/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
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# Line 14  SYNOPSIS Line 14  SYNOPSIS
14         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;
15         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern
16         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17         options, see the pcreapi documentation. The input  for  pcretest  is  a         options, see the  pcreapi  and  pcre16  documentation.  The  input  for
18         sequence  of  regular expression patterns and strings to be matched, as         pcretest is a sequence of regular expression patterns and strings to be
19         described below. The output shows the result of each match. Options  on         matched, as described below. The output shows the result of each match.
20         the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and exactly what         Options  on  the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and
21         is output.         exactly what is output.
22    
23    
24    PCRE's 8-BIT and 16-BIT LIBRARIES
25    
26           From release 8.30, two separate PCRE libraries can be built. The origi-
27           nal  one  supports  8-bit  character  strings, whereas the newer 16-bit
28           library  supports  character  strings  encoded  in  16-bit  units.  The
29           pcretest  program  can  be  used to test both libraries. However, it is
30           itself still an 8-bit program, reading 8-bit input  and  writing  8-bit
31           output.  When testing the 16-bit library, the patterns and data strings
32           are converted to 16-bit format before being passed to the PCRE  library
33           functions. Results are converted to 8-bit for output.
34    
35           References  to  functions  and structures of the form pcre[16]_xx below
36           mean "pcre_xx when using the 8-bit library or pcre16_xx when using  the
37           16-bit library".
38    
39    
40  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
41    
42         -b        Behave as if each pattern has the /B (show byte  code)  modi-         -16       If  both  the 8-bit and the 16-bit libraries have been built,
43                     this option causes the 16-bit library to be used. If only the
44                     16-bit library has been built, this is the default (so has no
45                     effect). If only the  8-bit  library  has  been  built,  this
46                     option causes an error.
47    
48           -b        Behave  as  if each pattern has the /B (show byte code) modi-
49                   fier; the internal form is output after compilation.                   fier; the internal form is output after compilation.
50    
51         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
52                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are                   able   information  about  the  optional  features  that  are
53                   included, and then exit.                   included, and then exit. All other options are ignored.
54    
55           -C option Output information about a specific build-time  option,  then
56                     exit.  This functionality is intended for use in scripts such
57                     as RunTest. The following options output the value indicated:
58    
59                       linksize   the internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
60                       newline    the default newline setting:
61                                    CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
62    
63                     The following options output 1 for true or zero for false:
64    
65                       jit        just-in-time support is available
66                       pcre16     the 16-bit library was built
67                       pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
68                       ucp        Unicode property support is available
69                       utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 support is available
70    
71         -d        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /D (debug) modifier; the         -d        Behave as if each pattern has the /D  (debug)  modifier;  the
72                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is                   internal  form  and information about the compiled pattern is
73                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
74    
75         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;         -dfa      Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape  sequence;
76                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,
77                   pcre_dfa_exec(),   to   be   used  instead  of  the  standard                   pcre[16]_dfa_exec(), to  be  used  instead  of  the  standard
78                   pcre_exec() function (more detail is given below).                   pcre[16]_exec() function (more detail is given below).
79    
80         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
81    
82         -i        Behave as if each pattern has the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /I modifier; information
83                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
84    
85         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;         -M        Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape  sequence;
86                   this causes PCRE to  discover  the  minimum  MATCH_LIMIT  and                   this  causes  PCRE  to  discover  the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
87                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by calling pcre_exec() repeat-                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION  settings  by  calling  pcre[16]_exec()
88                   edly with different limits.                   repeatedly with different limits.
89    
90         -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been
91                   compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular
92                   expression.                   expression. The size is given in bytes for both libraries.
93    
94         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used
95                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The                   when calling pcre[16]_exec()  or  pcre[16]_dfa_exec()  to  be
96                   default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  subex-                   osize.  The  default value is 45, which is enough for 14 cap-
97                   pressions   for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches  for                   turing subexpressions for  pcre[16]_exec()  or  22  different
98                   pcre_dfa_exec(). The vector size can be changed for  individ-                   matches  for  pcre[16]_dfa_exec().   The  vector  size can be
99                   ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see                   changed for individual matching calls by including \O in  the
100                   below).                   data line (see below).
