/[pcre]/code/trunk/doc/pcretest.txt
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1  PCRETEST(1)                                                        PCRETEST(1)  PCRETEST(1)                 General Commands Manual                PCRETEST(1)
2    
3    
4    
5  NAME  NAME
6         pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.         pcretest - a program for testing Perl-compatible regular expressions.
7    
   
8  SYNOPSIS  SYNOPSIS
9    
10         pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]         pcretest [options] [input file [output file]]
# Line 71  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS Line 71  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
71    
72         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-         -C        Output the version number of the PCRE library, and all avail-
73                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are                   able  information  about  the  optional  features  that   are
74                   included, and then exit. All other options are ignored.                   included,  and  then  exit  with  zero  exit  code. All other
75                     options are ignored.
76    
77         -C option Output  information  about a specific build-time option, then         -C option Output information about a specific build-time  option,  then
78                   exit. This functionality is intended for use in scripts  such                   exit.  This functionality is intended for use in scripts such
79                   as RunTest. The following options output the value indicated:                   as RunTest. The following options output the  value  and  set
80                     the exit code as indicated:
81    
82                     ebcdic-nl  the code for LF (= NL) in an EBCDIC environment:                     ebcdic-nl  the code for LF (= NL) in an EBCDIC environment:
83                                  0x15 or 0x25                                  0x15 or 0x25
84                                  0 if used in an ASCII environment                                  0 if used in an ASCII environment
85                     linksize   the internal link size (2, 3, or 4)                                  exit code is always 0
86                       linksize   the configured internal link size (2, 3, or 4)
87                                    exit code is set to the link size
88                     newline    the default newline setting:                     newline    the default newline setting:
89                                  CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY                                  CR, LF, CRLF, ANYCRLF, or ANY
90                                    exit code is always 0
91    
92                   The following options output 1 for true or zero for false:                   The  following  options output 1 for true or 0 for false, and
93                     set the exit code to the same value:
94    
95                     ebcdic     compiled for an EBCDIC environment                     ebcdic     compiled for an EBCDIC environment
96                     jit        just-in-time support is available                     jit        just-in-time support is available
# Line 92  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS Line 98  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
98                     pcre32     the 32-bit library was built                     pcre32     the 32-bit library was built
99                     pcre8      the 8-bit library was built                     pcre8      the 8-bit library was built
100                     ucp        Unicode property support is available                     ucp        Unicode property support is available
101                     utf         UTF-8  and/or  UTF-16  and/or UTF-32 support is                     utf        UTF-8 and/or UTF-16 and/or UTF-32 support
102                   available                                  is available
103    
104                     If an unknown option is given, an error  message  is  output;
105                     the exit code is 0.
106    
107         -d        Behave as if each pattern has the /D  (debug)  modifier;  the         -d        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /D (debug) modifier; the
108                   internal  form  and information about the compiled pattern is                   internal form and information about the compiled  pattern  is
109                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.                   output after compilation; -d is equivalent to -b -i.
110    
111         -dfa      Behave as if each data line contains the \D escape  sequence;         -dfa      Behave  as if each data line contains the \D escape sequence;
112                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,                   this    causes    the    alternative    matching    function,
113                   pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec(), to be used instead  of  the  standard                   pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec(),  to  be  used instead of the standard
114                   pcre[16|32]_exec() function (more detail is given below).                   pcre[16|32]_exec() function (more detail is given below).
115    
116         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.         -help     Output a brief summary these options and then exit.
117    
118         -i        Behave  as  if  each pattern has the /I modifier; information         -i        Behave as if each pattern has the  /I  modifier;  information
119                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.                   about the compiled pattern is given after compilation.
120    
121         -M        Behave as if each data line contains the \M escape  sequence;         -M        Behave  as if each data line contains the \M escape sequence;
122                   this  causes  PCRE  to  discover  the minimum MATCH_LIMIT and                   this causes PCRE to  discover  the  minimum  MATCH_LIMIT  and
123                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION settings by calling  pcre[16|32]_exec()                   MATCH_LIMIT_RECURSION  settings by calling pcre[16|32]_exec()
124                   repeatedly with different limits.                   repeatedly with different limits.
125    
126         -m        Output  the  size  of each compiled pattern after it has been         -m        Output the size of each compiled pattern after  it  has  been
127                   compiled. This is equivalent to adding  /M  to  each  regular                   compiled.  This  is  equivalent  to adding /M to each regular
128                   expression. The size is given in bytes for both libraries.                   expression. The size is given in bytes for both libraries.
129    
130         -o osize  Set  the number of elements in the output vector that is used         -o osize  Set the number of elements in the output vector that is  used
131                   when calling pcre[16|32]_exec() or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()  to                   when  calling pcre[16|32]_exec() or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec() to
132                   be  osize.  The  default  value is 45, which is enough for 14                   be osize. The default value is 45, which  is  enough  for  14
133                   capturing subexpressions for pcre[16|32]_exec() or 22 differ-                   capturing subexpressions for pcre[16|32]_exec() or 22 differ-
134                   ent  matches for pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec().  The vector size can                   ent matches for pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec().  The vector size  can
135                   be changed for individual matching calls by including  \O  in                   be  changed  for individual matching calls by including \O in
136                   the data line (see below).                   the data line (see below).
137    
138         -p        Behave  as  if  each  pattern  has the /P modifier; the POSIX         -p        Behave as if each pattern has  the  /P  modifier;  the  POSIX
139                   wrapper API is used to call PCRE. None of the  other  options                   wrapper  API  is used to call PCRE. None of the other options
140                   has  any  effect when -p is set. This option can be used only                   has any effect when -p is set. This option can be  used  only
141                   with the 8-bit library.                   with the 8-bit library.
142    
143         -q        Do not output the version number of pcretest at the start  of         -q        Do  not output the version number of pcretest at the start of
144                   execution.                   execution.
145    
146         -S size   On  Unix-like  systems, set the size of the run-time stack to         -S size   On Unix-like systems, set the size of the run-time  stack  to
147                   size megabytes.                   size megabytes.
148    
149         -s or -s+ Behave as if each pattern  has  the  /S  modifier;  in  other         -s or -s+ Behave  as  if  each  pattern  has  the /S modifier; in other
150                   words,  force each pattern to be studied. If -s+ is used, all                   words, force each pattern to be studied. If -s+ is used,  all
151                   the JIT compile options are  passed  to  pcre[16|32]_study(),                   the  JIT  compile  options are passed to pcre[16|32]_study(),
152                   causing  just-in-time  optimization  to  be  set  up if it is                   causing just-in-time optimization to  be  set  up  if  it  is
153                   available, for both full and partial matching.  Specific  JIT                   available,  for  both full and partial matching. Specific JIT
154                   compile options can be selected by following -s+ with a digit                   compile options can be selected by following -s+ with a digit
155                   in the range 1 to 7, which selects the JIT compile  modes  as                   in  the  range 1 to 7, which selects the JIT compile modes as
156                   follows:                   follows:
157    
158                     1  normal match only                     1  normal match only
# Line 153  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS Line 162  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
162                     6  soft and hard partial match                     6  soft and hard partial match
163                     7  all three modes (default)                     7  all three modes (default)
164    
165                   If  -s++  is used instead of -s+ (with or without a following                   If -s++ is used instead of -s+ (with or without  a  following
166                   digit), the text "(JIT)" is added to the  first  output  line                   digit),  the  text  "(JIT)" is added to the first output line
167                   after a match or no match when JIT-compiled code was actually                   after a match or no match when JIT-compiled code was actually
168                   used.                   used.
