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revision 96 by nigel, Fri Mar 2 13:10:43 2007 UTC revision 654 by ph10, Tue Aug 2 11:00:40 2011 UTC
# Line 7  NAME Line 7  NAME
7    
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [options] [source] [destination]         pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]
11    
12         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression         pcretest  was written as a test program for the PCRE regular expression
13         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular         library itself, but it can also be used for experimenting with  regular
14         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;         expressions.  This document describes the features of the test program;
15         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern         for details of the regular expressions themselves, see the  pcrepattern
16         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their         documentation. For details of the PCRE library function calls and their
17         options, see the pcreapi documentation.         options, see the pcreapi documentation. The input  for  pcretest  is  a
18           sequence  of  regular expression patterns and strings to be matched, as
19           described below. The output shows the result of each match. Options  on
20           the command line and the patterns control PCRE options and exactly what
21           is output.
22    
23    
24  OPTIONS  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
25    
26         -b        Behave as if each regex has the /B (show bytecode)  modifier;         -b        Behave as if each pattern has the /B (show byte  code)  modi-
27                   the internal form is output after compilation.                   fier; the internal form is output after compilation.
28    
29         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
30                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are
31                   included, and then exit.                   included, and then exit.
32    
33         -d        Behave  as  if  each  regex  has the /D (debug) modifier; the         -d        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /D (debug) modifier; the
34                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is
35                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
36    
# Line 37  OPTIONS Line 41  OPTIONS
41    
42         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
43    
44         -i        Behave as if each regex  has  the  /I  modifier;  information         -i        Behave as if each pattern has the  /I  modifier;  information
45                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
46    
47         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;
48                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular                   this causes PCRE to  discover  the  minimum  MATCH_LIMIT  and
49                   expression.   For  compatibility  with  earlier  versions  of                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by calling pcre_exec() repeat-
50                   pcretest, -s is a synonym for -m.                   edly with different limits.
51    
52           -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been
53                     compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular
54                     expression.
55    
56         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used
57                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The                   when  calling pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec() to be osize. The
# Line 53  OPTIONS Line 61  OPTIONS
61                   ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see                   ual  matching  calls  by  including  \O in the data line (see
62                   below).                   below).
63    
64         -p        Behave as if each regex has the /P modifier; the POSIX  wrap-         -p        Behave as if each pattern has  the  /P  modifier;  the  POSIX
65                   per  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options has                   wrapper  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options
66                   any effect when -p is set.                   has any effect when -p is set.
67    
68         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of
69                   execution.                   execution.
70    
71         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems,  set the size of the runtime stack to         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems, set the size of the run-time stack to
72                   size megabytes.                   size megabytes.
73    
74           -s        Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /S  modifier;  in  other
75                     words,  force  each  pattern  to  be studied. If the /I or /D
76                     option is present on a pattern (requesting output  about  the
77                     compiled  pattern),  information about the result of studying
78                     is not included when studying is caused only by -s  and  nei-
79                     ther -i nor -d is present on the command line. This behaviour
80                     means that the output from tests that are run with and  with-
81                     out  -s  should be identical, except when options that output
82                     information about the actual running of a match are set.  The
83                     -M,  -t,  and  -tm  options,  which  give  information  about
84                     resources used, are likely to produce different  output  with
85                     and  without  -s.  Output may also differ if the /C option is
86                     present on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace
87                     the  the  matching process, and this may be different between
88                     studied and non-studied patterns.  If  the  pattern  contains
89                     (*MARK)  items  there  may  also be differences, for the same
90                     reason. The -s command line option can be overridden for spe-
91                     cific  patterns  that  should  never  be  studied (see the /S
92                     option below).
93    
94         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,
95                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-
96                   onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the                   onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the
# Line 85  DESCRIPTION Line 113  DESCRIPTION
113         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
114         lines.         lines.