101    
102         -p        Behave as if each pattern has  the  /P  modifier;  the  POSIX         -p        Behave  as  if  each  pattern  has the /P modifier; the POSIX
103                   wrapper  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options                   wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  other  options
104                   has any effect when -p is set.                   has  any  effect when -p is set. This option can be used only
105                     with the 8-bit library.
106    
107         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
108                   execution.                   execution.
# Line 73  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS Line 112  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
112    
113         -s or -s+ Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /S  modifier;  in  other         -s or -s+ Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /S  modifier;  in  other
114                   words,  force each pattern to be studied. If -s+ is used, the                   words,  force each pattern to be studied. If -s+ is used, the
115                   PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE flag is passed to pcre_study(),  caus-                   PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE flag is  passed  to  pcre[16]_study(),
116                   ing  just-in-time  optimization  to be set up if it is avail-                   causing  just-in-time  optimization  to  be  set  up if it is
117                   able. If the  /I  or  /D  option  is  present  on  a  pattern                   available. If the /I or /D option is  present  on  a  pattern
118                   (requesting  output  about the compiled pattern), information                   (requesting  output  about the compiled pattern), information
119                   about the result of studying is not included when studying is                   about the result of studying is not included when studying is
120                   caused  only  by  -s  and neither -i nor -d is present on the                   caused  only  by  -s  and neither -i nor -d is present on the
121                   command line. This behaviour means that the output from tests                   command line. This behaviour means that the output from tests
122                   that  are run with and without -s should be identical, except                   that  are run with and without -s should be identical, except
123                   when options that output information about the actual running                   when options that output information about the actual running
124                   of  a  match are set. The -M, -t, and -tm options, which give                   of a match are set.
125                   information about resources used, are likely to produce  dif-  
126                   ferent  output with and without -s. Output may also differ if                   The  -M,  -t,  and  -tm options, which give information about
127                   the /C option is present on an individual pattern. This  uses                   resources used, are likely to produce different  output  with
128                   callouts  to  trace the the matching process, and this may be                   and  without  -s.  Output may also differ if the /C option is
129                   different between studied and non-studied  patterns.  If  the                   present on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace
130                   pattern contains (*MARK) items there may also be differences,                   the  the  matching process, and this may be different between
131                   for the same reason. The -s command line option can be  over-                   studied and non-studied patterns.  If  the  pattern  contains
132                   ridden  for  specific  patterns  that should never be studied                   (*MARK)  items  there  may  also be differences, for the same
133                   (see the /S pattern modifier below).                   reason. The -s command line option can be overridden for spe-
134                     cific  patterns that should never be studied (see the /S pat-
135                     tern modifier below).
136    
137         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,
138                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-
# Line 173  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 214  PATTERN MODIFIERS
214         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
215    
216         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
217         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively,  when  pcre_com-         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED options, respectively, when pcre[16]_com-
218         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as
219         they do in Perl. For example:         they do in Perl. For example:
220    
# Line 182  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 223  PATTERN MODIFIERS
223         The following table shows additional modifiers for  setting  PCRE  com-         The following table shows additional modifiers for  setting  PCRE  com-
224         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
225    
226           /8              PCRE_UTF8           /8              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
227           /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK           /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  )   library
228    
229             /8              PCRE_UTF16          ) when using the 16-bit
230             /?              PCRE_NO_UTF16_CHECK )   library
231    
232           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
233           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
234           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
# Line 210  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 255  PATTERN MODIFIERS
255    
256           /^abc/m<CRLF>           /^abc/m<CRLF>
257    
258         As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the /8 modifier also causes         As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8/16 option, the /8  modifier  causes
259         any  non-printing  characters in output strings to be printed using the         all  non-printing  characters in output strings to be printed using the
260         \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full  details  of         \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are output in  hex
261         the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documentation.         without the curly brackets.
262    
263           Full  details  of  the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documenta-
264           tion.
