/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
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revision 96 by nigel, Fri Mar 2 13:10:43 2007 UTC revision 545 by ph10, Wed Jun 16 10:51:15 2010 UTC
# Line 40  OPTIONS Line 40  OPTIONS
40         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information
41                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
42    
43         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;
44                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular                   this causes PCRE to  discover  the  minimum  MATCH_LIMIT  and
45                   expression.   For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions  of                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by calling pcre_exec() repeat-
46                     edly with different limits.
47    
48           -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been
49                     compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular
50                     expression.  For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions   of
51                   pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.                   pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.
52    
53         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used
54                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The                   when calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize.  The
55                   default value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing  subex-                   default  value is 45, which is enough for 14 capturing subex-
56                   pressions   for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches  for                   pressions  for  pcre_exec()  or  22  different  matches   for
57                   pcre_dfa_exec(). The vector size can be changed for  individ-                   pcre_dfa_exec().  The vector size can be changed for individ-
58                   ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see                   ual matching calls by including \O  in  the  data  line  (see
59                   below).                   below).
60    
61         -p        Behave as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX  wrap-         -p        Behave  as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX wrap-
62                   per  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options has                   per API is used to call PCRE. None of the other  options  has
63                   any effect when -p is set.                   any effect when -p is set.
64    
65         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of         -q        Do  not output the version number of pcretest at the start of
66                   execution.                   execution.
67    
68         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems,  set the size of the runtime stack to         -S size   On Unix-like systems, set the size of the  runtime  stack  to
69                   size megabytes.                   size megabytes.
70    
71         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,         -t        Run  each  compile, study, and match many times with a timer,
72                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-                   and output resulting time per compile or match (in  millisec-
73                   onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the                   onds).  Do  not set -m with -t, because you will then get the
74                   size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-                   size output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be  dis-
75                   torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are                   torted.  You  can  control  the number of iterations that are
76                   used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate                   used for timing by following -t with a number (as a  separate
77                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
78                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
79    
# Line 78  OPTIONS Line 83  OPTIONS
83    
84  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
85    
86         If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first         If  pcretest  is  given two filename arguments, it reads from the first
87         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
88         reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from         reads  from  that  file  and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from
89         stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using         stdin and writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of  input,  using
90         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
91         lines.         lines.
92    
93           When pcretest is built, a configuration  option  can  specify  that  it
94           should  be  linked  with the libreadline library. When this is done, if
95           the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
96           This  provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the
97           -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
98    
99         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
100         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-         Each  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any num-
101         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
102    
103         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to         Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want  to
104         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
105         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
106         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of         to  encode  the  newline  sequences. There is no limit on the length of
107         data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too         data lines; the input buffer is automatically extended  if  it  is  too
108         small.         small.
109    
110         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new         An  empty  line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new
111         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed         regular expression is read. The regular expressions are given  enclosed
112         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
113    
114           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
115    
116         White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-         White  space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expres-
117         sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-         sion may be continued over several input lines, in which case the  new-
118         line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the         line  characters  are included within it. It is possible to include the
119         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
120    
121           /abc\/def/           /abc\/def/
122    
123         If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,         If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part  of  the  pattern,
124         but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect         but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect
125         its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-         its interpretation.  If the terminating delimiter is  immediately  fol-
126         lowed by a backslash, for example,         lowed by a backslash, for example,
127    
128           /abc/\           /abc/\
129    
130         then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to         then  a  backslash  is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to
131         provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern         provide a way of testing the error condition that arises if  a  pattern
132         finishes with a backslash, because         finishes with a backslash, because
133    
134           /abc\/           /abc\/
135    
136         is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",         is  interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/",
137         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
138         expression.         expression.