115    
116           When  pcretest  is  built,  a  configuration option can specify that it
117           should be linked with the libreadline library. When this  is  done,  if
118           the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
119           This provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from  the
120           -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
121    
122         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
123         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-
124         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
# Line 133  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 167  PATTERN MODIFIERS
167         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below         single  characters.  Following  Perl usage, these are referred to below
168         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the         as, for example, "the /i modifier", even though the  delimiter  of  the
169         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing         pattern  need  not always be a slash, and no slash is used when writing
170         modifiers. Whitespace may appear between the  final  pattern  delimiter         modifiers. White space may appear between the final  pattern  delimiter
171         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.         and the first modifier, and between the modifiers themselves.
172    
173         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
# Line 143  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 177  PATTERN MODIFIERS
177    
178           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
179    
180         The following table shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE options         The following table shows additional modifiers for  setting  PCRE  com-
181         that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
   
          /A       PCRE_ANCHORED  
          /C       PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT  
          /E       PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY  
          /f       PCRE_FIRSTLINE  
          /J       PCRE_DUPNAMES  
          /N       PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE  
          /U       PCRE_UNGREEDY  
          /X       PCRE_EXTRA  
          /<cr>    PCRE_NEWLINE_CR  
          /<lf>    PCRE_NEWLINE_LF  
          /<crlf>  PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF  
          /<any>   PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY  
   
        Those  specifying  line ending sequencess are literal strings as shown.  
        This example sets multiline matching  with  CRLF  as  the  line  ending  
        sequence:  
   
          /^abc/m<crlf>  
182    
183         Details  of the meanings of these PCRE options are given in the pcreapi           /8              PCRE_UTF8
184         documentation.           /?              PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK
185             /A              PCRE_ANCHORED
186             /C              PCRE_AUTO_CALLOUT
187             /E              PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY
188             /f              PCRE_FIRSTLINE
189             /J              PCRE_DUPNAMES
190             /N              PCRE_NO_AUTO_CAPTURE
191             /U              PCRE_UNGREEDY
192             /W              PCRE_UCP
193             /X              PCRE_EXTRA
194             /Y              PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE
195             /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
196             /<cr>           PCRE_NEWLINE_CR
197             /<lf>           PCRE_NEWLINE_LF
198             /<crlf>         PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF
199             /<anycrlf>      PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF
200             /<any>          PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY
201             /<bsr_anycrlf>  PCRE_BSR_ANYCRLF
202             /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
203    
204           The  modifiers  that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings
205           as shown, including the angle brackets, but the letters within  can  be
206           in  either case.  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the
207           line ending sequence:
208    
209             /^abc/m<CRLF>
210    
211           As well as turning on the PCRE_UTF8 option, the /8 modifier also causes
212           any  non-printing  characters in output strings to be printed using the
213           \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences. Full  details  of
214           the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documentation.
215    
216     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
217    
218         Searching for all possible matches within each subject  string  can  be         Searching  for  all  possible matches within each subject string can be
219         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is         requested by the /g or /G modifier. After  finding  a  match,  PCRE  is
220         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-
221         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument
222         to pcre_exec() to start searching at a  new  point  within  the  entire         to  pcre_exec()  to  start  searching  at a new point within the entire
223         string  (which  is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter passes         string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the  latter  passes
224         over a shortened substring. This makes a  difference  to  the  matching         over  a  shortened  substring.  This makes a difference to the matching
225         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b         process if the pattern begins with a lookbehind assertion (including \b
226         or \B).         or \B).
227    
228         If any call to pcre_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an  empty         If  any  call  to  pcre_exec()  in a /g or /G sequence matches an empty
229         string,  the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY and PCRE_ANCHORED         string, the next  call  is  done  with  the  PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART  and
230         flags set in order to search for another, non-empty, match at the  same         PCRE_ANCHORED  flags  set  in  order  to search for another, non-empty,
231         point.   If  this  second  match fails, the start offset is advanced by         match at the same point. If this second match fails, the  start  offset
232         one, and the normal match is retried. This imitates the way  Perl  han-         is  advanced,  and  the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way
233         dles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() function.         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-
234           tion.  Normally,  the start offset is advanced by one character, but if
235           the newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline,  and  the  current
236           character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.