265    
266     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
267    
268         Searching  for  all  possible matches within each subject string can be         Searching for all possible matches within each subject  string  can  be
269         requested by the /g or /G modifier. After  finding  a  match,  PCRE  is         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is
270         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-
271         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument
272         to  pcre_exec()  to  start  searching  at a new point within the entire         to pcre[16]_exec() to start searching at a new point within the  entire
273         string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the  latter  passes         string  (which  is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes
274         over  a  shortened  substring.  This makes a difference to the matching         over a shortened substring. This makes a  difference  to  the  matching
275         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b
276         or \B).         or \B).
277    
278         If  any  call  to  pcre_exec()  in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty         If any call to pcre[16]_exec() in a /g or /G sequence matches an  empty
279         string, the next  call  is  done  with  the  PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART  and         string,  the  next  call  is  done  with  the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
280         PCRE_ANCHORED  flags  set  in  order  to search for another, non-empty,         PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order  to  search  for  another,  non-empty,
281         match at the same point. If this second match fails, the  start  offset         match  at  the same point. If this second match fails, the start offset
282         is  advanced,  and  the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way         is advanced, and the normal match is retried.  This  imitates  the  way
283         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-
284         tion.  Normally,  the start offset is advanced by one character, but if         tion. Normally, the start offset is advanced by one character,  but  if
285         the newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline,  and  the  current         the  newline  convention  recognizes CRLF as a newline, and the current
286         character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.         character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.
287    
288     Other modifiers     Other modifiers
289    
290         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.
291    
292         The  /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that
293         matched the entire pattern, pcretest  should  in  addition  output  the         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the
294         remainder  of  the  subject  string. This is useful for tests where the         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the
295         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the +  modi-         subject  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the + modi-
296         fier  appears  twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings.         fier appears twice, the same action is taken for  captured  substrings.
297         In each case the remainder is output on the following line with a  plus         In  each case the remainder is output on the following line with a plus
298         character  following  the  capture number. Note that this modifier must         character following the capture number. Note that  this  modifier  must
299         not immediately follow the /S modifier because /S+ has another meaning.         not immediately follow the /S modifier because /S+ has another meaning.
300    
301         The /= modifier requests that the  values  of  all  potential  captured         The  /=  modifier  requests  that  the values of all potential captured
302         parentheses  be  output  after a match by pcre_exec(). By default, only         parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up  to  the
303         those up to the highest one actually used in the match are output (cor-         highest one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the
304         responding  to the return code from pcre_exec()). Values in the offsets         return code from pcre[16]_exec()). Values in the offsets vector  corre-
305         vector corresponding to higher numbers should be set to -1,  and  these         sponding to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output as
306         are  output  as  "<unset>".  This modifier gives a way of checking that         "<unset>". This modifier gives a way of checking that this  is  happen-
307         this is happening.         ing.
308    
309         The /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest  out-         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-
310         put  a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation. Nor-         put a representation of the compiled code after  compilation.  Normally
311         mally this information contains length and offset values;  however,  if         this  information  contains length and offset values; however, if /Z is
312         /Z  is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special         also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special  fea-
313         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same         ture  for  use  in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
314         output is generated for different internal link sizes.         output is generated for different internal link sizes.
315    
316         The  /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to /BI,         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
317         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
318    
319         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the fields in         The  /F  modifier  causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the 2-byte
320         the  compiled  pattern  that  contain  2-byte  and 4-byte numbers. This         and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
321         facility is for testing the feature in PCRE that allows it  to  execute         the  feature  in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were com-
322         patterns that were compiled on a host with a different endianness. This         piled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not avail-
323         feature is not available when the POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is  being         able  when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the
324         used,  that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the         /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
325         section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.         reloading compiled patterns below.
326    
327         The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the
328         compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,
329         and so on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after  compiling  a         and so on). It does this by calling pcre[16]_fullinfo() after compiling
330         pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-         a pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-
331         put.         put.