169    
170                   Note that there are pattern options  that  can  override  -s,                   Note  that  there  are  pattern options that can override -s,
171                   either specifying no studying at all, or suppressing JIT com-                   either specifying no studying at all, or suppressing JIT com-
172                   pilation.                   pilation.
173    
174                   If the /I or /D option is present on  a  pattern  (requesting                   If  the  /I  or /D option is present on a pattern (requesting
175                   output  about  the  compiled  pattern), information about the                   output about the compiled  pattern),  information  about  the
176                   result of studying is not included when  studying  is  caused                   result  of  studying  is not included when studying is caused
177                   only  by  -s  and neither -i nor -d is present on the command                   only by -s and neither -i nor -d is present  on  the  command
178                   line. This behaviour means that the output  from  tests  that                   line.  This  behaviour  means that the output from tests that
179                   are  run with and without -s should be identical, except when                   are run with and without -s should be identical, except  when
180                   options that output information about the actual running of a                   options that output information about the actual running of a
181                   match are set.                   match are set.
182    
183                   The  -M,  -t,  and  -tm options, which give information about                   The -M, -t, and -tm options,  which  give  information  about
184                   resources used, are likely to produce different  output  with                   resources  used,  are likely to produce different output with
185                   and  without  -s.  Output may also differ if the /C option is                   and without -s. Output may also differ if the  /C  option  is
186                   present on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace                   present on an individual pattern. This uses callouts to trace
187                   the  the  matching process, and this may be different between                   the the matching process, and this may be  different  between
188                   studied and non-studied patterns.  If  the  pattern  contains                   studied  and  non-studied  patterns.  If the pattern contains
189                   (*MARK)  items  there  may  also be differences, for the same                   (*MARK) items there may also be  differences,  for  the  same
190                   reason. The -s command line option can be overridden for spe-                   reason. The -s command line option can be overridden for spe-
191                   cific  patterns that should never be studied (see the /S pat-                   cific patterns that should never be studied (see the /S  pat-
192                   tern modifier below).                   tern modifier below).
193    
194         -t        Run each compile, study, and match many times with  a  timer,         -t        Run  each  compile, study, and match many times with a timer,
195                   and  output resulting time per compile or match (in millisec-                   and output resulting time per compile or match (in  millisec-
196                   onds). Do not set -m with -t, because you will then  get  the                   onds).  Do  not set -m with -t, because you will then get the
197                   size  output  a  zillion  times,  and the timing will be dis-                   size output a zillion times, and  the  timing  will  be  dis-
198                   torted. You can control the number  of  iterations  that  are                   torted.  You  can  control  the number of iterations that are
199                   used  for timing by following -t with a number (as a separate                   used for timing by following -t with a number (as a  separate
200                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-                   item on the command line). For example, "-t 1000" would iter-
201                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.                   ate 1000 times. The default is to iterate 500000 times.
202    
# Line 197  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS Line 206  COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
206    
207  DESCRIPTION  DESCRIPTION
208    
209         If pcretest is given two filename arguments, it reads  from  the  first         If  pcretest  is  given two filename arguments, it reads from the first
210         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it         and writes to the second. If it is given only one filename argument, it
211         reads from that file and writes to stdout.  Otherwise,  it  reads  from         reads  from  that  file  and writes to stdout. Otherwise, it reads from
212         stdin  and  writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of input, using         stdin and writes to stdout, and prompts for each line of  input,  using
213         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data         "re>" to prompt for regular expressions, and "data>" to prompt for data
214         lines.         lines.
215    
216         When  pcretest  is  built,  a  configuration option can specify that it         When pcretest is built, a configuration  option  can  specify  that  it
217         should be linked with the libreadline library. When this  is  done,  if         should  be  linked  with the libreadline library. When this is done, if
218         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.         the input is from a terminal, it is read using the readline() function.
219         This provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from  the         This  provides line-editing and history facilities. The output from the
220         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.         -help option states whether or not readline() will be used.
221    
222         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.         The program handles any number of sets of input on a single input file.
223         Each set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any  num-         Each  set starts with a regular expression, and continues with any num-
224         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.         ber of data lines to be matched against the pattern.
225    
226         Each  data line is matched separately and independently. If you want to         Each data line is matched separately and independently. If you want  to
227         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or         do multi-line matches, you have to use the \n escape sequence (or \r or
228         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input         \r\n, etc., depending on the newline setting) in a single line of input
229         to encode the newline sequences. There is no limit  on  the  length  of         to  encode  the  newline  sequences. There is no limit on the length of
230         data  lines;  the  input  buffer is automatically extended if it is too         data lines; the input buffer is automatically extended  if  it  is  too
231         small.         small.
232    
233         An empty line signals the end of the data lines, at which point  a  new         An  empty  line signals the end of the data lines, at which point a new
234         regular  expression is read. The regular expressions are given enclosed         regular expression is read. The regular expressions are given  enclosed
235         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:         in any non-alphanumeric delimiters other than backslash, for example:
236    
237           /(a|bc)x+yz/           /(a|bc)x+yz/
238    
239         White space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular  expres-         White  space before the initial delimiter is ignored. A regular expres-
240         sion  may be continued over several input lines, in which case the new-         sion may be continued over several input lines, in which case the  new-
241         line characters are included within it. It is possible to  include  the         line  characters  are included within it. It is possible to include the
242         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example         delimiter within the pattern by escaping it, for example
243    
244           /abc\/def/           /abc\/def/
245    
246         If  you  do  so, the escape and the delimiter form part of the pattern,         If you do so, the escape and the delimiter form part  of  the  pattern,
247         but since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not  affect         but  since delimiters are always non-alphanumeric, this does not affect
248         its  interpretation.   If the terminating delimiter is immediately fol-         its interpretation.  If the terminating delimiter is  immediately  fol-
249         lowed by a backslash, for example,         lowed by a backslash, for example,
250    
251           /abc/\           /abc/\
252    
253         then a backslash is added to the end of the pattern. This  is  done  to         then  a  backslash  is added to the end of the pattern. This is done to
254         provide  a  way of testing the error condition that arises if a pattern         provide a way of testing the error condition that arises if  a  pattern
255         finishes with a backslash, because         finishes with a backslash, because
256    
257           /abc\/           /abc\/
258    
259         is interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with  "abc/",         is  interpreted as the first line of a pattern that starts with "abc/",
260         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular         causing pcretest to read the next line as a continuation of the regular
261         expression.         expression.