237    
238     Other modifiers     Other modifiers
239    
240         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.
241    
242         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that         The  /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that
243         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the         matched the entire pattern, pcretest  should  in  addition  output  the
244         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the         remainder  of  the  subject  string. This is useful for tests where the
245         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring.         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the +  modi-
246           fier  appears  twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings.
247           In each case the remainder is output on the following line with a  plus
248           character following the capture number.
249    
250           The  /=  modifier  requests  that  the values of all potential captured
251           parentheses be output after a match by pcre_exec().  By  default,  only
252           those up to the highest one actually used in the match are output (cor-
253           responding to the return code from pcre_exec()). Values in the  offsets
254           vector  corresponding  to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these
255           are output as "<unset>". This modifier gives a  way  of  checking  that
256           this is happening.
257    
258         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-
259         put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.         put a representation of the compiled byte code after compilation.  Nor-
260           mally  this  information contains length and offset values; however, if
261         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for         /Z is also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special
262         example,         feature for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same
263           output is generated for different internal link sizes.
          /pattern/Lfr_FR  
   
        For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,  
        pcre_maketables() is called to build a set of character tables for  the  
        locale,  and  this  is then passed to pcre_compile() when compiling the  
        regular expression. Without an /L  modifier,  NULL  is  passed  as  the  
        tables  pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which it  
        appears.  
   
        The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the  
        compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,  
        and so on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after  compiling  a  
        pattern.  If  the pattern is studied, the results of that are also out-  
        put.  
264    
265         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,
266         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
# Line 228  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 273  PATTERN MODIFIERS
273         used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the         used, that is, when the /P pattern modifier is specified. See also  the
274         section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.         section about saving and reloading compiled patterns below.
275    
276         The  /S  modifier causes pcre_study() to be called after the expression         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the
277         has been compiled, and the results used when the expression is matched.         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,
278           and  so  on). It does this by calling pcre_fullinfo() after compiling a
279           pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results of that are  also  out-
280           put.
281    
282           The  /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking con-
283           trol verbs that are returned  from  calls  to  pcre_exec().  It  causes
284           pcretest  to create a pcre_extra block if one has not already been cre-
285           ated by a call to pcre_study(), and to set the PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and
286           the mark field within it, every time that pcre_exec() is called. If the
287           variable that the mark field points to is non-NULL for  a  match,  non-
288           match, or partial match, pcretest prints the string to which it points.
289           For a match, this is shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:".  For
290           a non-match it is added to the message.
291    
292           The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
293           example,
294    
295             /pattern/Lfr_FR
296    
297           For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
298           pcre_maketables()  is called to build a set of character tables for the
299           locale, and this is then passed to pcre_compile()  when  compiling  the
300           regular  expression.  Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL is passed as
301           the tables pointer; that is, /L applies only to the expression on which
302           it appears.
303    
304         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-         The  /M  modifier causes the size of memory block used to hold the com-
305         piled pattern to be output.         piled pattern to be output.
306    
307         The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API         If the /S modifier appears once, it causes pcre_study()  to  be  called
308         rather  than  its  native  API.  When this is done, all other modifiers         after  the  expression has been compiled, and the results used when the
309         except /i, /m, and /+ are ignored. REG_ICASE is set if /i  is  present,         expression is matched. If /S appears  twice,  it  suppresses  studying,
310         and  REG_NEWLINE  is  set if /m is present. The wrapper functions force         even if it was requested externally by the -s command line option. This
311         PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY always, and PCRE_DOTALL unless REG_NEWLINE is  set.         makes it possible to specify that certain patterns are always  studied,
312           and others are never studied, independently of -s. This feature is used
313         The  /8 modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE with the PCRE_UTF8 option         in the test files in a few cases where the output is different when the
314         set. This turns on support for UTF-8 character handling in  PCRE,  pro-         pattern is studied.