332    
333         The /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking  con-         The  /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking con-
334         trol  verbs  that  are  returned  from  calls to pcre_exec(). It causes         trol verbs that are returned from calls to pcre[16]_exec().  It  causes
335         pcretest to create a pcre_extra block if one has not already been  cre-         pcretest  to  create a pcre[16]_extra block if one has not already been
336         ated by a call to pcre_study(), and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and         created by a call to pcre[16]_study(), and to set  the  PCRE_EXTRA_MARK
337         the mark field within it, every time that pcre_exec() is called. If the         flag  and  the mark field within it, every time that pcre[16]_exec() is
338         variable  that  the  mark field points to is non-NULL for a match, non-         called. If the variable that the mark field points to is non-NULL for a
339         match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which it points.         match, non-match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which
340         For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".  For         it points. For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged  with
341         a non-match it is added to the message.         "MK:". For a non-match it is added to the message.
342    
343         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for         The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
344         example,         example,
345    
346           /pattern/Lfr_FR           /pattern/Lfr_FR
347    
348         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
349         pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the         pcre[16]_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for
350         locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the         the locale, and this is then passed to pcre[16]_compile() when  compil-
351         regular expression. Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is  passed  as         ing  the  regular  expression.  Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is
352         the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which         passed as the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to  the  expres-
353         it appears.         sion on which it appears.
354    
355         The /M modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold  the  com-         The  /M  modifier  causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to
356         piled  pattern to be output. This does not include the size of the pcre         hold the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the  size
357         block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pattern is  success-         of the pcre[16] block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the pat-
358         fully  studied  with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option, the size of the         tern is successfully studied with  the  PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE  option,
359         JIT compiled code is also output.         the size of the JIT compiled code is also output.
360    
361         If the /S modifier appears once, it causes pcre_study()  to  be  called         If  the  /S  modifier  appears  once,  it causes pcre[16]_study() to be
362         after  the  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the         called after the expression has been compiled,  and  the  results  used
363         expression is matched. If /S appears  twice,  it  suppresses  studying,         when  the  expression  is  matched.  If /S appears twice, it suppresses
364         even if it was requested externally by the -s command line option. This         studying, even if it was requested externally by the  -s  command  line
365         makes it possible to specify that certain patterns are always  studied,         option.  This  makes  it  possible to specify that certain patterns are
366         and others are never studied, independently of -s. This feature is used         always studied, and others are never studied, independently of -s. This
367         in the test files in a few cases where the output is different when the         feature  is  used  in the test files in a few cases where the output is
368         pattern is studied.         different when the pattern is studied.
369    
370         If  the  /S modifier is immediately followed by a + character, the call         If the /S modifier is immediately followed by a + character,  the  call
371         to  pcre_study()  is  made  with  the  PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE   option,         to  pcre[16]_study()  is  made  with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
372         requesting  just-in-time  optimization support if it is available. Note         requesting just-in-time optimization support if it is  available.  Note
373         that there is also a /+ modifier; it  must  not  be  given  immediately         that  there  is  also  a  /+ modifier; it must not be given immediately
374         after  /S  because this will be misinterpreted. If JIT studying is suc-         after /S because this will be misinterpreted. If JIT studying  is  suc-
375         cessful, it will automatically be used when pcre_exec() is run,  except         cessful,  it  will  automatically  be used when pcre[16]_exec() is run,
376         when  incompatible  run-time  options  are specified. These include the         except when incompatible run-time options are specified. These  include
377         partial matching options; a complete list is given in the pcrejit docu-         the  partial  matching options; a complete list is given in the pcrejit
378         mentation.  See  also the \J escape sequence below for a way of setting         documentation. See also the \J escape sequence below for a way of  set-
379         the size of the JIT stack.         ting the size of the JIT stack.