262    
263    
264  PATTERN MODIFIERS  PATTERN MODIFIERS
265    
266         A pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are  mostly         A  pattern may be followed by any number of modifiers, which are mostly
267         single  characters,  though  some  of these can be qualified by further         single characters, though some of these can  be  qualified  by  further
268         characters.  Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as,  for         characters.   Following Perl usage, these are referred to below as, for
269         example,  "the  /i  modifier", even though the delimiter of the pattern         example, "the /i modifier", even though the delimiter  of  the  pattern
270         need not always be a slash, and no slash is  used  when  writing  modi-         need  not  always  be  a slash, and no slash is used when writing modi-
271         fiers.  White  space may appear between the final pattern delimiter and         fiers. White space may appear between the final pattern  delimiter  and
272         the first modifier, and between the modifiers  themselves.  For  refer-         the  first  modifier,  and between the modifiers themselves. For refer-
273         ence,  here  is  a  complete  list of modifiers. They fall into several         ence, here is a complete list of  modifiers.  They  fall  into  several
274         groups that are described in detail in the following sections.         groups that are described in detail in the following sections.
275    
276           /8              set UTF mode           /8              set UTF mode
# Line 310  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 319  PATTERN MODIFIERS
319     Perl-compatible modifiers     Perl-compatible modifiers
320    
321         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,         The /i, /m, /s, and /x modifiers set the PCRE_CASELESS, PCRE_MULTILINE,
322         PCRE_DOTALL,    or    PCRE_EXTENDED    options,    respectively,   when         PCRE_DOTALL,   or    PCRE_EXTENDED    options,    respectively,    when
323         pcre[16|32]_compile() is called. These four modifier letters  have  the         pcre[16|32]_compile()  is  called. These four modifier letters have the
324         same effect as they do in Perl. For example:         same effect as they do in Perl. For example:
325    
326           /caseless/i           /caseless/i
# Line 319  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 328  PATTERN MODIFIERS
328    
329     Modifiers for other PCRE options     Modifiers for other PCRE options
330    
331         The  following  table  shows additional modifiers for setting PCRE com-         The following table shows additional modifiers for  setting  PCRE  com-
332         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:         pile-time options that do not correspond to anything in Perl:
333    
334           /8              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit           /8              PCRE_UTF8           ) when using the 8-bit
# Line 350  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 359  PATTERN MODIFIERS
359           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE           /<bsr_unicode>  PCRE_BSR_UNICODE
360           /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT           /<JS>           PCRE_JAVASCRIPT_COMPAT
361    
362         The modifiers that are enclosed in angle brackets are  literal  strings         The  modifiers  that are enclosed in angle brackets are literal strings
363         as  shown,  including the angle brackets, but the letters within can be         as shown, including the angle brackets, but the letters within  can  be
364         in either case.  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as  the         in  either case.  This example sets multiline matching with CRLF as the
365         line ending sequence:         line ending sequence:
366    
367           /^abc/m<CRLF>           /^abc/m<CRLF>
368    
369         As  well  as  turning  on  the  PCRE_UTF8/16/32 option, the /8 modifier         As well as turning on  the  PCRE_UTF8/16/32  option,  the  /8  modifier
370         causes all non-printing characters in  output  strings  to  be  printed         causes  all  non-printing  characters  in  output strings to be printed
371         using the \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are out-         using the \x{hh...} notation. Otherwise, those less than 0x100 are out-
372         put in hex without the curly brackets.         put in hex without the curly brackets.
373    
374         Full details of the PCRE options are given in  the  pcreapi  documenta-         Full  details  of  the PCRE options are given in the pcreapi documenta-
375         tion.         tion.
376    
377     Finding all matches in a string     Finding all matches in a string
378    
379         Searching  for  all  possible matches within each subject string can be         Searching for all possible matches within each subject  string  can  be
380         requested by the /g or /G modifier. After  finding  a  match,  PCRE  is         requested  by  the  /g  or  /G modifier. After finding a match, PCRE is
381         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-         called again to search the remainder of the subject string. The differ-
382         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument         ence between /g and /G is that the former uses the startoffset argument
383         to  pcre[16|32]_exec()  to  start  searching  at a new point within the         to pcre[16|32]_exec() to start searching at  a  new  point  within  the
384         entire string (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas  the  latter         entire  string  (which is in effect what Perl does), whereas the latter
385         passes  over  a  shortened  substring.  This  makes a difference to the         passes over a shortened substring.  This  makes  a  difference  to  the
386         matching process if the pattern  begins  with  a  lookbehind  assertion         matching  process  if  the  pattern  begins with a lookbehind assertion
387         (including \b or \B).         (including \b or \B).
388    
389         If  any  call  to  pcre[16|32]_exec() in a /g or /G sequence matches an         If any call to pcre[16|32]_exec() in a /g or  /G  sequence  matches  an
390         empty string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART  and         empty  string, the next call is done with the PCRE_NOTEMPTY_ATSTART and
391         PCRE_ANCHORED  flags  set  in  order  to search for another, non-empty,         PCRE_ANCHORED flags set in order  to  search  for  another,  non-empty,
392         match at the same point. If this second match fails, the  start  offset         match  at  the same point. If this second match fails, the start offset
393         is  advanced,  and  the  normal match is retried. This imitates the way         is advanced, and the normal match is retried.  This  imitates  the  way
394         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-         Perl handles such cases when using the /g modifier or the split() func-
395         tion.  Normally,  the start offset is advanced by one character, but if         tion. Normally, the start offset is advanced by one character,  but  if
396         the newline convention recognizes CRLF as a newline,  and  the  current         the  newline  convention  recognizes CRLF as a newline, and the current
397         character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.         character is CR followed by LF, an advance of two is used.
398    
399     Other modifiers     Other modifiers
400    
401         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.         There are yet more modifiers for controlling the way pcretest operates.
402    
403         The  /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring that         The /+ modifier requests that as well as outputting the substring  that
404         matched the entire pattern, pcretest  should  in  addition  output  the         matched  the  entire  pattern,  pcretest  should in addition output the
405         remainder  of  the  subject  string. This is useful for tests where the         remainder of the subject string. This is useful  for  tests  where  the
406         subject contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the +  modi-         subject  contains multiple copies of the same substring. If the + modi-
407         fier  appears  twice, the same action is taken for captured substrings.         fier appears twice, the same action is taken for  captured  substrings.
408         In each case the remainder is output on the following line with a  plus         In  each case the remainder is output on the following line with a plus
409         character  following  the  capture number. Note that this modifier must         character following the capture number. Note that  this  modifier  must
410         not immediately follow the /S modifier because /S+ and /S++ have  other         not  immediately follow the /S modifier because /S+ and /S++ have other
411         meanings.         meanings.
412    
413         The  /=  modifier  requests  that  the values of all potential captured         The /= modifier requests that the  values  of  all  potential  captured
414         parentheses be output after a match. By default, only those up  to  the         parentheses  be  output after a match. By default, only those up to the
415         highest one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the         highest one actually used in the match are output (corresponding to the
416         return code from pcre[16|32]_exec()). Values in the offsets vector cor-         return code from pcre[16|32]_exec()). Values in the offsets vector cor-
417         responding  to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are output         responding to higher numbers should be set to -1, and these are  output
418         as "<unset>". This modifier gives a way of checking that this  is  hap-         as  "<unset>".  This modifier gives a way of checking that this is hap-
419         pening.         pening.