315         vided  that  it  was  compiled with this support enabled. This modifier  
316         also causes any non-printing characters in output strings to be printed         The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
317         using the \x{hh...} notation if they are valid UTF-8 sequences.         cific set of built-in character tables to be passed to  pcre_compile().
318           It is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with different
319         If  the  /?  modifier  is  used  with  /8,  it  causes pcretest to call         character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
320         pcre_compile() with the  PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK  option,  to  suppress  the  
321         checking of the string for UTF-8 validity.           0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
322                   pcre_chartables.c.dist
323             1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
324    
325           In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
326           tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
327    
328       Using the POSIX wrapper API
329    
330           The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
331           rather than its native API. When /P is set, the following modifiers set
332           options for the regcomp() function:
333    
334             /i    REG_ICASE
335             /m    REG_NEWLINE
336             /N    REG_NOSUB
337             /s    REG_DOTALL     )
338             /U    REG_UNGREEDY   ) These options are not part of
339             /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
340             /8    REG_UTF8       )
341    
342           The  /+  modifier  works  as  described  above. All other modifiers are
343           ignored.
344    
345    
346  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
347    
348         Before  each  data  line is passed to pcre_exec(), leading and trailing         Before each data line is passed to pcre_exec(),  leading  and  trailing
349         whitespace is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.  Some  of         white  space  is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes. Some of
350         these  are  pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out some of         these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out  some  of
351         the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing  "ordi-         the  more  complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing "ordi-
352         nary"  regular  expressions,  you probably don't need any of these. The         nary" regular expressions, you probably don't need any  of  these.  The
353         following escapes are recognized:         following escapes are recognized:
354    
355           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
356           \b         backspace (\x08)           \b         backspace (\x08)
357           \e         escape (\x27)           \e         escape (\x27)
358           \f         formfeed (\x0c)           \f         form feed (\x0c)
359           \n         newline (\x0a)           \n         newline (\x0a)
360           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd           \qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT limit to dd
361                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
# Line 271  DATA LINES Line 363  DATA LINES
363           \t         tab (\x09)           \t         tab (\x09)
364           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)           \v         vertical tab (\x0b)
365           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)           \nnn       octal character (up to 3 octal digits)
366           \xhh       hexadecimal character (up to 2 hex digits)                        always a byte unless > 255 in UTF-8 mode
367             \xhh       hexadecimal byte (up to 2 hex digits)
368           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits           \x{hh...}  hexadecimal character, any number of digits
369                        in UTF-8 mode                        in UTF-8 mode
370           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()           \A         pass the PCRE_ANCHORED option to pcre_exec()
# Line 304  DATA LINES Line 397  DATA LINES
397           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and           \M         discover the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and
398                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings                        MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings
399           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()           \N         pass the PCRE_NOTEMPTY option to pcre_exec()
400                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
401                          PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART option
402           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to           \Odd       set the size of the output vector passed to
403                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)                        pcre_exec() to dd (any number of digits)
404           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL option to pcre_exec()           \P         pass the PCRE_PARTIAL_SOFT option to pcre_exec()
405                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec(); if used twice, pass the
406                          PCRE_PARTIAL_HARD option
407           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd           \Qdd       set the PCRE_MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION limit to dd
408                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
409           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre_dfa_exec()
410           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
411             \Y         pass the PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE option to pcre_exec()
412                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
413           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre_exec()
414                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
415           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to           \?         pass the PCRE_NO_UTF8_CHECK option to
416                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()                        pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
417           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (any number of digits);           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
418                        this sets the startoffset argument for pcre_exec()                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
419                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        argument for pcre_exec() or pcre_dfa_exec()
420           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre_exec()
421                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
422           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()           \<lf>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_LF option to pcre_exec()
423                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
424           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()           \<crlf>    pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CRLF option to pcre_exec()
425                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
426             \<anycrlf> pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANYCRLF option to pcre_exec()
427                          or pcre_dfa_exec()
428           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre_exec()
429                        or pcre_dfa_exec()                        or pcre_dfa_exec()
430    
431           Note  that  \xhh  always  specifies  one byte, even in UTF-8 mode; this
432           makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for testing pur-
433           poses. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8 character in
434           UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is greater  than
435           127. When not in UTF-8 mode, it generates one byte for values less than
436           256, and causes an error for greater values.