380    
381         The /T modifier must be followed by a single digit. It  causes  a  spe-         The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
382         cific  set of built-in character tables to be passed to pcre_compile().         cific set of built-in character tables to be  passed  to  pcre[16]_com-
383         It is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different         pile().  It  is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with
384         character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:         different character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
385    
386           0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in           0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
387                 pcre_chartables.c.dist                 pcre_chartables.c.dist
388           1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters           1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
389    
390         In  table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are iden-         In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
391         tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.         tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
392    
393     Using the POSIX wrapper API     Using the POSIX wrapper API
394    
395         The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API         The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
396         rather than its native API. When /P is set, the following modifiers set         rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library.  When
397         options for the regcomp() function:         /P  is set, the following modifiers set options for the regcomp() func-
398           tion:
399    
400           /i    REG_ICASE           /i    REG_ICASE
401           /m    REG_NEWLINE           /m    REG_NEWLINE
# Line 362  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 411  PATTERN MODIFIERS
411    
412  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
413    
414         Before  each  data  line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing         Before  each data line is passed to pcre[16]_exec(), leading and trail-
415         white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes.  Some  of         ing white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes.  Some
416         these  are  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of         of  these  are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some
417         the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordi-         of the more complicated features of  PCRE.  If  you  are  just  testing
418         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The         "ordinary"  regular  expressions, you probably don't need any of these.
419         following escapes are recognized:         The following escapes are recognized:
420    
421           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
422           \b         backspace (\x08)           \b         backspace (\x08)
# Line 379  DATA LINES Line 428  DATA LINES
428           \r         carriage return (\x0d)           \r         carriage return (\x0d)
429           \t         tab (\x09)           \t         tab (\x09)
430           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
431           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits); always
432                        always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode                        a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 or 16-bit mode
433           \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)           \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
434           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character (any number of hex digits)
435                        in UTF-8 mode           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre[16]_exec()
436           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
437                        or pcre_dfa_exec()           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre[16]_exec()
438           \B         pass the PCRE_NOTBOL option to pcre_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
439                        or pcre_dfa_exec()           \Cdd       call pcre[16]_copy_substring() for substring dd
          \Cdd       call pcre_copy_substring() for substring dd  
440                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
441           \Cname     call pcre_copy_named_substring() for substring           \Cname     call pcre[16]_copy_named_substring() for substring
442                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
443                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non alphanumeric character)
444           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout           \C+        show the current captured substrings at callout
# Line 402  DATA LINES Line 450  DATA LINES
450                        reached for the nth time                        reached for the nth time
451           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout           \C*n       pass the number n (may be negative) as callout
452                        data; this is used as the callout return value                        data; this is used as the callout return value
453           \D         use the pcre_dfa_exec() match function           \D         use the pcre[16]_dfa_exec() match function
454           \F         only shortest match for pcre_dfa_exec()           \F         only shortest match for pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
455           \Gdd       call pcre_get_substring() for substring dd           \Gdd       call pcre[16]_get_substring() for substring dd
456                        after a successful match (number less than 32)                        after a successful match (number less than 32)
457           \Gname     call pcre_get_named_substring() for substring           \Gname     call pcre[16]_get_named_substring() for substring
458                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-                        "name" after a successful match (name termin-
459                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)                        ated by next non-alphanumeric character)
460           \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any           \Jdd       set up a JIT stack of dd kilobytes maximum (any
461                        number of digits)                        number of digits)
462           \L         call pcre_get_substringlist() after a           \L         call pcre[16]_get_substringlist() after a
463                        successful match                        successful match
464           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
465                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
466           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre[16]_exec()
467                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
468                        PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option                        PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
469           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
470                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre[16]_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
471           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre[16]_exec()
472                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
473                        PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option                        PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
474           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
475                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
476           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
477           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
478           \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre_exec()           \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre[16]_exec()
479                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
480           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre[16]_exec()
481                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
482           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF[8|16]_CHECK option to
483                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()                        pcre[16]_exec() or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
484           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
485                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
486                        argument for pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()                        argument for pcre[16]_exec() or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
487           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre[16]_exec()
488                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
489           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre[16]_exec()
490                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
491           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre[16]_exec()
492                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
493           \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre[16]_exec()
494                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
495           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre[16]_exec()
496                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16]_dfa_exec()
497    
498         Note that \xhh always specifies one byte,  even  in  UTF-8  mode;  this         The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the /8 modifier  on
499         makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing pur-         the  pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexa-
500         poses. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in         decimal digits inside the braces; invalid  values  provoke  error  mes-
501         UTF-8  mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater than         sages.
502         127. When not in UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than  
503         256, and causes an error for greater values.         Note that \xhh specifies one byte in UTF-8 mode; this makes it possible
504           to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing purposes. On the other
505           hand,  \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in UTF-8 mode, gener-
506           ating more than one byte if the value is greater than 127. When testing
507           the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode, \x{hh} generates one byte for val-
508           ues less than 256, and causes an error for greater values.