420    
421         The  /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest out-         The /B modifier is a debugging feature. It requests that pcretest  out-
422         put a representation of the compiled code after  compilation.  Normally         put  a  representation of the compiled code after compilation. Normally
423         this  information  contains length and offset values; however, if /Z is         this information contains length and offset values; however, if  /Z  is
424         also present, this data is replaced by spaces. This is a  special  fea-         also  present,  this data is replaced by spaces. This is a special fea-
425         ture  for  use  in the automatic test scripts; it ensures that the same         ture for use in the automatic test scripts; it ensures  that  the  same
426         output is generated for different internal link sizes.         output is generated for different internal link sizes.
427    
428         The /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to  /BI,         The  /D modifier is a PCRE debugging feature, and is equivalent to /BI,
429         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.         that is, both the /B and the /I modifiers.
430    
431         The  /F  modifier  causes pcretest to flip the byte order of the 2-byte         The /F modifier causes pcretest to flip the byte order  of  the  2-byte
432         and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing         and 4-byte fields in the compiled pattern. This facility is for testing
433         the  feature  in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that were com-         the feature in PCRE that allows it to execute patterns that  were  com-
434         piled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not avail-         piled on a host with a different endianness. This feature is not avail-
435         able  when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when the         able when the POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is, when  the
436         /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and         /P pattern modifier is specified. See also the section about saving and
437         reloading compiled patterns below.         reloading compiled patterns below.
438    
439         The  /I  modifier  requests  that pcretest output information about the         The /I modifier requests that pcretest  output  information  about  the
440         compiled pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first  character,         compiled  pattern (whether it is anchored, has a fixed first character,
441         and  so  on). It does this by calling pcre[16|32]_fullinfo() after com-         and so on). It does this by calling pcre[16|32]_fullinfo()  after  com-
442         piling a pattern. If the pattern is studied, the results  of  that  are         piling  a  pattern.  If the pattern is studied, the results of that are
443         also output.         also output.
444    
445         The  /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking con-         The /K modifier requests pcretest to show names from backtracking  con-
446         trol verbs that are  returned  from  calls  to  pcre[16|32]_exec().  It         trol  verbs  that  are  returned  from  calls to pcre[16|32]_exec(). It
447         causes  pcretest  to  create  a  pcre[16|32]_extra block if one has not         causes pcretest to create a pcre[16|32]_extra  block  if  one  has  not
448         already been created by a call to pcre[16|32]_study(), and to  set  the         already  been  created by a call to pcre[16|32]_study(), and to set the
449         PCRE_EXTRA_MARK  flag  and  the  mark  field within it, every time that         PCRE_EXTRA_MARK flag and the mark field  within  it,  every  time  that
450         pcre[16|32]_exec() is called. If  the  variable  that  the  mark  field         pcre[16|32]_exec()  is  called.  If  the  variable  that the mark field
451         points  to  is  non-NULL  for  a  match,  non-match,  or partial match,         points to is  non-NULL  for  a  match,  non-match,  or  partial  match,
452         pcretest prints the string to which it points. For  a  match,  this  is         pcretest  prints  the  string  to which it points. For a match, this is
453         shown  on  a  line  by itself, tagged with "MK:". For a non-match it is         shown on a line by itself, tagged with "MK:". For  a  non-match  it  is
454         added to the message.         added to the message.
455    
456         The /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale,  for         The  /L modifier must be followed directly by the name of a locale, for
457         example,         example,
458    
459           /pattern/Lfr_FR           /pattern/Lfr_FR
460    
461         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,         For this reason, it must be the last modifier. The given locale is set,
462         pcre[16|32]_maketables() is called to build a set of  character  tables         pcre[16|32]_maketables()  is  called to build a set of character tables
463         for  the  locale, and this is then passed to pcre[16|32]_compile() when         for the locale, and this is then passed to  pcre[16|32]_compile()  when
464         compiling the regular expression. Without an /L (or /T) modifier,  NULL         compiling  the regular expression. Without an /L (or /T) modifier, NULL
465         is  passed  as  the  tables  pointer;  that  is, /L applies only to the         is passed as the tables pointer;  that  is,  /L  applies  only  to  the
466         expression on which it appears.         expression on which it appears.
467    
468         The /M modifier causes the size in bytes of the memory  block  used  to         The  /M  modifier  causes the size in bytes of the memory block used to
469         hold  the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the size         hold the compiled pattern to be output. This does not include the  size
470         of the pcre[16|32] block; it is just the actual compiled data.  If  the         of  the  pcre[16|32] block; it is just the actual compiled data. If the
471         pattern is successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,         pattern is successfully studied with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option,
472         the size of the JIT compiled code is also output.         the size of the JIT compiled code is also output.
473    
474         The /S modifier causes  pcre[16|32]_study()  to  be  called  after  the         The  /S  modifier  causes  pcre[16|32]_study()  to  be called after the
475         expression  has been compiled, and the results used when the expression         expression has been compiled, and the results used when the  expression
476         is matched. There are a number of qualifying characters that may follow         is matched. There are a number of qualifying characters that may follow
477         /S.  They may appear in any order.         /S.  They may appear in any order.
478    
479         If  S is followed by an exclamation mark, pcre[16|32]_study() is called         If S is followed by an exclamation mark, pcre[16|32]_study() is  called
480         with the PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED option, causing it always to return  a         with  the PCRE_STUDY_EXTRA_NEEDED option, causing it always to return a
481         pcre_extra block, even when studying discovers no useful information.         pcre_extra block, even when studying discovers no useful information.
482    
483         If /S is followed by a second S character, it suppresses studying, even         If /S is followed by a second S character, it suppresses studying, even
484         if it was requested externally by the  -s  command  line  option.  This         if  it  was  requested  externally  by the -s command line option. This
485         makes  it possible to specify that certain patterns are always studied,         makes it possible to specify that certain patterns are always  studied,
486         and others are never studied, independently of -s. This feature is used         and others are never studied, independently of -s. This feature is used
487         in the test files in a few cases where the output is different when the         in the test files in a few cases where the output is different when the
488         pattern is studied.         pattern is studied.
489    
490         If the  /S  modifier  is  followed  by  a  +  character,  the  call  to         If  the  /S  modifier  is  followed  by  a  +  character,  the  call to
491         pcre[16|32]_study()  is made with all the JIT study options, requesting         pcre[16|32]_study() is made with all the JIT study options,  requesting
492         just-in-time optimization support if it is available, for  both  normal         just-in-time  optimization  support if it is available, for both normal
493         and  partial matching. If you want to restrict the JIT compiling modes,         and partial matching. If you want to restrict the JIT compiling  modes,
494         you can follow /S+ with a digit in the range 1 to 7:         you can follow /S+ with a digit in the range 1 to 7:
495    
496           1  normal match only           1  normal match only
# Line 492  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 501  PATTERN MODIFIERS
501           7  all three modes (default)           7  all three modes (default)
502    
503         If /S++ is used instead of /S+ (with or without a following digit), the         If /S++ is used instead of /S+ (with or without a following digit), the
504         text  "(JIT)"  is  added  to  the first output line after a match or no         text "(JIT)" is added to the first output line  after  a  match  or  no
505         match when JIT-compiled code was actually used.         match when JIT-compiled code was actually used.