437    
438         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
439         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
440         any data line.         any data line.
# Line 356  DATA LINES Line 462  DATA LINES
462    
463         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
464         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
465         effect  are \B and \Z, causing REG_NOTBOL and REG_NOTEOL, respectively,         effect  are  \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and
466         to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
467    
468         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on         The use of \x{hh...} to represent UTF-8 characters is not dependent  on
469         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.         the  use  of  the  /8 modifier on the pattern. It is recognized always.
470         There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The         There may be any number of hexadecimal digits inside  the  braces.  The
471         result  is from one to six bytes, encoded according to the UTF-8 rules.         result  is  from  one  to  six bytes, encoded according to the original
472           UTF-8 rules of RFC 2279. This allows for  values  in  the  range  0  to
473           0x7FFFFFFF.  Note  that not all of those are valid Unicode code points,
474           or indeed valid UTF-8 characters according to the later  rules  in  RFC
475           3629.
476    
477    
478  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
479    
480         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,
481         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an         pcre_exec() to match each data line. From release 6.0, PCRE supports an
482         alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_test(),  which  operates  in  a         alternative  matching  function,  pcre_dfa_test(),  which operates in a
483         different  way,  and has some restrictions. The differences between the         different way, and has some restrictions. The differences  between  the
484         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
485    
486         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line
487         contains  the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is called.         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching function is  called.
488         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
489         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the
490         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
491    
492    
493  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
494    
495         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,
496         pcre_exec(), is being used.         pcre_exec(), is being used.
497    
498         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
499         that pcre_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for  the  string  that         that  pcre_exec()  returns,  starting with number 0 for the string that
500         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" or "Partial         matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No  match"  when  the
501         match" when pcre_exec() returns PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH  or  PCRE_ERROR_PAR-         return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the par-
502         TIAL,  respectively, and otherwise the PCRE negative error number. Here         tially matching substring when pcre_exec() returns  PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.
503         is an example of an interactive pcretest run.         (Note  that  this is the entire substring that was inspected during the
504           partial match; it may include characters before the actual match  start
505           if  a  lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.) For any other
506           return, pcretest outputs the PCRE negative error  number  and  a  short
507           descriptive  phrase.  If  the error is a failed UTF-8 string check, the
508           byte offset of the start of the failing character and the  reason  code
509           are  also  output,  provided  that  the size of the output vector is at
510           least two. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest run.
511    
512           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
513           PCRE version 7.0 30-Nov-2006           PCRE version 8.13 2011-04-30
514    
515             re> /^abc(\d+)/             re> /^abc(\d+)/
516           data> abc123           data> abc123
# Line 402  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 519  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
519           data> xyz           data> xyz
520           No match           No match
521    
522         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are
523         \0x  escapes,  or  as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier was present on         not returned by pcre_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In the fol-
524         the pattern. See below for the definition of  non-printing  characters.         lowing example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the  first
525         If  the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is fol-         data  line  is  matched,  the  second, unset substring is not shown. An
526         lowed by the the rest of the subject string, identified  by  "0+"  like         "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>",  as  for  the  second
527           data line.
528    
529               re> /(a)|(b)/
530             data> a
531              0: a
532              1: a
533             data> b
534              0: b
535              1: <unset>
536              2: b
537    
538           If  the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as
539           \0x escapes, or as \x{...} escapes if the /8 modifier  was  present  on
540           the  pattern.  See below for the definition of non-printing characters.