139    
140    
141  PATTERN MODIFIERS  PATTERN MODIFIERS
142    
143         A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly         A  pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly
144         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below         single characters. Following Perl usage, these are  referred  to  below
145         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the         as,  for  example,  "the /i modifier", even though the delimiter of the
146         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing         pattern need not always be a slash, and no slash is used  when  writing
147         modifiers. Whitespace may appear between the  final  pattern  delimiter         modifiers.  Whitespace  may  appear between the final pattern delimiter
148         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
149    
150         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
151         PCRE_DOTALL, or PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively,  when  pcre_com-         PCRE_DOTALL,  or  PCRE_EXTENDED  options,  respectively, when pcre_com-
152         pile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the same effect as         pile() is called. These four modifier letters have the same  effect  as
153         they do in Perl. For example:         they do in Perl. For example:
154    
155           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
156    
157         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options         The  following  table  shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE com-
158         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
159    
160           /A       PCRE_ANCHORED           /8              PCRE_UTF8
161           /C       PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT           /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
162           /E       PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY           /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
163           /f       PCRE_FIRSTLINE           /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
164           /J       PCRE_DUPNAMES           /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
165           /N       PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE           /f              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
166           /U       PCRE_UNGREEDY           /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
167           /X       PCRE_EXTRA           /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
168           /<cr>    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR           /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
169           /<lf>    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF           /W              PCRE_UCP
170           /<crlf>  PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF           /X              PCRE_EXTRA
171           /<any>   PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY           /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
172             /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
173         Those  specifying  line ending sequencess are literal strings as shown.           /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
174         This example sets multiline matching  with  CRLF  as  the  line  ending           /<crlf>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
175         sequence:           /<anycrlf>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
176             /<any>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
177             /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
178             /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
179    
180           The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are  literal  strings
181           as  shown,  including  the  angle  brackets,  but the letters can be in
182           either case. This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the line
183           ending sequence:
184    
185           /^abc/m<crlf>           /^abc/m<crlf>
186    
187         Details  of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the pcreapi         As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the /8 modifier also causes
188         documentation.         any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed  using  the
189           \x{hh...}  notation  if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full details of
190           the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documentation.
191    
192     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
193    
# Line 181  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 202  PATTERN MODIFIERS
202         or \B).         or \B).
203    
204         If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an  empty         If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an  empty
205         string,  the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED         string,  the  next  call  is  done  with  the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
206         flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the  same         PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order  to  search  for  another,  non-empty,
207         point.   If  this  second  match fails, the start offset is advanced by         match  at  the same point. If this second match fails, the start offset
208         one, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way  Perl  han-         is advanced by one character, and the normal  match  is  retried.  This
209         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.         imitates  the way Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or
210           the split() function.
211    
212     Other modifiers     Other modifiers
213    
# Line 197  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 219  PATTERN MODIFIERS
219         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.
220    
221         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-
222         put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.         put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.  Nor-
223           mally  this  information contains length and offset values; however, if
224         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for         /Z is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special
225         example,         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
226           output is generated for different internal link sizes.
          /pattern/Lfr_FR  
   
        For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  
        pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the  
        locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the  
        regular expression. Without an /L  modifier,  NULL  is  passed  as  the  
        tables  pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which it  
        appears.  
   
        The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the  
        compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,  
        and so on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after  compiling  a  
        pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-  
        put.  
227    
228         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
229         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
# Line 228  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 236  PATTERN MODIFIERS
236         used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the         used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the
237         section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.         section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.
238    
239         The  /S  modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the
240         has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,
241           and  so  on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after compiling a
242           pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are  also  out-
243           put.
244    
245           The  /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking con-
246           trol verbs that are returned  from  calls  to  pcre_exec().  It  causes
247           pcretest  to create a pcre_extra block if one has not already been cre-
248           ated by a call to pcre_study(), and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and
249           the mark field within it, every time that pcre_exec() is called. If the
250           variable that the mark field points to is non-NULL for  a  match,  non-
251           match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which it points.
252           For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".  For
253           a non-match it is added to the message.
254    
255           The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
256           example,
257    
258             /pattern/Lfr_FR
259    
260           For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
261           pcre_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for the
262           locale, and this is then passed to pcre_compile()  when  compiling  the
263           regular  expression.  Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is passed as
264           the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which
265           it appears.
266    
267         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-
268         piled pattern to be output.         piled pattern to be output.