506    
507         Note that there is also an independent /+  modifier;  it  must  not  be         Note  that  there  is  also  an independent /+ modifier; it must not be
508         given immediately after /S or /S+ because this will be misinterpreted.         given immediately after /S or /S+ because this will be misinterpreted.
509    
510         If JIT studying is successful, the compiled JIT code will automatically         If JIT studying is successful, the compiled JIT code will automatically
511         be used when pcre[16|32]_exec() is run, except when  incompatible  run-         be  used  when pcre[16|32]_exec() is run, except when incompatible run-
512         time  options are specified. For more details, see the pcrejit documen-         time options are specified. For more details, see the pcrejit  documen-
513         tation. See also the \J escape sequence below for a way of setting  the         tation.  See also the \J escape sequence below for a way of setting the
514         size of the JIT stack.         size of the JIT stack.
515    
516         Finally,  if  /S  is  followed by a minus character, JIT compilation is         Finally, if /S is followed by a minus  character,  JIT  compilation  is
517         suppressed, even if it was requested externally by the -s command  line         suppressed,  even if it was requested externally by the -s command line
518         option.  This makes it possible to specify that JIT is never to be used         option. This makes it possible to specify that JIT is never to be  used
519         for certain patterns.         for certain patterns.
520    
521         The /T modifier must be followed by a single digit. It  causes  a  spe-         The  /T  modifier  must be followed by a single digit. It causes a spe-
522         cific set of built-in character tables to be passed to pcre[16|32]_com-         cific set of built-in character tables to be passed to pcre[16|32]_com-
523         pile(). It is used in the standard PCRE tests to check  behaviour  with         pile().  It  is used in the standard PCRE tests to check behaviour with
524         different character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:         different character tables. The digit specifies the tables as follows:
525    
526           0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in           0   the default ASCII tables, as distributed in
527                 pcre_chartables.c.dist                 pcre_chartables.c.dist
528           1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters           1   a set of tables defining ISO 8859 characters
529    
530         In  table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are iden-         In table 1, some characters whose codes are greater than 128 are  iden-
531         tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.         tified as letters, digits, spaces, etc.
532    
533     Using the POSIX wrapper API     Using the POSIX wrapper API
534    
535         The /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper  API         The  /P modifier causes pcretest to call PCRE via the POSIX wrapper API
536         rather  than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library. When         rather than its native API. This supports only the 8-bit library.  When
537         /P is set, the following modifiers set options for the regcomp()  func-         /P  is set, the following modifiers set options for the regcomp() func-
538         tion:         tion:
539    
540           /i    REG_ICASE           /i    REG_ICASE
# Line 536  PATTERN MODIFIERS Line 545  PATTERN MODIFIERS
545           /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard           /W    REG_UCP        )   the POSIX standard
546           /8    REG_UTF8       )           /8    REG_UTF8       )
547    
548         The  /+  modifier  works  as  described  above. All other modifiers are         The /+ modifier works as  described  above.  All  other  modifiers  are
549         ignored.         ignored.
550    
551    
552  DATA LINES  DATA LINES
553    
554         Before each data line is  passed  to  pcre[16|32]_exec(),  leading  and         Before  each  data  line  is  passed to pcre[16|32]_exec(), leading and
555         trailing  white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \ escapes.         trailing white space is removed, and it is then scanned for \  escapes.
556         Some of these are pretty esoteric features, intended for  checking  out         Some  of  these are pretty esoteric features, intended for checking out
557         some  of the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just testing         some of the more complicated features of PCRE. If you are just  testing
558         "ordinary" regular expressions, you probably don't need any  of  these.         "ordinary"  regular  expressions, you probably don't need any of these.
559         The following escapes are recognized:         The following escapes are recognized:
560    
561           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)           \a         alarm (BEL, \x07)
# Line 606  DATA LINES Line 615  DATA LINES
615                        (any number of digits)                        (any number of digits)
616           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()           \R         pass the PCRE_DFA_RESTART option to pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
617           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching           \S         output details of memory get/free calls during matching
618           \Y             pass     the    PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE    option    to           \Y            pass    the    PCRE_NO_START_OPTIMIZE     option     to
619         pcre[16|32]_exec()         pcre[16|32]_exec()
620                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
621           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre[16|32]_exec()           \Z         pass the PCRE_NOTEOL option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
# Line 615  DATA LINES Line 624  DATA LINES
624                        pcre[16|32]_exec() or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()                        pcre[16|32]_exec() or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
625           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then           \>dd       start the match at offset dd (optional "-"; then
626                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset                        any number of digits); this sets the startoffset
627                        argument        for        pcre[16|32]_exec()         or                        argument         for        pcre[16|32]_exec()        or
628         pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()         pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
629           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre[16|32]_exec()           \<cr>      pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_CR option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
630                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
# Line 628  DATA LINES Line 637  DATA LINES
637           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre[16|32]_exec()           \<any>     pass the PCRE_NEWLINE_ANY option to pcre[16|32]_exec()
638                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()                        or pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec()
639    
640         The  use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the /8 modifier on         The use of \x{hh...} is not dependent on the use of the /8 modifier  on
641         the pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of  hexa-         the  pattern. It is recognized always. There may be any number of hexa-
642         decimal  digits  inside  the  braces; invalid values provoke error mes-         decimal digits inside the braces; invalid  values  provoke  error  mes-
643         sages.         sages.
644    
645         Note that \xhh specifies one byte rather than one  character  in  UTF-8         Note  that  \xhh  specifies one byte rather than one character in UTF-8
646         mode;  this  makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8 sequences for         mode; this makes it possible to construct invalid UTF-8  sequences  for
647         testing purposes. On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as  a  UTF-8         testing  purposes.  On the other hand, \x{hh} is interpreted as a UTF-8
648         character  in UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value is         character in UTF-8 mode, generating more than one byte if the value  is
649         greater than 127.  When testing the 8-bit library not  in  UTF-8  mode,         greater  than  127.   When testing the 8-bit library not in UTF-8 mode,
650         \x{hh} generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error         \x{hh} generates one byte for values less than 256, and causes an error
651         for greater values.         for greater values.
652    
653         In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it         In UTF-16 mode, all 4-digit \x{hhhh} values are accepted. This makes it
654         possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.         possible to construct invalid UTF-16 sequences for testing purposes.
655    
656         In  UTF-32  mode,  all  4- to 8-digit \x{...} values are accepted. This         In UTF-32 mode, all 4- to 8-digit \x{...}  values  are  accepted.  This
657         makes it possible to construct invalid  UTF-32  sequences  for  testing         makes  it  possible  to  construct invalid UTF-32 sequences for testing
658         purposes.         purposes.
659    
660         The  escapes  that  specify  line ending sequences are literal strings,         The escapes that specify line ending  sequences  are  literal  strings,
661         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in         exactly as shown. No more than one newline setting should be present in
662         any data line.         any data line.
663    
664         A  backslash  followed by anything else just escapes the anything else.         A backslash followed by anything else just escapes the  anything  else.