541           If the pattern has the /+ modifier, the output for substring 0 is  fol-
542           lowed  by  the  the rest of the subject string, identified by "0+" like
543         this:         this:
544    
545             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
# Line 414  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 547  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
547            0: cat            0: cat
548            0+ aract            0+ aract
549    
550         If  the  pattern  has  the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive         If the pattern has the /g or /G modifier,  the  results  of  successive
551         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
552    
553             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g
# Line 426  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 559  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
559            0: ipp            0: ipp
560            1: pp            1: pp
561    
562         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails.         "No  match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an
563           example of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \>4  is
564           past the end of the subject string):
565    
566               re> /xyz/
567             data> xyz\>4
568             Error -24 (bad offset value)
569    
570         If any of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data  line  that         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that
571         is  successfully  matched,  the substrings extracted by the convenience         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience
572         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of
573         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length
574         (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given  in  paren-         (that  is,  the return from the extraction function) is given in paren-
575         theses after each string for \C and \G.         theses after each string for \C and \G.
576    
577         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain
578         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-
579         lines  can  be included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n,         lines can be included in data by means of the \n escape (or  \r,  \r\n,
580         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).
581    
582    
583  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
584    
585         When the alternative matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(),  is  used  (by         When  the  alternative  matching function, pcre_dfa_exec(), is used (by
586         means  of  the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option), the         means of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line  option),  the
587         output consists of a list of all the matches that start  at  the  first         output  consists  of  a list of all the matches that start at the first
588         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:         point in the subject where there is at least one match. For example:
589    
590             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/             re> /(tang|tangerine|tan)/
# Line 454  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 593  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
593            1: tang            1: tang
594            2: tan            2: tan
595    
596         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)         (Using the normal matching function on this data  finds  only  "tang".)
597         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).         The  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).
598           After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
599           lowed  by  the  partially  matching  substring.  (Note that this is the
600           entire substring that was inspected during the partial  match;  it  may
601           include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-
602           tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
603    
604         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes         If /g is present on the pattern, the search for further matches resumes
605         at the end of the longest match. For example:         at the end of the longest match. For example:
# Line 469  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 613  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
613            1: tan            1: tan
614            0: tan            0: tan
615    
616         Since the matching function does not  support  substring  capture,  the         Since  the  matching  function  does not support substring capture, the
617         escape  sequences  that  are concerned with captured substrings are not         escape sequences that are concerned with captured  substrings  are  not
618         relevant.         relevant.
619    
620    
621  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
622    
623         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL
624         return,  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you         return, indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern,  you
625         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R         can  restart  the match with additional subject data by means of the \R
626         escape sequence. For example:         escape sequence. For example:
627    
628             re> /^?(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)$/             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
629           data> 23ja\P\D           data> 23ja\P\D
630           Partial match: 23ja           Partial match: 23ja
631           data> n05\R\D           data> n05\R\D
632            0: n05            0: n05
633    
634         For  further  information  about  partial matching, see the pcrepartial         For further information about partial  matching,  see  the  pcrepartial
635         documentation.         documentation.
636    
637    
638  CALLOUTS  CALLOUTS
639    
640         If the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout  func-         If  the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout func-
641         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-         tion is called during matching. This works  with  both  matching  func-
642         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
643         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the         start and current positions in the text at the callout  time,  and  the
644         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output         next pattern item to be tested. For example, the output
645    
646           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
647             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
648    
649         indicates that callout number 0 occurred for a match  attempt  starting         indicates  that  callout number 0 occurred for a match attempt starting
650         at  the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was at         at the fourth character of the subject string, when the pointer was  at
651         the seventh character of the data, and when the next pattern  item  was         the  seventh  character of the data, and when the next pattern item was
652         \d.  Just  one  circumflex is output if the start and current positions         \d. Just one circumflex is output if the start  and  current  positions
653         are the same.         are the same.