269    
270         The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API         The /S modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after  the  expression
271         rather  than  its  native  API.  When this is done, all other modifiers         has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.
272         except /i, /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i  is  present,  
273         and  REG_NEWLINE  is  set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force         The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
274         PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is  set.         cific set of built-in character tables to be passed to  pcre_compile().
275           It is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different
276         The  /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8 option         character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
277         set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in  PCRE,  pro-  
278         vided  that  it  was  compiled with this support enabled. This modifier           0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
279         also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed                 pcre_chartables.c.dist
280         using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.           1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
281    
282         If  the  /?  modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes pcretest to call         In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
283         pcre_compile() with the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to  suppress  the         tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
284         checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.  
285       Using the POSIX wrapper API
286    
287           The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
288           rather than its native API. When /P is set, the following modifiers set
289           options for the regcomp() function:
290    
291             /i    REG_ICASE
292             /m    REG_NEWLINE
293             /N    REG_NOSUB
294             /s    REG_DOTALL     )
295             /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
296             /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
297             /8    REG_UTF8       )
298    
299           The  /+  modifier  works  as  described  above. All other modifiers are
300           ignored.
301    
302    
303  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
304    
305         Before  each  data  line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing         Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(),  leading  and  trailing
306         whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.  Some  of         whitespace  is  removed,  and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of
307         these  are  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of         these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out  some  of
308         the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordi-         the  more  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordi-
309         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The         nary" regular expressions, you probably don't need any  of  these.  The
310         following escapes are recognized:         following escapes are recognized:
311    
312           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
# Line 304  DATA LINES Line 353  DATA LINES
353           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
354                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
355           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()
356                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
357                          PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
358           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
359                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
360           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre_exec()
361                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
362                          PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
363           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
364                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
365           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()
366           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
367             \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre_exec()
368                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
369           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()
370                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
371           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
# Line 326  DATA LINES Line 379  DATA LINES
379                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
380           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()
381                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
382             \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()
383                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
384           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()
385                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
386    
387         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,         The  escapes  that  specify  line ending sequences are literal strings,
388         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
389         any data line.         any data line.
390    
391         A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  anything  else.         A  backslash  followed by anything else just escapes the anything else.
392         If  the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a         If the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives  a
393         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-         way  of  passing  an empty line as data, since a real empty line termi-
394         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
395    
396         If  \M  is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times, with dif-         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre_exec() several times,  with  dif-
397         ferent values in the match_limit and  match_limit_recursion  fields  of         ferent  values  in  the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of
398         the  pcre_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum numbers for         the pcre_extra data structure, until it finds the minimum  numbers  for
399         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-         each parameter that allow pcre_exec() to complete. The match_limit num-
400         ber  is  a  measure of the amount of backtracking that takes place, and         ber is a measure of the amount of backtracking that  takes  place,  and
401         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number         checking it out can be instructive. For most simple matches, the number
402         is  quite  small,  but for patterns with very large numbers of matching         is quite small, but for patterns with very large  numbers  of  matching
403         possibilities, it can become large very quickly with increasing  length         possibilities,  it can become large very quickly with increasing length
404         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how         of subject string. The match_limit_recursion number is a measure of how
405         much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with  NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)         much  stack  (or,  if  PCRE is compiled with NO_RECURSE, how much heap)
406         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.         memory is needed to complete the match attempt.
407    
408         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the         When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower  than  the
409         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
410         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.         only to the call of pcre_exec() for the line in which it appears.
411    
412         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-         If the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX  wrap-
413         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any         per  API  to  be  used, the only option-setting sequences that have any
414         effect  are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,         effect are \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL,  REG_NOTEMPTY,  and
415         to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
416    
417         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on         The  use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent on
418         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.         the use of the /8 modifier on the pattern.  It  is  recognized  always.
419         There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The         There  may  be  any number of hexadecimal digits inside the braces. The
420         result  is from one to six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.         result is from one to six bytes,  encoded  according  to  the  original
421           UTF-8  rules  of  RFC  2279.  This  allows for values in the range 0 to
422           0x7FFFFFFF. Note that not all of those are valid Unicode  code  points,
423           or  indeed  valid  UTF-8 characters according to the later rules in RFC
424           3629.