665         If the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives  a         If  the very last character is a backslash, it is ignored. This gives a
666         way  of  passing  an empty line as data, since a real empty line termi-         way of passing an empty line as data, since a real  empty  line  termi-
667         nates the data input.         nates the data input.
668    
669         The \J escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that  is         The  \J escape provides a way of setting the maximum stack size that is
670         used  by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT opti-         used by the just-in-time optimization code. It is ignored if JIT  opti-
671         mization is not being used. Providing a stack that is larger  than  the         mization  is  not being used. Providing a stack that is larger than the
672         default 32K is necessary only for very complicated patterns.         default 32K is necessary only for very complicated patterns.
673    
674         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre[16|32]_exec() several times, with         If \M is present, pcretest calls pcre[16|32]_exec() several times, with
675         different values in the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of         different values in the match_limit and match_limit_recursion fields of
676         the  pcre[16|32]_extra  data structure, until it finds the minimum num-         the pcre[16|32]_extra data structure, until it finds the  minimum  num-
677         bers for each parameter that allow pcre[16|32]_exec() to complete with-         bers for each parameter that allow pcre[16|32]_exec() to complete with-
678         out  error.  Because  this  is testing a specific feature of the normal         out error. Because this is testing a specific  feature  of  the  normal
679         interpretive pcre[16|32]_exec() execution, the use of any JIT optimiza-         interpretive pcre[16|32]_exec() execution, the use of any JIT optimiza-
680         tion  that might have been set up by the /S+ qualifier of -s+ option is         tion that might have been set up by the /S+ qualifier of -s+ option  is
681         disabled.         disabled.
682    
683         The match_limit number is a measure of the amount of backtracking  that         The  match_limit number is a measure of the amount of backtracking that
684         takes  place,  and  checking it out can be instructive. For most simple         takes place, and checking it out can be instructive.  For  most  simple
685         matches, the number is quite small, but for patterns  with  very  large         matches,  the  number  is quite small, but for patterns with very large
686         numbers  of  matching  possibilities,  it can become large very quickly         numbers of matching possibilities, it can  become  large  very  quickly
687         with increasing length of  subject  string.  The  match_limit_recursion         with  increasing  length  of  subject string. The match_limit_recursion
688         number  is  a  measure  of how much stack (or, if PCRE is compiled with         number is a measure of how much stack (or, if  PCRE  is  compiled  with
689         NO_RECURSE, how much heap) memory  is  needed  to  complete  the  match         NO_RECURSE,  how  much  heap)  memory  is  needed to complete the match
690         attempt.         attempt.
691    
692         When  \O  is  used, the value specified may be higher or lower than the         When \O is used, the value specified may be higher or  lower  than  the
693         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies         size set by the -O command line option (or defaulted to 45); \O applies
694         only  to  the  call  of  pcre[16|32]_exec()  for  the  line in which it         only to the call  of  pcre[16|32]_exec()  for  the  line  in  which  it
695         appears.         appears.
696    
697         If the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX  wrap-         If  the /P modifier was present on the pattern, causing the POSIX wrap-
698         per  API  to  be  used, the only option-setting sequences that have any         per API to be used, the only option-setting  sequences  that  have  any
699         effect are \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL,  REG_NOTEMPTY,  and         effect  are  \B,  \N,  and  \Z,  causing  REG_NOTBOL, REG_NOTEMPTY, and
700         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().         REG_NOTEOL, respectively, to be passed to regexec().
701    
702    
703  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
704    
705         By   default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching  function,         By  default,  pcretest  uses  the  standard  PCRE  matching   function,
706         pcre[16|32]_exec() to match each  data  line.  PCRE  also  supports  an         pcre[16|32]_exec()  to  match  each  data  line.  PCRE also supports an
707         alternative  matching  function, pcre[16|32]_dfa_test(), which operates         alternative matching function, pcre[16|32]_dfa_test(),  which  operates
708         in a different way, and has some restrictions. The differences  between         in  a different way, and has some restrictions. The differences between
709         the two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.         the two functions are described in the pcrematching documentation.
710    
711         If  a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command line         If a data line contains the \D escape sequence, or if the command  line
712         contains the -dfa option, the alternative matching  function  is  used.         contains  the  -dfa  option, the alternative matching function is used.
713         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,         This function finds all possible matches at a given point. If, however,
714         the \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after  the         the  \F escape sequence is present in the data line, it stops after the
715         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.         first match is found. This is always the shortest possible match.
716    
717    
718  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
719    
720         This  section  describes  the output when the normal matching function,         This section describes the output when the  normal  matching  function,
721         pcre[16|32]_exec(), is being used.         pcre[16|32]_exec(), is being used.
722    
723         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings         When a match succeeds, pcretest outputs the list of captured substrings
724         that  pcre[16|32]_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the string         that pcre[16|32]_exec() returns, starting with number 0 for the  string
725         that matched the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No  match"  when         that  matched  the whole pattern. Otherwise, it outputs "No match" when
726         the  return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by the         the return is PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH, and "Partial match:" followed by  the
727         partially   matching   substring   when   pcre[16|32]_exec()    returns         partially    matching   substring   when   pcre[16|32]_exec()   returns
728         PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL.  (Note  that  this is the entire substring that was         PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL. (Note that this is the entire  substring  that  was
729         inspected during the partial match; it may  include  characters  before         inspected  during  the  partial match; it may include characters before
730         the  actual  match  start  if a lookbehind assertion, \K, \b, or \B was         the actual match start if a lookbehind assertion, \K,  \b,  or  \B  was
731         involved.) For any other return, pcretest  outputs  the  PCRE  negative         involved.)  For  any  other  return, pcretest outputs the PCRE negative
732         error  number  and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is a failed         error number and a short descriptive phrase. If the error is  a  failed
733         UTF string check, the offset of the start of the failing character  and         UTF  string check, the offset of the start of the failing character and
734         the  reason  code are also output, provided that the size of the output         the reason code are also output, provided that the size of  the  output
735         vector is at least two. Here is an example of an  interactive  pcretest         vector  is  at least two. Here is an example of an interactive pcretest
736         run.         run.
737    
738           $ pcretest           $ pcretest
# Line 737  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 746  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
746           No match           No match
747    
748         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are         Unset capturing substrings that are not followed by one that is set are
749         not returned by pcre[16|32]_exec(), and are not shown by  pcretest.  In         not  returned  by pcre[16|32]_exec(), and are not shown by pcretest. In
750         the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the         the following example, there are two capturing substrings, but when the
751         first data line is matched, the second, unset substring is  not  shown.         first  data  line is matched, the second, unset substring is not shown.
752         An  "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the second         An "internal" unset substring is shown as "<unset>", as for the  second
753         data line.         data line.
754    
755             re> /(a)|(b)/             re> /(a)|(b)/
# Line 752  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 761  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
761            1: <unset>            1: <unset>
762            2: b            2: b
763    
764         If the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output  as         If  the strings contain any non-printing characters, they are output as
765         \xhh  escapes  if  the  value is less than 256 and UTF mode is not set.         \xhh escapes if the value is less than 256 and UTF  mode  is  not  set.