509    
510           In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
511           possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
512    
513         The  escapes  that  specify  line ending sequences are literal strings,         The  escapes  that  specify  line ending sequences are literal strings,
514         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
# Line 468  DATA LINES Line 524  DATA LINES
524         mization is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger  than  the         mization is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger  than  the
525         default 32K is necessary only for very complicated patterns.         default 32K is necessary only for very complicated patterns.
526    
527         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-         If  \M  is  present, pcretest calls pcre[16]_exec() several times, with
528         ferent values in the match_limit and  match_limit_recursion  fields  of         different values in the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of
529         the  pcre_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers for         the  pcre[16]_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers
530         each parameter  that  allow  pcre_exec()  to  complete  without  error.         for each parameter  that  allow  pcre[16]_exec()  to  complete  without
531         Because  this  is testing a specific feature of the normal interpretive         error.  Because this is testing a specific feature of the normal inter-
532         pcre_exec() execution, the use of any JIT optimization that might  have         pretive pcre[16]_exec() execution, the use of any JIT optimization that
533         been set up by the /S+ qualifier of -s+ option is disabled.         might have been set up by the /S+ qualifier of -s+ option is disabled.
534    
535         The  match_limit number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that         The  match_limit number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that
536         takes place, and checking it out can be instructive.  For  most  simple         takes place, and checking it out can be instructive.  For  most  simple
# Line 487  DATA LINES Line 543  DATA LINES
543    
544         When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower  than  the         When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower  than  the
545         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
546         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.         only to the call of pcre[16]_exec() for the line in which it appears.
547    
548         If the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX  wrap-         If the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX  wrap-
549         per  API  to  be  used, the only option-setting sequences that have any         per  API  to  be  used, the only option-setting sequences that have any
550         effect are \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL,  REG_NOTEMPTY,  and         effect are \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL,  REG_NOTEMPTY,  and
551         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
552    
        The  use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on  
        the use of the /8 modifier on the pattern.  It  is  recognized  always.  
        There  may  be  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The  
        result is from one to six bytes,  encoded  according  to  the  original  
        UTF-8  rules  of  RFC  2279.  This  allows for values in the range 0 to  
        0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are valid Unicode  code  points,  
        or  indeed  valid  UTF-8 characters according to the later rules in RFC  
        3629.  
   
553    
554  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
555    
556         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,
557         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an         pcre[16]_exec() to match each data line. PCRE also supports an alterna-
558         alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_test(),  which  operates  in  a         tive  matching  function, pcre[16]_dfa_test(), which operates in a dif-
559         different  way,  and has some restrictions. The differences between the         ferent way, and has some restrictions. The differences between the  two
560         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
561    
562         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
563         contains  the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is called.         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching  function  is  used.
564         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
565         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the
566         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
567    
568    
569  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
570    
571         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,
572         pcre_exec(), is being used.         pcre[16]_exec(), is being used.
573    
574         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
575         that pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for  the  string  that         that  pcre[16]_exec()  returns,  starting  with number 0 for the string
576         matched  the  whole  pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the         that matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No  match"  when
577         return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the par-         the  return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the
578         tially  matching substring when pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.         partially   matching    substring    when    pcre[16]_exec()    returns
579         (Note that this is the entire substring that was inspected  during  the         PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.  (Note  that  this is the entire substring that was
580         partial  match; it may include characters before the actual match start         inspected during the partial match; it may  include  characters  before
581         if a lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For  any  other         the  actual  match  start  if a lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was
582         return,  pcretest  outputs  the  PCRE negative error number and a short         involved.) For any other return, pcretest  outputs  the  PCRE  negative
583         descriptive phrase. If the error is a failed UTF-8  string  check,  the         error  number  and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is a failed
584         byte  offset  of the start of the failing character and the reason code         UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character  and
585         are also output, provided that the size of  the  output  vector  is  at         the  reason  code are also output, provided that the size of the output
586         least two. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         vector is at least two. Here is an example of an  interactive  pcretest
587           run.