425    
426    
427  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
# Line 387  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 446  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
446    
447         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
448         that pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for  the  string  that         that pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for  the  string  that
449         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial         matched  the  whole  pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when the
450         match" when pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH  or  PCRE_ERROR_PAR-         return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the par-
451         TIAL,  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here         tially  matching substring when pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.
452           For any other returns, it outputs the PCRE negative error number.  Here
453         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.
454    
455           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
# Line 402  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 462  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
462           data> xyz           data> xyz
463           No match           No match
464    
465           Note  that unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that
466           is set are not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by  pcretest.
467           In  the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when
468           the first data line is matched, the  second,  unset  substring  is  not
469           shown.  An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the
470           second data line.
471    
472               re> /(a)|(b)/
473             data> a
474              0: a
475              1: a
476             data> b
477              0: b
478              1: <unset>
479              2: b
480    
481         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as
482         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on
483         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.
# Line 456  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 532  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
532    
533         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)
534         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).
535           After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
536           lowed by the partially matching substring.
537    
538         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
539         at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
# Line 469  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 547  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
547            1: tan            1: tan
548            0: tan            0: tan
549    
550         Since the matching function does not  support  substring  capture,  the         Since  the  matching  function  does not support substring capture, the
551         escape  sequences  that  are concerned with captured substrings are not         escape sequences that are concerned with captured  substrings  are  not
552         relevant.         relevant.
553    
554    
555  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
556    
557         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL
558         return,  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you         return, indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern,  you
559         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R         can  restart  the match with additional subject data by means of the \R
560         escape sequence. For example:         escape sequence. For example:
561    
562             re> /^?(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)$/             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
563           data> 23ja\P\D           data> 23ja\P\D
564           Partial match: 23ja           Partial match: 23ja
565           data> n05\R\D           data> n05\R\D
566            0: n05            0: n05
567    
568         For  further  information  about  partial matching, see the pcrepartial         For further information about partial  matching,  see  the  pcrepartial
569         documentation.         documentation.
570    
571    
572  CALLOUTS  CALLOUTS
573    
574         If the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout  func-         If  the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout func-
575         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-         tion is called during matching. This works  with  both  matching  func-
576         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
577         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the         start and current positions in the text at the callout  time,  and  the
578         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output
579    
580           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
581             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
582    
583         indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match  attempt  starting         indicates  that  callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting
584         at  the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at         at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was  at
585         the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern  item  was         the  seventh  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was
586         \d.  Just  one  circumflex is output if the start and current positions         \d. Just one circumflex is output if the start  and  current  positions
587         are the same.         are the same.
588    
589         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
590         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing         a result of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead  of  showing
591         the callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a  plus,  is         the  callout  number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is
592         output. For example:         output. For example:
593    
594             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C
# Line 522  CALLOUTS Line 600  CALLOUTS
600           +10 ^ ^           +10 ^ ^
601            0: E*            0: E*
602    
603         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by         The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by
604         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)         default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)
605         to change this.         to change this.
606    
607         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-
608         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
609         the pcrecallout documentation.         the pcrecallout documentation.
610    
611    
612  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
613    
614         When  pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,         When pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a  pattern,
615         bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as  non-printing  characters         bytes  other  than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters
616         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.
617    
618         When  pcretest  is  outputting text that is a matched part of a subject         When pcretest is outputting text that is a matched part  of  a  subject
619         string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has  been         string,  it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been
620         set  for  the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this case, the         set for the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this  case,  the
621         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
622    
623    
# Line 608  SEE ALSO Line 686  SEE ALSO
686  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
687    
688         Philip Hazel         Philip Hazel
689         University Computing Service,         University Computing Service
690         Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.         Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
691    
692  Last updated: 30 November 2006  
693  Copyright (c) 1997-2006 University of Cambridge.  REVISION
694    
695           Last updated: 14 June 2010
696           Copyright (c) 1997-2010 University of Cambridge.

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