766         Otherwise they are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the defi-         Otherwise they are output as \x{hh...} escapes. See below for the defi-
767         nition  of non-printing characters. If the pattern has the /+ modifier,         nition of non-printing characters. If the pattern has the /+  modifier,
768         the output for substring 0 is followed by the the rest of  the  subject         the  output  for substring 0 is followed by the the rest of the subject
769         string, identified by "0+" like this:         string, identified by "0+" like this:
770    
771             re> /cat/+             re> /cat/+
# Line 764  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 773  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
773            0: cat            0: cat
774            0+ aract            0+ aract
775    
776         If  the  pattern  has  the /g or /G modifier, the results of successive         If the pattern has the /g or /G modifier,  the  results  of  successive
777         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:         matching attempts are output in sequence, like this:
778    
779             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g             re> /\Bi(\w\w)/g
# Line 776  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST Line 785  DEFAULT OUTPUT FROM PCRETEST
785            0: ipp            0: ipp
786            1: pp            1: pp
787    
788         "No match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is  an         "No  match" is output only if the first match attempt fails. Here is an
789         example  of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \>4 is         example of a failure message (the offset 4 that is specified by \>4  is
790         past the end of the subject string):         past the end of the subject string):
791    
792             re> /xyz/             re> /xyz/
793           data> xyz\>4           data> xyz\>4
794           Error -24 (bad offset value)           Error -24 (bad offset value)
795    
796         If any of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data  line  that         If  any  of the sequences \C, \G, or \L are present in a data line that
797         is  successfully  matched,  the substrings extracted by the convenience         is successfully matched, the substrings extracted  by  the  convenience
798         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of         functions are output with C, G, or L after the string number instead of
799         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length         a colon. This is in addition to the normal full list. The string length
800         (that is, the return from the extraction function) is given  in  paren-         (that  is,  the return from the extraction function) is given in paren-
801         theses after each string for \C and \G.         theses after each string for \C and \G.
802    
803         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain         Note that whereas patterns can be continued over several lines (a plain
804         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-         ">" prompt is used for continuations), data lines may not. However new-
805         lines  can  be included in data by means of the \n escape (or \r, \r\n,         lines can be included in data by means of the \n escape (or  \r,  \r\n,
806         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).         etc., depending on the newline sequence setting).
807    
808    
809  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUNCTION
810    
811         When the alternative matching function, pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec(), is used         When the alternative matching function, pcre[16|32]_dfa_exec(), is used
812         (by  means  of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command line option),         (by means of the \D escape sequence or the -dfa command  line  option),
813         the output consists of a list of all the  matches  that  start  at  the         the  output  consists  of  a  list of all the matches that start at the
814         first point in the subject where there is at least one match. For exam-         first point in the subject where there is at least one match. For exam-
815         ple:         ple:
816    
# Line 811  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 820  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
820            1: tang            1: tang
821            2: tan            2: tan
822    
823         (Using the normal matching function on this data  finds  only  "tang".)         (Using  the  normal  matching function on this data finds only "tang".)
824         The  longest matching string is always given first (and numbered zero).         The longest matching string is always given first (and numbered  zero).
825         After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-         After a PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL return, the output is "Partial match:", fol-
826         lowed  by  the  partially  matching  substring.  (Note that this is the         lowed by the partially matching  substring.  (Note  that  this  is  the
827         entire substring that was inspected during the partial  match;  it  may         entire  substring  that  was inspected during the partial match; it may
828         include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-         include characters before the actual match start if a lookbehind asser-
829         tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)         tion, \K, \b, or \B was involved.)
830    
# Line 831  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN Line 840  OUTPUT FROM THE ALTERNATIVE MATCHING FUN
840            1: tan            1: tan
841            0: tan            0: tan
842    
843         Since  the  matching  function  does not support substring capture, the         Since the matching function does not  support  substring  capture,  the
844         escape sequences that are concerned with captured  substrings  are  not         escape  sequences  that  are concerned with captured substrings are not
845         relevant.         relevant.
846    
847    
848  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
849    
850         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL         When the alternative matching function has given the PCRE_ERROR_PARTIAL
851         return, indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern,  you         return,  indicating that the subject partially matched the pattern, you
852         can  restart  the match with additional subject data by means of the \R         can restart the match with additional subject data by means of  the  \R
853         escape sequence. For example:         escape sequence. For example:
854    
855             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/             re> /^\d?\d(jan|feb|mar|apr|may|jun|jul|aug|sep|oct|nov|dec)\d\d$/
# Line 849  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH Line 858  RESTARTING AFTER A PARTIAL MATCH
858           data> n05\R\D           data> n05\R\D
859            0: n05            0: n05
860    
861         For further information about partial  matching,  see  the  pcrepartial         For  further  information  about  partial matching, see the pcrepartial
862         documentation.         documentation.
863    
864    
865  CALLOUTS  CALLOUTS
866    
867         If  the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout func-         If the pattern contains any callout requests, pcretest's callout  func-
868         tion is called during matching. This works  with  both  matching  func-         tion  is  called  during  matching. This works with both matching func-
869         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the         tions. By default, the called function displays the callout number, the
870         start and current positions in the text at the callout  time,  and  the         start  and  current  positions in the text at the callout time, and the
871         next pattern item to be tested. For example:         next pattern item to be tested. For example:
872    
873           --->pqrabcdef           --->pqrabcdef
874             0    ^  ^     \d             0    ^  ^     \d
875    
876         This  output  indicates  that  callout  number  0  occurred for a match         This output indicates that  callout  number  0  occurred  for  a  match
877         attempt starting at the fourth character of the  subject  string,  when         attempt  starting  at  the fourth character of the subject string, when
878         the pointer was at the seventh character of the data, and when the next         the pointer was at the seventh character of the data, and when the next
879         pattern item was \d. Just one circumflex is output  if  the  start  and         pattern  item  was  \d.  Just one circumflex is output if the start and
880         current positions are the same.         current positions are the same.
881    
882         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as         Callouts numbered 255 are assumed to be automatic callouts, inserted as
883         a result of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead  of  showing         a  result  of the /C pattern modifier. In this case, instead of showing
884         the  callout  number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a plus, is         the callout number, the offset in the pattern, preceded by a  plus,  is
885         output. For example:         output. For example:
886    
887             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C             re> /\d?[A-E]\*/C
# Line 885  CALLOUTS Line 894  CALLOUTS
894            0: E*            0: E*
895    
896         If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-         If a pattern contains (*MARK) items, an additional line is output when-
897         ever  a  change  of  latest mark is passed to the callout function. For         ever a change of latest mark is passed to  the  callout  function.  For
898         example:         example:
899    
900             re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C             re> /a(*MARK:X)bc/C
# Line 899  CALLOUTS Line 908  CALLOUTS
908           +12 ^  ^           +12 ^  ^
909            0: abc            0: abc
910    
911         The mark changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the  same  for         The  mark  changes between matching "a" and "b", but stays the same for
912         the  rest  of  the match, so nothing more is output. If, as a result of         the rest of the match, so nothing more is output. If, as  a  result  of
913         backtracking, the mark reverts to being unset, the  text  "<unset>"  is         backtracking,  the  mark  reverts to being unset, the text "<unset>" is
914         output.         output.