654    
655         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
656         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing         a result of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead  of  showing
657         the callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a  plus,  is         the  callout  number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is
658         output. For example:         output. For example:
659    
660             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C
# Line 522  CALLOUTS Line 666  CALLOUTS
666           +10 ^ ^           +10 ^ ^
667            0: E*            0: E*
668    
669           If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-
670           ever  a  change  of  latest mark is passed to the callout function. For
671           example:
672    
673               re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
674             data> abc
675             --->abc
676              +0 ^       a
677              +1 ^^      (*MARK:X)
678             +10 ^^      b
679             Latest Mark: X
680             +11 ^ ^     c
681             +12 ^  ^
682              0: abc
683    
684           The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the  same  for
685           the  rest  of  the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of
686           backtracking, the mark reverts to being unset, the  text  "<unset>"  is
687           output.
688    
689         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by
690         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)
691         to change this.         to change this and other parameters of the callout.
692    
693         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-
694         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see
# Line 545  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS Line 709  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
709    
710  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
711    
712         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the
713         POSIX inteface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the /P pattern mod-         POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is being used, that is, when the /P pattern
714         ifier is specified.         modifier is specified.
715    
716         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
717         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a
718         file name.  For example:         file name.  For example:
719    
720           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
721    
722         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and
723         re-using compiled patterns.         re-using compiled patterns.
724    
725         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the
726         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the
727         optional study data, each written as four  bytes  in  big-endian  order         optional  study  data,  each  written as four bytes in big-endian order
728         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the
729         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
730         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the
731         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-         compiled pattern. If there is additional study data, this follows imme-
732         diately  after  the  compiled pattern. After writing the file, pcretest         diately after the compiled pattern. After writing  the  file,  pcretest
733         expects to read a new pattern.         expects to read a new pattern.
734    
735         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by specifing < and a file         A  saved  pattern  can  be reloaded into pcretest by specifying < and a
736         name  instead  of  a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a <         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a
737         character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as  a  pattern         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
738         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
739    
740            re> </some/file            re> </some/file
741           Compiled regex loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
742           No study data           No study data
743    
744         When  the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines         When the pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines
745         in the usual way.         in the usual way.
746    
747         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload
748         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on
749         which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86         which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86
750         machine and run on a SPARC machine.         machine and run on a SPARC machine.
751    
752         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but         File names for saving and reloading can be absolute  or  relative,  but
753         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with         note  that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with
754         a tilde (~) is not available.         a tilde (~) is not available.
755    
756         The  ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for test-         The ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for  test-
757         ing and experimentation. It is not intended for production use  because         ing  and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because
758         only  a  single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is         only a single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore,  there  is
759         no facility for supplying  custom  character  tables  for  use  with  a         no  facility  for  supplying  custom  character  tables  for use with a
760         reloaded  pattern.  If  the  original  pattern was compiled with custom         reloaded pattern. If the original  pattern  was  compiled  with  custom
761         tables, an attempt to match a subject string using a  reloaded  pattern         tables,  an  attempt to match a subject string using a reloaded pattern
762         is  likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to load         is likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to  load
763         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
764    
765    
766  SEE ALSO  SEE ALSO
767    
768         pcre(3), pcreapi(3), pcrecallout(3),  pcrematching(3),  pcrepartial(d),         pcre(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3), pcrematching(3), pcrepartial(d),
769         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).         pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
770    
771    
772  AUTHOR  AUTHOR
773    
774         Philip Hazel         Philip Hazel
775         University Computing Service,         University Computing Service
776         Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.         Cambridge CB2 3QH, England.
777    
778  Last updated: 30 November 2006  
779  Copyright (c) 1997-2006 University of Cambridge.  REVISION
780    
781           Last updated: 01 August 2011
782           Copyright (c) 1997-2011 University of Cambridge.

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