588    
589           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
590           PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30           PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
# Line 549  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 597  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
597           No match           No match
598    
599         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are
600         not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In the fol-         not returned by pcre[16]_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In  the
601         lowing  example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the first         following  example,  there  are  two capturing substrings, but when the
602         data line is matched, the second, unset  substring  is  not  shown.  An         first data line is matched, the second, unset substring is  not  shown.
603         "internal"  unset  substring  is  shown as "<unset>", as for the second         An  "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second
604         data line.         data line.
605    
606             re> /(a)|(b)/             re> /(a)|(b)/
# Line 565  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 613  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
613            2: b            2: b
614    
615         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as
616         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on         \xhh  escapes  if  the  value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set.
617         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.         Otherwise they are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the defi-
618         If  the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is fol-         nition  of non-printing characters. If the pattern has the /+ modifier,
619         lowed by the the rest of the subject string, identified  by  "0+"  like         the output for substring 0 is followed by the the rest of  the  subject
620         this:         string, identified by "0+" like this:
621    
622             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
623           data> cataract           data> cataract
# Line 611  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 659  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
659    
660  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
661    
662         When the alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(),  is  used  (by         When the alternative matching function,  pcre[16]_dfa_exec(),  is  used
663         means  of  the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option), the         (by  means  of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option),
664         output consists of a list of all the matches that start  at  the  first         the output consists of a list of all the  matches  that  start  at  the
665         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:         first point in the subject where there is at least one match. For exam-
666           ple:
667    
668             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
669           data> yellow tangerine\D           data> yellow tangerine\D
# Line 622  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 671  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
671            1: tang            1: tang
672            2: tan            2: tan
673    
674         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)         (Using the normal matching function on this data  finds  only  "tang".)
675         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).         The  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).
676         After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-         After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
677         lowed by the partially matching  substring.  (Note  that  this  is  the         lowed  by  the  partially  matching  substring.  (Note that this is the
678         entire  substring  that  was inspected during the partial match; it may         entire substring that was inspected during the partial  match;  it  may
679         include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-         include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-
680         tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)         tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
681    
# Line 642  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 691  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
691            1: tan            1: tan
692            0: tan            0: tan
693    
694         Since the matching function does not  support  substring  capture,  the         Since  the  matching  function  does not support substring capture, the
695         escape  sequences  that  are concerned with captured substrings are not         escape sequences that are concerned with captured  substrings  are  not
696         relevant.         relevant.
697    
698    
699  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
700    
701         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL
702         return,  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you         return, indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern,  you
703         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R         can  restart  the match with additional subject data by means of the \R
704         escape sequence. For example:         escape sequence. For example:
705    
706             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
# Line 660  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH Line 709  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
709           data> n05\R\D           data> n05\R\D
710            0: n05            0: n05
711    
712         For  further  information  about  partial matching, see the pcrepartial         For further information about partial  matching,  see  the  pcrepartial
713         documentation.         documentation.
714    
715    
716  CALLOUTS  CALLOUTS
717    
718         If the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout  func-         If  the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout func-
719         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-         tion is called during matching. This works  with  both  matching  func-
720         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
721         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the         start and current positions in the text at the callout  time,  and  the
722         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output         next pattern item to be tested. For example:
723    
724           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
725             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
726    
727         indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match  attempt  starting         This  output  indicates  that  callout  number  0  occurred for a match
728         at  the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at         attempt starting at the fourth character of the  subject  string,  when
729         the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern  item  was         the pointer was at the seventh character of the data, and when the next
730         \d.  Just  one  circumflex is output if the start and current positions         pattern item was \d. Just one circumflex is output  if  the  start  and
731         are the same.         current positions are the same.