915    
916         The  callout  function  in pcretest returns zero (carry on matching) by         The callout function in pcretest returns zero (carry  on  matching)  by
917         default, but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described  above)         default,  but you can use a \C item in a data line (as described above)
918         to change this and other parameters of the callout.         to change this and other parameters of the callout.
919    
920         Inserting  callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check compli-         Inserting callouts can be helpful when using pcretest to check  compli-
921         cated regular expressions. For further information about callouts,  see         cated  regular expressions. For further information about callouts, see
922         the pcrecallout documentation.         the pcrecallout documentation.
923    
924    
925  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS  NON-PRINTING CHARACTERS
926    
927         When  pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a pattern,         When pcretest is outputting text in the compiled version of a  pattern,
928         bytes other than 32-126 are always treated as  non-printing  characters         bytes  other  than 32-126 are always treated as non-printing characters
929         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.         are are therefore shown as hex escapes.
930    
931         When  pcretest  is  outputting text that is a matched part of a subject         When pcretest is outputting text that is a matched part  of  a  subject
932         string, it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has  been         string,  it behaves in the same way, unless a different locale has been
933         set  for  the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this case, the         set for the  pattern  (using  the  /L  modifier).  In  this  case,  the
934         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.         isprint() function to distinguish printing and non-printing characters.
935    
936    
937  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
938    
939         The facilities described in this section are  not  available  when  the         The  facilities  described  in  this section are not available when the
940         POSIX  interface  to  PCRE  is being used, that is, when the /P pattern         POSIX interface to PCRE is being used, that is,  when  the  /P  pattern
941         modifier is specified.         modifier is specified.
942    
943         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write         When the POSIX interface is not in use, you can cause pcretest to write
944         a  compiled  pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with > and a         a compiled pattern to a file, by following the modifiers with >  and  a
945         file name.  For example:         file name.  For example:
946    
947           /pattern/im >/some/file           /pattern/im >/some/file
948    
949         See the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving  and         See  the pcreprecompile documentation for a discussion about saving and
950         re-using  compiled patterns.  Note that if the pattern was successfully         re-using compiled patterns.  Note that if the pattern was  successfully
951         studied with JIT optimization, the JIT data cannot be saved.         studied with JIT optimization, the JIT data cannot be saved.
952    
953         The data that is written is binary.  The  first  eight  bytes  are  the         The  data  that  is  written  is  binary. The first eight bytes are the
954         length  of  the  compiled  pattern  data  followed by the length of the         length of the compiled pattern data  followed  by  the  length  of  the
955         optional study data, each written as four  bytes  in  big-endian  order         optional  study  data,  each  written as four bytes in big-endian order
956         (most  significant  byte  first). If there is no study data (either the         (most significant byte first). If there is no study  data  (either  the
957         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-         pattern was not studied, or studying did not return any data), the sec-
958         ond  length  is  zero. The lengths are followed by an exact copy of the         ond length is zero. The lengths are followed by an exact  copy  of  the
959         compiled pattern. If there is additional study  data,  this  (excluding         compiled  pattern.  If  there is additional study data, this (excluding
960         any  JIT  data)  follows  immediately after the compiled pattern. After         any JIT data) follows immediately after  the  compiled  pattern.  After
961         writing the file, pcretest expects to read a new pattern.         writing the file, pcretest expects to read a new pattern.
962    
963         A saved pattern can be reloaded into pcretest by  specifying  <  and  a         A  saved  pattern  can  be reloaded into pcretest by specifying < and a
964         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a         file name instead of a pattern. The name of the file must not contain a
965         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern         < character, as otherwise pcretest will interpret the line as a pattern
966         delimited by < characters.  For example:         delimited by < characters.  For example:
# Line 960  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS Line 969  SAVING AND RELOADING COMPILED PATTERNS
969           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern loaded from /some/file
970           No study data           No study data
971    
972         If  the  pattern  was previously studied with the JIT optimization, the         If the pattern was previously studied with the  JIT  optimization,  the
973         JIT information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When  the         JIT  information cannot be saved and restored, and so is lost. When the
974         pattern  has  been  loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data lines in the         pattern has been loaded, pcretest proceeds to read data  lines  in  the
975         usual way.         usual way.
976    
977         You can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and  reload         You  can copy a file written by pcretest to a different host and reload
978         it  there,  even  if the new host has opposite endianness to the one on         it there, even if the new host has opposite endianness to  the  one  on
979         which the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an  i86         which  the pattern was compiled. For example, you can compile on an i86
980         machine  and  run  on  a SPARC machine. When a pattern is reloaded on a         machine and run on a SPARC machine. When a pattern  is  reloaded  on  a
981         host with different endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:         host with different endianness, the confirmation message is changed to:
982    
983           Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file           Compiled pattern (byte-inverted) loaded from /some/file
984    
985         The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different         The test suite contains some saved pre-compiled patterns with different
986         endianness.  These  are  reloaded  using "<!" instead of just "<". This         endianness. These are reloaded using "<!" instead  of  just  "<".  This
987         suppresses the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on         suppresses the "(byte-inverted)" text so that the output is the same on
988         all  hosts.  It  also forces debugging output once the pattern has been         all hosts. It also forces debugging output once the  pattern  has  been
989         reloaded.         reloaded.
990    
991         File names for saving and reloading can be absolute  or  relative,  but         File  names  for  saving and reloading can be absolute or relative, but
992         note  that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts with         note that the shell facility of expanding a file name that starts  with
993         a tilde (~) is not available.         a tilde (~) is not available.
994    
995         The ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for  test-         The  ability to save and reload files in pcretest is intended for test-
996         ing  and experimentation. It is not intended for production use because         ing and experimentation. It is not intended for production use  because
997         only a single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore,  there  is         only  a  single pattern can be written to a file. Furthermore, there is
998         no  facility  for  supplying  custom  character  tables  for use with a         no facility for supplying  custom  character  tables  for  use  with  a
999         reloaded pattern. If the original  pattern  was  compiled  with  custom         reloaded  pattern.  If  the  original  pattern was compiled with custom
1000         tables,  an  attempt to match a subject string using a reloaded pattern         tables, an attempt to match a subject string using a  reloaded  pattern
1001         is likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to  load         is  likely to cause pcretest to crash.  Finally, if you attempt to load
1002         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.         a file that is not in the correct format, the result is undefined.
1003    
1004    
1005  SEE ALSO  SEE ALSO
1006    
1007         pcre(3),  pcre16(3),  pcre32(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3), pcrejit,         pcre(3), pcre16(3),  pcre32(3),  pcreapi(3),  pcrecallout(3),  pcrejit,
1008         pcrematching(3), pcrepartial(d), pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).         pcrematching(3), pcrepartial(d), pcrepattern(3), pcreprecompile(3).
1009    
1010    
# Line 1008  AUTHOR Line 1017  AUTHOR
1017    
1018  REVISION  REVISION
1019    
1020         Last updated: 10 September 2012         Last updated: 22 February 2013
1021         Copyright (c) 1997-2012 University of Cambridge.         Copyright (c) 1997-2013 University of Cambridge.

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