10 ^^      b
705             Latest Mark: X
706             +11 ^ ^     c
707             +12 ^  ^
708              0: abc
709    
710           The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the  same  for
711           the  rest  of  the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of
712           backtracking, the mark reverts to being unset, the  text  "<unset>"  is
713           output.
714    
715         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by
716         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)
717         to change this.         to change this and other parameters of the callout.
718    
719         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-
720         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see
721         the pcrecallout documentation.         the pcrecallout documentation.
722    
723    
724    NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
725    
726           When  pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
727           bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as  non-printing  characters
728           are are therefore shown as hex escapes.
729    
730           When  pcretest  is  outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
731           string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has  been
732           set  for  the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this case, the
733           isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
734    
735    
736  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
737    
738         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the
739         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-         POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is being used, that is, when the /P pattern
740         ifier is specified.         modifier is specified.
741    
742         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
743         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a
744         file name.  For example:         file name.  For example:
745    
746           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
747    
748         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and
749         re-using compiled patterns.         re-using  compiled patterns.  Note that if the pattern was successfully
750           studied with JIT optimization, the JIT data cannot be saved.
751    
752         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the
753         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the
# Line 484  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 755  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
755         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the
756         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
757         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the
758         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-         compiled pattern. If there is additional study  data,  this  (excluding
759         diately  after  the  compiled pattern. After writing the file, pcretest         any  JIT  data)  follows  immediately after the compiled pattern. After
760         expects to read a new pattern.         writing the file, pcretest expects to read a new pattern.
761    
762         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by  specifying  <  and  a
763         name  instead  of  a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a <         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a
764         character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as  a  pattern         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
765         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
766    
767            re> </some/file            re> </some/file
768           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
769           No study data           No study data
770    
771         When  the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines         If  the  pattern  was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the
772         in the usual way.         JIT information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When  the
773           pattern  has  been  loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines in the
774           usual way.
775    
776         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload
777         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on
# Line 519  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 792  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
792         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
793    
794    
795    SEE ALSO
796    
797           pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3), pcrejit, pcrematching(3), pcrepar-
798           tial(d), pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
799    
800    
801  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
802    
803         Philip Hazel         Philip Hazel
804         University Computing Service,         University Computing Service
805         Cambridge CB2 3QG, England.         Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
806    
807    
808    REVISION
809    
810  Last updated: 28 February 2005         Last updated: 26 August 2011
811  Copyright (c) 1997-2005 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.

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