732    
733         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
734         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing         a result of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead  of  showing
735         the callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a  plus,  is         the  callout  number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is
736         output. For example:         output. For example:
737    
738             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C
# Line 696  CALLOUTS Line 745  CALLOUTS
745            0: E*            0: E*
746    
747         If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-         If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-
748         ever a change of latest mark is passed to  the  callout  function.  For         ever  a  change  of  latest mark is passed to the callout function. For
749         example:         example:
750    
751             re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C             re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
# Line 710  CALLOUTS Line 759  CALLOUTS
759           +12 ^  ^           +12 ^  ^
760            0: abc            0: abc
761    
762         The  mark  changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for         The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the  same  for
763         the rest of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as  a  result  of         the  rest  of  the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of
764         backtracking,  the  mark  reverts to being unset, the text "<unset>" is         backtracking, the mark reverts to being unset, the  text  "<unset>"  is
765         output.         output.
766    
767         The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by
768         default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)
769         to change this and other parameters of the callout.         to change this and other parameters of the callout.
770    
771         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-
772         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see
773         the pcrecallout documentation.         the pcrecallout documentation.
774    
775    
776  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
777    
778         When pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a  pattern,         When  pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,
779         bytes  other  than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters         bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as  non-printing  characters
780         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.
781    
782         When pcretest is outputting text that is a matched part  of  a  subject         When  pcretest  is  outputting text that is a matched part of a subject
783         string,  it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been         string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has  been
784         set for the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this  case,  the         set  for  the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this case, the
785         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
786    
787    
788  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
789    
790         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the
791         POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is,  when  the  /P  pattern         POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is being used, that is, when the /P pattern
792         modifier is specified.         modifier is specified.
793    
794         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
795         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a
796         file name.  For example:         file name.  For example:
797    
798           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
799    
800         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and
801         re-using compiled patterns.  Note that if the pattern was  successfully         re-using  compiled patterns.  Note that if the pattern was successfully
802         studied with JIT optimization, the JIT data cannot be saved.         studied with JIT optimization, the JIT data cannot be saved.
803    
804         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the
805         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the
806         optional  study  data,  each  written as four bytes in big-endian order         optional study data, each written as four  bytes  in  big-endian  order
807         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the
808         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
809         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the
810         compiled  pattern.  If  there is additional study data, this (excluding         compiled pattern. If there is additional study  data,  this  (excluding
811         any JIT data) follows immediately after  the  compiled  pattern.  After         any  JIT  data)  follows  immediately after the compiled pattern. After
812         writing the file, pcretest expects to read a new pattern.         writing the file, pcretest expects to read a new pattern.
813    
814         A  saved  pattern  can  be reloaded into pcretest by specifying < and a         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by  specifying  <  and  a
815         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a
816         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
817         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
# Line 771  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 820  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
820           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
821           No study data           No study data
822    
823         If the pattern was previously studied with the  JIT  optimization,  the         If  the  pattern  was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the
824         JIT  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the         JIT information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When  the
825         pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines  in  the         pattern  has  been  loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines in the
826         usual way.         usual way.
827    
828         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload
829         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on
830         which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86         which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86
831         machine and run on a SPARC machine.         machine  and  run  on  a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a
832           host with different endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
833    
834             Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
835    
836           The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
837           endianness.  These  are  reloaded  using "<!" instead of just "<". This
838           suppresses the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on
839           all  hosts.  It  also forces debugging output once the pattern has been
840           reloaded.
841    
842         File names for saving and reloading can be absolute  or  relative,  but         File names for saving and reloading can be absolute  or  relative,  but
843         note  that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with         note  that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with
# Line 797  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 855  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
855    
856  SEE ALSO  SEE ALSO
857    
858         pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3), pcrejit, pcrematching(3), pcrepar-         pcre(3),  pcre16(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3),  pcrejit, pcrematch-
859         tial(d), pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).         ing(3), pcrepartial(d), pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
860    
861    
862  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
# Line 810  AUTHOR Line 868  AUTHOR
868    
869  REVISION  REVISION
870    
871         Last updated: 02 December 2011         Last updated: 13 January 2012
872         Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.

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